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Josiah Lorki of Spain, physician to Benedict XIII.



Hedicine



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



418



Josiah took the name of "' Hierouyimis de Santa Fe,"
and became a great enemy of liis former coreligion-
ists, Avho gave him the name "the Calumniator."
He persecuted especially Jewish physicians and
apothecaries.

There were, however, some important Jewish
physicians in Italy, namely : Elijah Dp:lmedigo
(1460-97), professor at Padua and
Italy. Florence; Obadiah Elias ben Judah
at Tivoli; Isaac d'Albadi (1450) at
Barletta; Joseph lia-Levi of Naples; Messer Leon
of Mantua; his son Messer David of Naples;
JuDAii (Laudadeus) de Blanis at Perugia (c. 1520);
Abraham de Balmes (d. 1523) at Padua; Solo-
mon Vidal of Venice at Corfu; Vidal Balso at
Reggio; Vitale {c. 1550) and Bonajuto {c. 1610)
Alatino at Spoleto; and Teodoro de Sacerdoti at
the court of Julius III. Popes Paul II. and Alex-
ander VI. favored Jewish physicians through privi-
leges, e.g., Samuel Zarfati and Isaac Zarfati (c.
1530), physicians to Pope Clement VII., whom Isaac
saved from burial alive; Joseph ha-Kohen, physi-
cian to tiie doge Andrea Dorea of Venice (c. 1540);
Obadiah Sforno (d. 1550 at Bologna), the Hebrew
teacher of Reuchlin; Judah ibn Yahya at Bologna;
Benjamin, also at Bologna; Raphael at Sarzena.
Several important physicians were included in the
PoRTALEONE family, e.g., Benjamin at Naples, his
grandson David of Pa via, his great-grandson Abra-
ham (1542-1612) at Mantua, and Isaac Cohen at
Sienna. From these names it may be seen that while
Jewish physicians were more or less prohibited by
the popes frojn practising in the east of Europe, in
Italy they flourished.

BoNET DE Lates of Provencc, when the Jews
were expelled from that district in 1498, went to
Rome as physician to Pope Leo X. He is well
known also through the part he took during the
Pfefferkorn persecutions. From Spain emigrated
Judah Abravanel and Jacob Mantino. Judah Abra-
vanel (Leo Hebr^us) was minister at the court of
Ferdinand and Isabella; expelled from Spain in
1492, lie went to Italy. His brother lived as phy-
sician in Ferrara about 1549. Jacob Mantino settled
in Rome as court piiysician to Pope Paul III. He
acted also as ambassador of Charles V. at Venice.
Paul IV. (1558) was a great persecutor of the Jews,
enacting laws against them, some of which were
repealed only in the nineteenth century, and on ac-
count of which many Jews emigrated to Turkey.
During this period lived Juan Roduioo de C.\stel-
Branco, surnamed " Amatus Lusitanus" (1511-68),
at Ancona and Salonica; David d'Ascoli, who de-
fended tiie Jewish physicians in an es.say publislicd
at Strasburg in 1559; David de Poinis (b. 1525 at
Spoleto; d. at Venice 1588), also a great defender of
his colleagues ("D(! Medico Hebrtco Enarratio Apo-
logica," Vienna, 1588). These were succeeded by
the following: Moses ben Samuel Capes {e. 1600);
Kai.ony.mi's I!KN Judah (''. 1575), Joseph Ilaino/., and
Jacob Lonibroso at Venice; Samuel Meldola at Man
tua; David Hayyim Luria and three Cantarinis at
Padua (Kiilonymus, 1593-1631 ; Isaac Hayyim. 1644-
1723; Judah. 1650-94); K/ekiel de Castro at Vero-
na; Moses ben Jacob (Jordovero at Leghorn; Jacob
ben Isaac Zahalunat Ferrara, celebrated througli his



"Ozar Hayyim" ("Thesaurus Vitne ") at Venice
(1688) ; Hauaniali ben Menahem Cases at Florence (c.
1700) ; Isaac Cardoso, emigrated to Italy from Spain,
where he had lived as a Marano; Manueledi Cesena,
physician to Pope Sixtus V.

