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y




won CAREFUL -USAGE OF THIS
BDDK ^ILL PRESERVE ITS
VALUE FDR THOSE TTHD

FDLLDu; you



IN HONOR OF

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DONATED BY

Mr. & Mrs. Roy Papermaster



THE



Jewish Encyclopedia



A DESCRIPTIVE Rj:CORD OF



THE HISTORY, RELIGION, LITERATURE, AND CUS-
TOMS OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE FROM THE

EARLIEST TIMES



Prepared by More than Four Hundred Scholars and Specialists

UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE FOLLOWING EDITORIAL BOARD



Cyrus Adler, Ph.D. (Departments of Post-
Btblical Antiquities ; the Jews of America) .

Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D. [Department
of History from 1492 to igoi) .

Louis Ginzberg, Ph.D. {Department of
Rabbinical Literature) .

Richard Gottheil, Ph.D. {Departments of
History from- Ezra to I4g2 ; History of
Post - Tcilmudic Literature) .

Joseph Jacobs, B.A {Departments of the
Jews of England and Anthropology; Revi-
sing Editor) .



Marcus Jastrow, Ph.D. (Department of the Talmud).
Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph.D. {Department of the Bible) .

Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D. {Departments of Theology

and Philosophy) .

Frederick de Sola Mendes, Ph.D. (Chief of the
Bureau of Translation ; Revising Editor).

Isidore Singer, Ph.D. (Department of Modem
Biography from 17^0 to igoi).

Crawford H. Toy, D.D., LL.D. (Departments of
Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic Literature) .



ISIDORE SINGER. Ph.D.

Prelector and Managing Editor

ASSISTED BY AMERICAN AND FOREIGN BOARDS OF CONSULTING EDITORS

(see page v)



VOLUME VIII

LEON — MORAVIA



KTAV PUBLISHING HOUSE, INC.



KTAV PUBLISHING HOUSE, INC.

N.Y. 2. N.Y.

PRINTED AND BOUND IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA



s-



LITERARY DIRECTORATE v,^



0^/



EDITORIAL BOARD



CYRUS ABLER, Ph.D.

(Departmeiits of Font-Biblical Antiquities ; the Jews of
America.)

President of the American Jewish Historical Society ; Librarian,
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C.

GOTTHARD DEUTSCH, Ph.D.

(Department of Histtyni from 11,9^ to 1901.)

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati,

Ohio ; Editor of " Deborah."

LOXnS GINZBERG, Ph.D.

{Department of RaJ>hinical Literature.)
New York ; Author of "' Die Haggada bei den Klrchenvatem."

RICHARD GOTTHEIL, Ph.D.

(Departments of Hi^torufrom Ezra to 1U92 ; History of Post-

Talmudic Literature.)

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York;

Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library ;

President of the Federation of American Zionists.

JOSEPH JACOBS, B.A.

{Departments of the Jews of Enoland and Anthropology;
Rei^i^ng Editor.)

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England ;
Author of "Jews of Angevin England," etc.

MARCUS JASTROW, Ph.D.

{Department of the Talmud.)
Rabbi Emeritus of the Congregation Rodef Shalom, Philadel-
phia, Pa. ; Author of "Dictionary of the Talmud."



MORRIS JASTROW, Jr., Ph.D.

(Department of the Bible.)

Professor of SemUic Languages and Librarian in the University
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. ; Author of " Relig-
ion of the Babylonians and Assyrians," etc.

KAUFMANN EOHLER, Ph.D.

(Departments of Theology and Philosophy.)

Rabbi of Temple Beth-El, New York ; President of the Board of
Jewish Ministers, New York.

FREDERICK DE SOLA MENDES, Ph.D.

(Chief of the Bureau of Translation ; Revising Editor.)

Rabbi of the West End Synagogue, New York ; Vice-President
of Board of Jewish Ministers, New York.

ISIDORE SINGER, Ph.D.

Managing Editor.
{Department of Modem Biography from 1750 to 1901.)

CRAWFORD HOWELL TOY, D.D., LL.D.

(Departments of Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic

Literature.)

Professor of Hebrew in Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. ;

Author of " The Religion of Israel," " Judaism and

Christianity," etc.



AMERICAN BOARD OF CONSULTING EDITORS



BERNARD DRACHMAN, Ph.D.,

Rabbi of the Congregation Zichron Ephraim, Dean of the Jewish
Theological Seminary, New York.

B. FELSENTHAL, Ph.D.,

Rabbi Emeritus of Zion Congregation, Chicago ; Author of " A
Practical Grammar of the Hebrew Language."

GUSTAV GOTTHEIL, Ph.D.,

Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Emanu-El, New York.

EMIL G. HIRSCH, Ph.D., LL.D.,

Rabbi of Chicago Sinai Congregation, Chicago, 111.; Professor of

Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of

Chicago ; Editor of the " Reform Advocate."

HENRY HYVERNAT, D.D.,

Head of the Departmeni of Semitic and Egyptian Literatures,
Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C.

J. FREDERIC McCURDY, Ph.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Toronto,

Canada ; Author of " History, Prophecy, and

the Monuments."



H. PEREIRA MENDES, M.D.,

Rabbi of the Shearith Israel Congregation (Spanish and Portu-
guese), New York ; President of the Advisory Board of
Ministers of the Jewish Theological Seminary.

MOSES MIELZINER, Ph.D., D.D.,

Professor of Talmudic Literature, Hebrew Union College, Cin-
cinnati, Ohio ; Author of " Introduction to the Talmud."

GEORGE F. MOORE, M.A., D.D.,

Professor of Hebrew Language and Literature and President of

Andover Theological Seminary, Andover, Mass. ; Author

of a Commentary on the Book of Judges, etc.

DAVID PHILIPSON, D.D.,

Rabbi of the Congregation Bene Israel : Professor of Homiletica,

Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio ; President of

Hebrew Sabbath School Union of America.

IRA MAURICE PRICE, B.D., Ph.D.,

Professor of Semitic Languages and Literature, University of

Chicago, 111. ; Author of " The Monuments and

the Old Testament," etc.



IV



LITERARY DIRECTORATE



HERMAN ROSENTHAL,

Chief of the Ulssian Section of The Jewish Encyclo-
pedia.
In charjre of Slavonic Department, New York Public Library.

JOSEPH SILVERMAN, D.D.,

President of Central Conference of American Rabbis ; Rabbi of
Temple Emanu-El, New York.



JACOB VOORS ANGER, D.D.,

Rabbi of the Congregation Emanu-El, San Francisco, Cal. ;
fessor of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Uni-
versity of California, Berkeley, Cal.

EDWARD J. "WHEELER, M.A.,

Editor of " The Literary Digest," New York.



Pro-



FOREIGN BOARD OF CONSULTING EDITORS



ISRAEL ABRAHAMS, M.A.,

Coeditor of the "Jewish Quarterly Review"; Author of "Jew-
ish Life in the Middle Ages," etc. ; Senior Tutor
in Jews' College, Loudon, England.

W. BACHER, Ph.D.,

Professor in the Jewish Theological Seminary, Budapest,
Hungary.

M. BRANN, Ph.D.,

Professor In the Jewish Theological Seminary, Breslau, Ger-
many ; Editor of " Monatsschrift fur Geschichte und
Wissenschaft des Judeuthums."

H. BRODY, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Nachod, Bohemia, Austria ; Coeditor of " Zeitschrif t fur
Hebriilsche Bibliographle."

ABRAHAM DANON,

Principal of the Jewish Theological Seminary, Constantinople,

Turkey.

HARTWIG DERENBOURG, Ph.D.,

Professor of Literary Arabic at Uie Special School of Oriental
Languages, Paris, France ; Member of the French Institute.

S. M. DU3N0W,

Author of " Istoriya Yevreyev," Odessa, Russia.

MICHAEL FRIEDLANDER, Ph.D.,

Principal of Jews' College, London. England; Author of "The
Jewish Religion," etc.

IGNAZ GOLDZIHER, Ph.D.,

Professor of S<^mltlc Philology, University of Budapest, Hungary.

M. GUDEMANN, Ph.D.,
Chief Rabbi of Vienna, Austria.

BARON DAVID GTJNZBTJRG,

St. Petersburg, Russia.

A. HARKAVY, Ph.D.,

Chief of the Hebrew Ut|>artiiieutof iht- liii|K.rial Public Library,
St. Petersburg. Russia.