To the eighteenth century belong : Shabbethai Vita
Marini of Padua; Isaac Lampronti (d. 1756); Isaac
Borgo; Mordecai Zahaluu ; Jacob Heilprin ; Aaron
Cases (d. 1767); Israel Gedaliah Cases (d. 1793), all
of Ferrara ; Solomon Levi and Isaac Levi Vali, of
Verona; at Mantua, the Konia family : Joseph,
Solomon, Moses Benjamin, Wolf, and Israel; at
Leghorn, Isaac Foa, known also as a printer; Elias
Concile; Adam and his sons Jacob and Azariah
Hayyim Bondi; at Friaul, Isaac Luzzatto, 1730-
180V; his brother Ephraim (b. 1729), who practised
for more than thirty years in London, and died
(1799) while traveling in Lausanne; Graziado Nepi
(1759-1836), rabbi and physician at Cento, who
belonged to the great French Saiiliedrin of 1806.

In France are to be found very few Jewish physi-
cians during this period, as unbaptized Jews were
allowed only in papal Avignon:
France. Pierre de Notre Dame (a baptized
Jew) at Aries (1500); Joseph Colon at
Perries; Mordecai Nathan and Joseph de Noves at
Avignon; Elias Montalto (d. at Paris 1615), court
physician to Maria de Medici, by whose order his
body was embalmed and sent to Holland for burial
in a Jewish cemetery; his son Isaac, at Paris; at
Bordeaux, John Baptist de Silva (1686-1742), who
had the best consulting practise in Europe, and was
physician to Louis XIV. , by whom he was knighted ;
at Nanc)', Isaac Assur and Jacob Beer {c. 1775).

Though Jewish physicians were not allowed to
practise in France, their skill was so well known
that Francis I. (1515-47) during a severe sickness
asked the Emperor of Germany for a Jewish physi-
cian. When one arrived the king, thinking he was a
Christian, sent him liack. The king then asked the
Sultan of Turkey for another Jewish physician, who
cured him (Cabanis, "Revolution de la Medecine,"
p. 128, Brussels, 1844).

While the Mohammedans lost Spain, they captured

Constantinople (1453). and Jewish physicians were

allowed to practise in Tuikey, as in

In the the other Mohammedan possessions.

Turkish from Spain, Portugal, Italy, and
Dominions. France Jews emigrated to Turkey.
Among them were the followinij:: in
Constantinople, Solomon Ai.MOi.l (i^. 1517) ; Josepii
Hamon ; his son ]\Ioses (1490-1567), physician to Su-
laiman the Magnificent; and his grandson .loscph
(d. 1578); Ibn Yahya; Abraham ha-Lcvi ihn ;\Iigas;
Abraham Nahmias; Leo Siaa (r-. 1636); Israel Co-
NEGLiANO (c. 1680): Ephraim Penseri; Abraham ben
Yaish ; Abraham Suniucl Solomon: and Isaac Jal)ez
{r.. 1700); at Salonica, Samuel Uzziel ('•. 1550) : Abra-
ham Cohen (r. 1700): at Jerusalem, Elijah of Fer-
rara (r. 1460); David ibn Shoshan, head of tlie
Sephardic ycshibah in 1552; Jacob ibn Amram;
.lacob Aboah; and Samuel ha-Levi (c. 1625); the
physician Jacob Hayyim Zcinah was chief rabbi in
1645. In Corfu lived Samuel Valerio (c. 1550);
in Zante, Jacob ben Uzziel (r. 1600); Abraham
Colieu (1670-1722).



419



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Uedicine



lu the Netherlands, which during this period was

mostly under Spanish rule, Jewish phj'sicians were

few : Abraham Zacuto (Zaciitus Lusi-

In the taniis), an emigrant from Portugal

Nether- about 1600; at Amsterdam the Bi:eno
lands and family (Abraham, Ephraim Hezekiah,
England. Jacob, Joseph, and Solomon); Baltha-
zar de Castko (1620-87); somewhat
later Joseph Israel Mendes; Sanuiel de Silva; Sam-
uel Jeshurun; and Samuel de Mercado {c. 1650);
Samuel de Misa (r. 1725); Johanan van Embden and
Naphtali Herz (r. 1750).