ZADOC KAHN,

Chief Rabbi f>f Fmnce ; llononiry President of the Alliance

Isra<;ilte Cnlverselle ; OOlcer of the Legion

of Honor, Paris, France.

M. KAYSERLING, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Budapest, Hungary ; CDrn-sixinillng Member of the
Royal Arademy of HlHtnry, Madrid, Spain.

MORITZ LAZARUS, Ph.D.,

Professor Emeritus of Psychology, University of Beriln ; Meran,

Austria.



ANATOLE LEROY-BEAULIEU,

Member of the French Institute ; Professor at the Free School

of Political Science, Paris, France ; Author of

" Israel chez les Nations."

ISRAEL LEVI,

Professor in the Jewish Theological Seminary ; Editor of
" Revue des Etudes Juives," Paris, France.

EUDE LOLLI, D.D.,

Chief Rabbi of Padua ; Professor of Hebrew at the University,
Padua, Italy.

IMMANUEL LOW, Ph.D.,

Chief Rabbi of Szegedin, Hungary ; Author of " Die Aramalachen
Pflanzennamen."

S. H. MARGULIES, Ph.D.,

Principal of the Jewish Theological Seminary ; Chief Rabbi of
Florence, Italy.

H. OORT, D.D.,

Professor of Hebrew Language and Archeology at the State
University, Leyden, Holland.

ABBE PIETRO PERREATJ,

Formerly Librarian of the Reale Biblioteca Palatlna, Parma,

Italy.

MARTIN PHILIPPSON, Ph.D.,

Formerly Professor of History at the Universities of Bonn and

Brussels; President of the Deutsch-Jiidlsche

Gemeindebund, Berlin, Germany.

SAMUEL POZNANSKI, Ph.D.,

Rabbi in Warsaw, Russia.

SOLOMON SCHECHTER, M.A., Litt.D.,

Professor of Hebrew, University College, London, England;

Reader In Rabbinic, University of Cambridge:

Author of "Studies In Judaism."

E. SCHWARZFELD, Ph.D.,

Secretary-General of the Jewish Colonization Association, Paris,

France.

LUDWIG STEIN, Ph.D.,

Professor of Philosophy, University of Bern, Swltzeriand ; EdltOT
of " Archlv fur Geschichte der Phllosophle," etc.

HERMANN L. STRACK, Ph.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and Semitic Languages,
University of Beriln, Germany.

CHARLES TAYLOR, D.D., LL.D.,

Master of St. John's College, Cambridge, England ; Editor of
"Sayings of the Jewish Fathers," etc.



44



COXTIMIUTORS TO \'OLUME VIII



A Cyrus Adler, Ph.D. ,

President of the American Jewish Historical
Society ; President of tbe Board of Directors
of the Jewish Theological Seminary of Amer-
ica; Librarian of the Smithsonian Institution,
Washington, D. C.

A. B A. Biram, Ph.D.,

Berlin, (iermany.

A. Bii Alexander Buchler, Ph.D.,

Rablij, Keszthely, Hungary.

A. Ep Abraham Epstein,

Authorof "Eldad ha-Dani" and of oilier works
on rahlilnical subjects; contributor of the ar-
ticle "Gaon " in Volume V. ; Vienna, Austria.

A. Fe Alfred Feilchenfeld, Ph.D.,

I'lincipal of the llealscbule, Kiinli, Uavaria,
Germany.

A. G Adolf Gruttmacher, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Baltimore. Md.

A. Ga Abraham Galante,

Editor of "La Bueiia Esperanza." .•suiyruM.
Asia Minor.

A. H. R . . . . A. H. Rosenberg-,

New Yoik City.
A. H. S A. H. Sayce, D.D., L,L>.D.,

I'rofessdr of Assyriology. oxford University,
O.xford, England.

A. Ke A. Kecskemeti,

Kabbi. Makow. Hungary.

A. Ki Alexander Kisch, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Prague, Bohemia. Austiia.

A. L. Alfred L^vy ,

Chief Rabbi, Lyons, Fran<.t.'.

A. M. F Albert M. Friedenberg, B.S., LL..B.,

Counselor at Law ; Correspondent of " The
Jewish Comuient," Baltimore, Md.; New
York City.

A. M. H A. M. Hyamm,

London, England.

A. P A. Porter,

Formeily Associate Editor of "The Forum,"
New York ; Revising Editor "Standard Cyclo-
pedia," New Y'ork City.

A. Pe A. Peig-insky, Ph.D.,

New York City.

A. PI A.Plaut,

Rabbi, Detmold, Lippe, Germany.

A. S. I Abram S. Isaacs, Ph.D.,

Professor of German literature. University
of the City of New York, New York City.

A. S. V/ A. S. Waldstein, B. A.,

New York City.

A. S, W. R. . A. S. W. Rosenbach,

Philadelphia, Pa.

A. U A.Ury,

Chief Rabbi, Stnisbiirg, Alsace, Germany.

A. V. W. J.. A. V. W. Jackson, Ph.D., Litt.D.,

Professor of ludo-lranian Languages, Colum-
bia University. New York City.

A. W Albert Wolf,

Dresden. Saxony, Germany.

B. Ei Benzion Eisenstadt,

-N'ew YdiU Citv.



B. Fr B. Friedberg,

Fraukfort-on-the-Main, (rermany.

B. L. B B. Li. Benas,

Liverpool, England.

C. D. S C. D. Spivak, M.D.,

Denver, Col.

C. I. de S — Clarence I. de Sola,

President of the Federation of Canadian
Zionists, Montreal, Canada.

C. L Caspar Le vias, M . A. ,

Instructor in Exegesis and Talmudic Aramaic,
Hebrew Union College, Ciueinnati, Ohio.

C. L. S Cyrus L. Sulzberger,

President of the Jewish Agricultural and In-
dustrial Aid Society, New York City.

C. T Charles Taylor, D.D., LL.D.,

Master, St. John's College, Cambridge, Eng-
land.

D Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D.,

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union
College, Cincinnati, Ohio.

D. Ba.. David Bachrach,

Baltimore, Md.

D. I. F D. I. Freedman, B.A.,

Rabbi, Perth, Western Australia.

D. P David Philipson, D.D.,

Rabbi, B'ne Israel Congregation ; Professor of
Homiletics, Hebrew Union College, Cincin-
nati, Ohio.

E. C Executive Committee of the Editorial

Board.

E. G. H Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D.,

Rabbi, Sinai Congregation ; Professor of Rab-
binical Literature and Philosophy, University
of Chicago; Chicago, 111.

E. I. N E. I. Nathans,

Philadelphia, Pa.

E. J Emil Jelinek,

Vienna, Austria.

E. K EduardKonig, Ph.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis. Univer-
sity of Bonn, Germany.

E. L Eude Lolli,

Chief Rabbi ; Professor of Hebrew, Univer-
sity of Padua; Padua, Italy.

E. Ms Edgar Mels,

New York City.

E. N Eduard Neumann, Ph.D.,

Chief Rabbi, Nagy-Kanisza, Hungary.

E. N. S Elvira N. Solis,

New Y'ork Cityi

E. Schr E. Schreiber, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Emanu-El Congregation, Chicago, 111.

E. Sd E. Schwarzfeld, IiL..D.,

Secretary of the Jewish Colonization Associa-
tion, Paris, France.

E. SI E. Slijper,

Rabbi, Amsterdam, Holland.

F. C Frank Cramer, B.Sc,

New York City.

F. H. V Frank H. Vizetelly , F. S. A. ,

Ai^sociate Editor of the Standard Diction-
ary, and of the ■'Columbian Cyclopedia ' ;

New York City.



VI



CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME VIII



F


K.


S..


...Frank Knight Sanders, Ph.D., D.D.,

Pruft'ssor of Bibliciil History aud Arcbeolopy ;




Co


..I. Cohn,

Czaruikov, Poseu, Germany.








Uean of tbo Divinity Scbool, Yale Univer-




D


. .Israel Davidson, Ph.D.,








sity, New Haven, Conu.






New York City.


F


L.


C .


. .Francis L. Cohen,

I'liiicipul Itablii, Sydney. N. S. W., Australia.




Da


..Israel Davis,

Barrister at Law, London England.


F.


N.


L


. . Florence N. Levy,














Ni-w York City.




E


. .Ismar Elbogen, Ph.D.,


F.


T.


H .


. . Frederick T. Haneman, M.D.,

liroulil.M!, .N. V.