In England during this period there were very
few Jewish physicians, e. (7., Sabot Elias (c. 1410);
Rodrigo Lopez (b. 1525 in Portugal), court physi-
cian to Queen Elizabth 1580, for attempting to poi-
son whom he was executed in 1594. When Cromwell
permitted the Jews to settle openly in England there
immigrated thither Abraham de Mercado about 1655 ;
Joseph jVIendes Bravo about 1675; Ephraim Isaac
Abendana, in Cambridge and O.xford (d. 1710), and
bis brother Jacob (1630-95); David Nieto, in Lon-
don (c. 1710); Jacob de Castro Sarmento, in London
(1693-1762); Fernando jMendez (d. 1724); Isaac dc
Sequera Samuda (b. 1721); Israel Lyons (1739-75);
Samuel Nunez (c. 1750); Joseph Hart Myers (1758-
1823); Abraham Nonski (r. 1785; writer on vaccina-
tion); the three Schombergs (Isaac, d. 1781; Meir
Low, d. 1761; and Ralph, d. 1793); Isaac Henriques
Sequera (1738-1816); Abraham van Oven (d. 1778);
Joshua van Oven (1766-1838); Solomon de Leon (r.
1775); George Gompertz Levisoiin (d. 1797); Elias
Friedberg; and a Doctor Jeremias (c. 1775).

While before 1500 there had been very few Jewish
physicians in the German-speaking countries, in the
later centuries many Avere to be found,
Germany, among whom were especially the
under- mentioned — in Frankfort -on-
the-Main: Joseph l)ar Ephraim Levi (d. 1532);
Abraham ben Joseph Levi (d. 1581); Jacob ben
Samuel and Aaron (r. 1600); Shelomoh (d. about
1631); his son Low Leo Shelomoh; Isaac Helu (d.
1654); Joseph Solomon Dei.medigo (b, 1591 at Can-
dia; practised in Candia, Cairo, Lithuania, Ham-
burg, Amsterdam, Frankfort-on-tiie-Maiu, Worms,
and Prague, where lu; died 1655); his son-in-law
Solomon BiN<i (b. about 1615); Jonas ben Moses
Bonn; Abraham ben Isaac Wallach; Leo Simon;
Abraham He]n(^. 1650); Benjamin Levi Buchsbaum
(1645-1715); his sons Gutman Wolf (1678-1770) and
Lipman (b. 1677); Amsiiel Gutman (d. 1743), son of
Gutman Wolf ; Issachar Bar Liebman (d. 1753); An-
selm Schloss Beifuss (d. 1793); and Adolf Worms
(d. 1812). In Hamburg are to be mentioned : Ko-
drigo de Castko (1550-1627), an eminent gynecolo-
gist; his sons Benedict de Castro (1597-1684), court
physician to Queen Christina of Sweden, and Daniel
(Andreas) de Castro (b. 1599), court physician to
King Christian IV. of Denmark; Jacob Kosai.es,
who practised in Hamburg from 1637 to 1645; and
Benjamin ben Inimanuel ]\Iusapliia (1606-75). At
Schaffhausen lived the physician David {c. 1550) ; at
Mlihlheiin, Solomon ben Boaz ; at TJolmar and Un])-
poltsweiler, Judali Carmoly (1700-85); at Colmar,
Anshel Meyer (c. 1750); at Coblenz, Emanuel Wal-
licli (r. 1750); at Bingen, Abraham Biug ('■. 1550),