Instiuctor at the Lehratistalt fiir die Wissen-
schaft des Judeuthums, Berlin, Germany.


O






. . .Richard Gottheil, Ph.D.,

Professor of Semitic Langiia?e.s, Columbia




G. D....


. .1. George Dobsevage,

New Y'ork City.








University, New York ; Chief of the Oriental




H


..Isidore Harris, A.M.,








Department, New York I'ublif Library; New
York ( ity.






Rabbi, West London Synagogue, London,

England.


G.


A.


B.


. . George A. Barton, Ph.D.,

rrofessor of Biblical l>iterature and Semitic
Languages, Hrvn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr,




Kra


..I. Kracauer, Ph.D.,

Frankfort-on-the-Main, (iennany.








I'a.




L. B


.1. L. Bril,


G.


A.


K ..


. . . George Alexander Kohut,






New York City.








Foniierly Ilalibi in Dallas, Texas; Assistant




Lisv


..Isaac Levy,








Librarian of the Jewish Theological Seminary






Chief Rabbi, Bordeaux, France.








of America, New York City.




L6


. Immanuel Low, Ph.D.,


Q.


D.


R...


...George D. Rosenthal,

Electrical I-.ngineer, St. Louis, Mo.




M. C...


Chief Rabbi, Szegediii, Hungary.
..I. M. Casanowioz, Ph.D.,


G.


L




. .Goodman Lipkind, B. A.,

Rabbi, New York tity.






United States National Museum, Washington,
D. C.


G.


M




. ..G. Marg-oliouth,

Assistant Custodian, Oriental Department,
British Museum, London, England.




M. P....


. Ira Maurice Price, Ph.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Semitic Languages and Litera-
ture, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111.


G.


Mo. ...


. .Godfrey Morse,

Counselor at Law, Boston, Mass.




S. B


. .Isidor S. Beaumache,














New York City.


G.


W




. . .Gabriel Weiss,

New York City.




Sch


..Isaac Schwab, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, St. Joseph, Mo.


G.


"We ....


..Gotthold Weil,

licrlin, (iermaiiy.




War


. .Isidor Warsaw,














Rabbi, Woodvllle, .Miss.


H.


B.




..H. Brody, Ph.D.,














Uabbi; Coedilor of the "Zeitschrlft fur He-




Zi


. .Izrael Ziony,








briiLsche Bibliographie " ; Nachod, Bohemia,






New York ( ity.








Austria.






..Joseph Jacobs, B.A.,


H.


E.


C. .


. .Herbert E. Choate,
Athens, Ga.






Formerly President of the Jewish Historical
Society of England; Corresponding Member


H.


Q




..Hubert Grimme, Ph.D.,

Professor of Semitic Languages and Litera-






of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid;
New York City.








ture, University of Freiburg, Switzerland.


J.


D. E....


.J. D. Eisenstein,


H.


Gut....


. . .H. Guttenstein,






New York City.








New York City.


J.


F. McC.


..J. Frederic McCurdy, Ph.D., LL.D.,


H.


Hj


r —


, . Hartwig Hirschfeld, Ph.D.,

Profes.sor, .Jews' College, Loudon, England.






Professor of Oriental Languages, University
College, Toronto, Canada.


H.


M




...Henry Malter, Ph.D.,

Assistant Pnfissor, Hebrew Union College,
Cincinnati, Ohio.


J.


F. McL.


..J. F. McLaughlin, M.A., B. D.,

Professor of Oriental Languages and Litera-
ture, Victoria College, Toronto, Canada.


H.


P.


M.


. H. Pereira Mendes, M.D., D.D.,

I'nsideiit of the I iiion of Orthodox Congre-
gations of thi! United States and Canada;


J.


F.S


.J. F. Schamberg, M.D.,

Philadelphia, Pa.








Ual)bl of the Spanish and Portuguese Congre-


J.


G. L


. J. G. Lipman, Ph.D.,








gation, New York City.






Assistant Agriculturist, New Jersey State Ex-


H.


R




. . .Herman Rosenthal,






periment Station, New Brunswick, N. J.








Chief of the Slavonic Department of the New


J.


H. O...


..Julius H. Greenstone,








York Public Library. New York City.






Rabbi, Philadelphia, Pa.


H.
I.


V.

A..




. . .Hermann Vogrelstein, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Ki'iiigsberg, East Prussia, Germany.
. . .Israel Abrahams,


J.


H. Ho. .


..J.H.Hollander, Ph.D.,

Assistant Professor of Political Economy,
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.








Reader In Rabbinic, l.'nlver«ity of Cambridge ;


J.


H. M....


..Julius H. Meyer,








Coi?dltor of " The Jewish Quarterly Review " ;






Milwaukee, Wis.








Cambridge, England.


J.


Hy


. .J. Hyams,


I.


Be.




...Iminanuel Benzinger, Ph.D.,

Profes.sor of Old Testament F^xegesls, Uni-




*~^-J


Bombay, India.








versity of Berlin, Germany ; Jerusalem, Pal-


J.


Ka


..Jacques Kahn,








estine.






Uabbl, Paris, France.


I.


Bl.




. ..I. Blumenstein, Ph.D. (deceased),

IjiI*- Chli'f Rabbi of Luxemburg, Luxemburg.


J.


L,. L,a...


..J. L. Lait,

Journalist, Chicago, 111.


I.


Br.




...Isaac Broyde (Office Kditnr),

Doctor of the University of Paris, France; for-
merly Librarian of the Alliance Israelite Unl-
verselle, Paris, France; New York City.


J.


S


..Joseph Silverman, D.D.,

Formerly president of Central Conference of
American Rabbis; Rabbi of Emanu-El Con-
gregation, New York City.



CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME VIII



Vll



J.


So


.Joseph Sohn,

Contributor to "The New International En-


M. K


. ..Meyer Kayserling-, Ph.D.,
Kabbi, Budapest. Hungary.






cyclopedia " ; formerly musical critic on the


M. Kn....


..M. Knafo,






New York " American and Journal " ; New-
York City.




Kahili, Mogador, Morocco.


J.


Sp


.Jacob Spiro,

Hahbi. .Malirisch-Ostrau, Moravia, Austriii.


M. L. B...


. . Moses Lob Bambergrer, Ph.D.,

Rabbi ; Lecturer in Rabbinic, Jewish Semi-
nary, Wiirzburg, Bavaria, Germany.


J.


S. R


J. S. Raisin,










Rabbi, Gemilut Chesed Congregation. Kcirt


M. N


..MaxNordau, M.D.,






(iibson. Miss.




Paris. France.


J.


T


..J. Theodor, Ph.D.,

Uabbi, Bojanowo, Posen, Germany.


M.R


. Max Rosenthal, M.D.,

Visiting Physician, German Dispensary, New
York City.


J.


Wo


JosefWohlstein, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Malmo, Sweden.


M. Sa


. Max Samfield, Ph.D.,

Memphis, Tenn.


J.


Z. L


.J. Z. Lauterbach, Ph.D. (Office Editor i.
Rabbi, New York City.


M. Sc


..Max Schloessing'er,Ph.D.,

Librarian; Lecturer on Biblical Exegesis.


K




..Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D.,




Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.






Rabbi Kmeritus of Temple Beth-El, New
York ; President of the Hebrew Union Col-


M. Sel


..Max Selig-sohn (Office Editor),






lege, Cincinnati, Ohio.




Doctor of the University of Paris, France;
New York City.


L.


B


.Ludwigr Blau, Ph.D.,

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary ; Edi-
t^ir of "Magyar Zsido - Szemle," Budapest.
Hungary.


M. W. L


..Martha Washing-ton Levy, B.A.,

Contributor to "The New International En-
cyclopedia," .New York City.


li.


C. H....


.L. C. Harby,
New York City.


M. W. M.


Mary W. Montgomery, Ph.D.,

New York ( ity.


L.


Er


-L. Errera, Ph. D.,

Professor (if Plant-Anatomy, Plant-Physiol-


M. Z


..M. Zametkin,

New York (ity.






ogy, and Botany, University of Brussels, Bel-


N. D


. .Newell Dunbar,






gium.




Newark, N. J.


L.


Q


.liouis Ginzbeig, Ph.D.,

Professor of Talmud, Jewish Theological Sem-


N. R


..N. Rashkovski,

Odessa, Russia.






inary of America, New York City.