father of Solomon Bing of Hamburg; at Mayence,
Selkeles Grotwahl (c. 1675) and his son Meier; Lipp-
mann Levi and Phoebus Cohen (c. 1775); at Bonn
(also at Neuwied), Benjamin Croneburg {c. 1750);
Wolf and his two sons lleinrich and Solomon (also
at Dliren); at Dlisseldorf, Gottschalk Lazarus van
Geldern (1726-95) and his son Joseph (1765-96).
Heine's grandfather; at Cologne, Naphtali ben Jo-
seph Levi (c. 1625) ; at Metz, Isaac ('•. 1650) ; Naphtali
Herz; Solomon ben Baruch; Mayer and Isaac Wal-
lich (f. 1700); Jacob Wallich ; Marcus Cosman Gom-
pertz Wolf; and Enoch Levin (r. 1750); the two
brothers Willstadt (c. 1775); Elkan Isaac Wolf; and
Jacob Aronsohn(c. 1790); at Hanover, Meier Cohen
and Jacob Marx (c. 1775); at Bamberg, Adalbert
Friedrich Markus (1753-1816). In the principalities
of the Hapsburg family were only a few Jewish
physicians; at Innsbruck, Lazarus (c. 1560); at
Vienna, Isaac (Giinzburg?) and his son Judah Lob
Winckler {r. 1625 ; both left Vienna 1670 and settled
in Posen); Joseph Oesterreicher (1756-1833). At
Prague were: Isaac ben Joshua (r. 1550); Abraham
KiscH (1730-1803); Jonas ]\Iisclicl Jeiteles (1735-
1806) and his son Benedict (17()2-1813) : at Beriin,
LtPPoi.D {c. 1535), court physician- to the elector
Joachim II. ; Hector, executed 1573 for having poi-
soned his master; Lobel (c. 1693); the dentist Veit
Abraham {c. 1699) ; ]\Iarcus Eliezer Bi.ocii (1733-99) ;
Aaron Solomon Gumperz (1723-69) ; Markus Herz
(1747-1803), husband of Henriette Herz ; Georg Levi-
son (d. 1797); at Konigsbcrg, Isaac May and Mi-
chael Abraham (r. 1550); at Breslau, Zadok (c. 1775);
at Lissa, Mordecai Kofe.

Although at tiie beginning of the eighteenth cen-
tury conditions in Germany were not favorable for
Jewish physicians, at the middle and

Medical end of the same century most of the
Education Jewish practitioners received degrees
of German from German universities. In 1700
Jews. the universities of Kostock and Witten-
berg counseled Christians against em-
ploying Jewish physicians, who, they declared, were
incompetent (meaning tliat they had not received a
university education). In 1725 King Frederick Will-
iam I. of Prussia prohibited Jews not having diplo-
mas from practising medicine, and in 1745 aitjieared
at Frankfort a book by Johann Helfricii Pfeil expo-
sing the ignf>raiice of Jewisli pliysicians.

When the kings of Poland jiermittcd Jews to' .set-
tle in some parts of their dominions, physicians ap-
peared there also. At Cracow lived
In Poland. K/.ekiel {c 1503); I.saac .lacol) (d.
about 1510), physician to King Sigis-
nuuid I. : Solomon ben Natiian Asiikenazi (1520-
1603), physician to Sigismund II. and to the sultan
Sulaiman II. ; Solomon Lmia in Lublin; Tobias
ConN (1653-1739), avIio practised in Poland, Adria-
nople, Constantinople, and Jeru.salem, and was court
physician to live Turkish sultans; Jonas Casal (r.
1675), physician to John Sobieski ; Philipp Lubelski
at Cracow (1788-1879); Elias Pinschow {c. 1775); at
Thorn, Morgensternir-. 1567): atPosen, tlie Wincklers
(the father Leo [Judah Lob] emigrated from Vienna
about 1670) ; his sons Jacob and Isaac and his grand-
sou Wolf, all four important physicians and leaders
of the communitv; Levi Elias HiRSCiiEi, (1741-73).



b



Medicine



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



420



In Moscow practised Mngister Anton (Ehrenstein).
The IJrst Jewish physician in that city probably
came from Rome. He was court pliysician under
Ivan III. and was executed in 1485 by the servants
of Prince Karaliucza, wliose son lie had failed to
cure. He was succeeded by Leo, who was executed
in 1490, also for not having cured one

Russia. of Ivan's sons. In the fifteenth cen-
tury lived Solomon Calvaire ; Stephan
von Gaden, also court physician (executed in 1682).
At St. Petersburg lived the court physician Antonio
Ribeiro Sanchez (1699-1783). The greater number
of Jewish physicians are found in the larger commu-
nities, e.g., at Hasenpoth, Issachar Falkensohn Behr
(b. 1746), Judah ha-Levi Hurwicz, Jacob Lob-
schutz, David Abrahamson (c. 1775), Aaron Solomon
Tobias (d. 1782), Lazar Isaac Kume (c. 1800); at
Wilna, Lob Gordon {c. 1725); at Mitau, Elrich (d.
1809); at Bausk and Odessa, Eliezer Elias Lowen-
thal (c. 1775); also at Bausk, Lachmann.