N. SI......


..N. Slouschz,


L.


H. a...


.Louis H. Gray, Ph.D.,

Assistant Editor of the " Orientalische Biblio-
graphie " ; formerly on the editorial staff of




Doctor of the University of Paris; Lecturer
on Neo- Hebraic Literature, University of
Paris, France.






" The New International Encyclopedia " ;


N. T. L....


..N. T. London,






Newark, N. J.




New York Citv.


L.


Hu


L.. Huhner, A.M., LL.B.,

Counselor at Law. New York City.


O. J. S....


. ..O. J. Simon,

London, England.


L.


L


.Li. liOwenstein, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Mosbach, Baden, Germany.


P. B


. .Philipp Bloch, Ph.D.,

Ralibi, Posen, Germany.


L.


La


..Laura Landau,

New York City.


P. Wi . . . .


. .Peter Wiernik,

Journalist, New York City.


L.


M. F....


..Leo M. Franklin, B.L.,

Rabbi of Temple Beth-El, Detroit, Mich.


S


. . Isidore Sing-er, Ph.D.,

Managi.ng Eiutor, New York City.


L.


Mu


L. Munk, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Marburg, (iermany.


S.B


. .Samuel Baeck, Ph.D.,

Rabbi, Lissa. Posen, Germany.


L.


N. D...


Lewis N. Dembitz, D.H.L.,

Counselor at Law, Louisville, Ky.


S. Be


. .Simon Bernfeld, Ph.D.,

Formerly Chief Rabbi of Servia; Berlin, d. r-


L.


V


Ludwig- Venetianer, Ph.D.,




many.






Rabbi, I'jpest, Hungary.


S.G


. S. Gundelfing-er, Ph.D.,


L.


Wy


.L. Wygodsky,




Darmstadt, Germany.






St. Petersl)urg, Russia.


S. Ho


. S. Horovitz, Ph.D.,


M


A.N. L


.M. A.N. Lindo,

London, England.




Professor, .leu ish Theological Seminary, Bres-
lau, Germany.


M


Bu


.Moses Butten-wrieser, Ph.D.,

Assistant Professor of E.\egesis, Hebrew


S.J


. ..S. Janovsky,

Counselor at Law, St. Petersburg, Russia.






Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio.


S. J. L...


..S. J. Levinsohn,


M


Co


.Max Cohen,




Brooklyn, N. Y.






Counselor at Law, New York City.


S. K


S.Kahn,


M


.Fi


Maurice Fishberg-, M.D.,




Rabbi, Niines. France.






Surgeon t<i the Belli Israel Hospital Dispen-


S. Kr


. . Samuel Krauss, Ph.D.,






sary ; Medical Examiner to the United He-




I'roressor, Normal (oileire, Budapest, Hungary.






brew Charities, New York City.


S. Led ....


. . Sampson Lederhandler,


M


. Fr


.M. Franco,




New York City.






Principal, .\lllance Israelite Universelle


S. M


. . S. Mendelsohn, Ph.D.,






Sehool, Deinotica, Kumelia, Turkey.




Kabbi, Wilmington, N. C.


M


. Frie....


M. Friedlander, Ph.D.,










Vienna, Austri;).


S. Man....


..S. Mannheimer, B.L.,

Instructor, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati,


M


. Gr


M. Grunwald, Ph.D.,




Ohio.






Rabbi. Vienna. Austria.


S. M.G ...


...S. M. Goldstein,


M


. H. H...


.M. H. Harris, Ph.D.,

New York City.




Assi.stiint Professor, Archeological Institute.
St. I'etersbiiru-. Russia.



VIU



CONTHlBUTOJitS TO VOLUME VIII



S. Mii S. Miihsam, Ph. p.,

( hief Rabbi, Gratz, Styria, Austria.

S. Mun Sigmund Munz, Ph.D.,

Vienna, Austria.

S. N. D S. N. Deinard,

Minneapolis, Minn.

S S ...Solomon Schechter, M. A., Litt.D.,

I'lvsiiiL-ni of the Faculty of tin- .Jewish Theo-
lc«ic-4il Semiuiiry of America, New York City.

S. Sa Sigismund Salfeld, Ph.D.,

Kaiibi, Mayence, Hesse, Germany.

S. Wo Simon Wolf,



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