Tlie foregoing lists of physicians are certainly not
complete. There probably lived many a good Jew-
ish practitioner whose name has not been recorded.
With very few exceptions the Jewish

Review physicians of the period 1495-1800 did

(1495- not excel. They were usually general
1800). practitioners, very often combining
the offices of rabbi and physician. A
few are cited as great consulting physicians, as the
above-mentioned John Baptist de Silva of Paris and
the gynecologist Rodrigo de Castro of Hamburg.
Only a few left important medical works. As a
rule their influence upon medicine was only slight.
Tiiey suffered with their brethren expulsion from
many countries. They were very often prohibited
from practising among Christians and were allowed
to follow their profession among their brethren only.
The universities were often closed to them; and
popes and princes issued edicts against them.

In Recent Times : The French Revolution

brought a great change in the status of Jewish
physicians. Jews were admitted to citizenship in
nearly every country of western Euroi)e, and were
permitted to study at all universities and to practise
their profession. Even in Russia to-day (1904) there
are many Jewish physicians to be found ; but it is es-
pecially in Germany, Austria, and the United States
that Jews have become prominent as general prac-
titioners, specialists, university professors of medi-
cine (since 1848), and medical journalists. It is only
possible to enumerate some of those who have ob-
tained prominence in medical circles during the
nineteenth cent\iry, beginning with those who have
died.

Physicians: Solomon Ludwig Steinheim (Altona,
1789-1866): Berniiard van Oven (London, 1797-
1860); Martin Steintlial (Berlin, 1798-1892; at his
death the olilest physician in Germany), reeditor of
Hufeland's " Macrobiotik " ; Daniel Peixotto (Lon-
don, lHOO-43); Ilananecl de Leon (/7).
General r. 1825); J. L. Levinsou {ib. 1800-74):
Practi- Raphael Koscn (Berlin, 1803-72); Jon-
tioners. atlian PiTcira (London, 1804-53) ; Max-
imilian HKiNK(St. Petersburg, 1805-79),
brother of Hcinrich Heine; Johann jACOBV(Konigs-
berg. 1805-77); Jonas Gratzek (Breslau, 1806-89);



Moritz Rapoport (Lemberg, 1808-80); Isaac A.
Franklin (London, 1812-80); David Gruby (Paris,
1810-98), known through his free public lectures;
Eleazar Meldola (London, 1810-79); Ludwig GtJ-
TER150CK (Berlin, 1814-9.5); Moritz Adolph Unna
(Hamburg, 1813-88): Julius Barascii (Bucharest,
1815-63): SigismundSutro (London, 1815-86); Jacob
Eduard Polak (Vienna, 1818-91), court physician at
Teheran to the Shah of Persia ; Ferdinand Fai.kson
(Konigsberg, 1820-1900), known through a lawsuit
which was due to his marriage to a Christian woman ;
Samuel Kristrli.er (Berlin, 1820-1900) ; Hermann
HiRSCHFELDT (Colberg, 1825-85), to whose memory
a monument was erected at Colbei-g ; Henry Behr-
end (London, 1828-93); Wilhelm Lurelski (War-
saw, 1832-90) ; Ernest Abraham Hart (London, 1836-
1898); and L. G. Gold (Odessa, d. 1903).

Anatomists: Fiiedrich Gustuv Jacob HEXi>E(Got-

tingen, 1809-85), one of the leading anatomists of

his time; Jacob IIerz (Erlangen, 1810-71), whose

monument is to be seen in Erlangen — one of the

three monuments erected to Jews in Germany,

the other two being those of Moses

Deceased IVIendelssohn at Dessau, and Hermann

Specialists. Hirschfeldt at Colberg; Ludwik

Maurycy Hirsciifei.d (Warsaw, 1816-

1876); Siegmund Spitzer (Constantinople, 1839-

1894), physician to Sultan 'Abd al-Majid.

Physiologists: SimoneFuBiNi (Palermo, 1841-98),
friend and pupil of Moleschott; Ernst Fleischl
VON Marxow (Vienna, 1846-91); Moritz Sceiiff
(Geneva, 1833-96); Gabriel Gustav Valentin (Bern,
1810-83), one of theleading physiologists of his age.

Microscoi>ists : Gottlieb Gluge (Brussels, 1812-
1898), one of the pioneers of microscopy; Ludwik
Mandl (Paris, 1813-81).

Embryologists: Robert Remak (Berlin, 1815-65),
the first Jewish privat-docent in Prussia, admitted
to the Berlin faculty in 1847, and well known
through his discoveries in neurology, embryology,
and electrotherapy ; Leopold Schenk (Vienna, 1840-
1892), well known through his theory.

Pathologists: Karl Friedrich Canstatt (Erlangen,
1807-50), founder and editor of the well-known
" Jahresbericht i'lberdie Fortschritteder Gesammten
Medizin Aller Lilnder," begun in 1841 and continued
after his death by Virchow; Julius Cohnheim
(Leipsic, 1839-84), author of the theory of emigra-
tion of white corpuscles as the origin of pus and
of inflammation, and demonstrator of "Cohnheim's
areas"; Felix Victor I5ikch-IIirschfeld (Leipsic,
1842-99); Moritz Heinricii Romberg (lierlin, 179-5-
1873), the eminent neurologist; Simon Samuel
(Konigsberg, 1835-99); Solomon Stricker (Vienna.
1834-98), the founder of microtomy : Karl Weigert
(Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1845-1904).

Clinicians: Jonas Freund (London, d. 1880),
founder of the German Hospital, London; Heinrich
Jacobson (Berlin, 1820-90); Hermann Lebert
(Lewy) (Breslau, 1813-78); Ludwig Traube (Ber-
lin, 181H-70), the father of experimental i^alhology;
Daniel Maduro Peixotto (New York, about 1850).

Surgeons: Michelangelo Asson (Venice, 1802-77);
Leopold von Dittel (Vienna, 1815-98), who per-
formed over 800 operations for calculus ; Joseph Gru-
iiER(rt. 1827-1900); Aaron Jkitei,es (Olmutz, 1799-



421



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Medicine



1878) ; Michel Levy (Paris, 1809-72) ; Germain See
(Paris, 1818-96); Lewis Oppenheim (London, 1832-
1895); Julius Wolff (Berlin, 1836-1902) ; Paul Gu-
TEKBOCK (Berlin, 1844-97).

Gynecologist: David Haussmann (Berlin, 1839-*
1895).

Pharmacologist: Hermann Fkiedberg (Breslau,
1817-84).

Aurists: Joseph Gruber (Vienna, 1827-1900) and
Solomon Moos (Heidelberg, 1881-95).

Ophthalmologists: Isaac Hays (Philadelphia, 1796-
1879), editor of the " xVmerican Journal of Medical
Science"; Ignaz Hikschler (Budapest, 1823-91);
John Zechariah Laurence (London, 1828-70); Aaron
Friedenwai.d (Baltimore, 1836-1902); Max Lan-
DESBEHG (New York, 1840-95); JiUdwig Mauthner
(Vienna, 1840-94), to whose memory a monument
■was erected in the arcades of Vienna University,
the only monument dedicated to a Jew in Austria.

Laryngologists: Jacob Gottstein (Breslau, 1832-
1895); Abraham Kuhn (Strasburg, 1838-1900); Jo-
hann Scunitzler (Vienna, 1835-93) ; Elias Heyman
(Stockholm, 1829-89); Karl Stoerk (Vienna. 1832-
1899); Louis Elsberg (New York, 1836-85); Isaac
Michael (Hamburg, 1848-97); G. Ash (New Y^ork,
d. 1902).

Neuropathist: Oscar Bekger (Breslau, 1844-85).

Dermatologists: Moriz K.\p6si (Kohu) (Vienna,
1837-1902): Oskar Simon (Breslau, 1845-82); Her-
mann von Zeissl (Vienna, 1817-84), defender of the
dual theory of sypliilis.

Psychiatrist: Ludwig Meyer (Gottingen, 1827-
1900).

Hygienists: Nikolaus Heinrich Julius (Hamburg,
1783-1862); Michel Levy (Paris, 1809-72); Levi Ali
Cohen (Groningen, 1817-89).

Electrotherapist: Moritz Meyer (Berlin, 1821-93).

Balneologist: Gottfried Schmelkes (Teplitz, 1807-
1870).

Biologist: Ludwig Lewin Jacobson (Copenhagen,
1783-1843).

Encyclopedists: Friedrich Jacob Behrend (Ber-
lin, 1803-89) ; Samuel Guttmann (Berlin, 1839-93).

Miscellaneous: Authority on forensic medicine:
Johann Ludwig Caspar (Berlin, 1796-1864). Hy-
drotherapist: Ludwig F. Fhankel (Berlin, 1806-
1872). Dental surgeon: Ludwig Heinrich Hollan-
der (Breslau, 1833-97), one of the German pioneers
of scientific dentistry.

Historians of medicine: August Hirscii (Berlin,

1817-94), still an undisputed authority; Abraham

Hartog Israels (Amsterdam, 1822-

Medical 1883) ; Franz Romeo Seligmann (Vi-

Histcry enna, 1808-79).
and Jour- Journalists: Louis Posner (Berlin,

nalism. 1815-68), editor of the "Berliner Kli-
nische Wochenschrift " ; Leopold WiT-
TELSiiOFER (Vienna, 1818-89), editor of the "Wie-
ner Medizinische Wochen.schrift "; Paul Guttmann
(Berlin, 1833-93), editor of the "Journal fur Prak-
tische Aerzte"; Julius Grosser (Prenzlau, 1835-
1901), editor of the " Deutsche Medi/inal-Zeitung " ;
Louis Waldenburg (Berlin, 1837-81), editor of the
"Berliner Klinische Wochenschrift"; Johann Jacob
(Joseph Isidor) Sachs (Nordhauseu, 1803-46), pub-
lisher and editor of medical journals. The cham-



pion of homeopathy in Austria is Emil Altschul
(Prague, 1812-65), who founded and published (1853)
the first homeopathic magazine in Austria.

Of living physicians, the following list gives the
names of some of the more important, especially of
those who have held official positions:

Austria: The alienist Arnold Pick; the physi-
ologist Sigmund Mayer; the pathologists Philipp
Joseph Pick and Alfred Pribram, all four of Prague;
the aural surgeon Adam Politzer;

Living ihe electrotherapists Moritz Benedikt
Physicians and Gustav Gartneu; the patholo-
in Europe, gist Anton Weichselbau.m; the pedi-
atrists Alois Epstein and Ma.\ Kas-
sowitz ; the clinicians Moritz Heitler, Leo])old Oser,
Alois Pick, Wilhelm von Winternitz, Emil Zuck-
ERKANDL ; the dermatologist Isidor Neumann ; the
ophihalmologist Isidor Schnabel; Samuel von
Basch, body-physician to the emperor ]\Ia.ximilian
of Mexico; the journalist Alexander Frankel;
Leopold von Selig.mann, retired colonel -surgeon
of the Austrian army, all of Vienna; the balneolo-
gists Enoch Heinrich KiscH of Marienbad and Josef
Seegen of Carlsbad.

Denmark : The pathologist Karl Julius Salo-
.monsen of Copenhagen.

England : The ophthalmologist Richard Lieb-
REiCH ; the laryugologist Sir Felix Semon ; the pa-
thologist Bertram Abrahams, all three of London;
to these may be added the bacteriologist Waldemar
Haffkine of Calcutta, India.

France : The inventor of color photography
Gabriel Lippmann; the bacteriologist Alexander
Marmorek; the physician Auselme Weill; the
surgeon Marc See; the clinicians Julius Gold-
sch.midt, Georges Hayem, and Louis Mandl; the
laryngologists Benjamin Benno Loewenberg, Louis
Lucien Dreyfus-Brisac, all of Paris; the neurol-
ogists Hippolyte Bernheim of Nancy and Max
NoRDAU of Paris.

The number of Jewish physicians in Germany
is very great: the anatomist Gustav Schwalbe of
Strasburg; the physiologists Julius Bernstein of
Halle, the brothers Hermann and Immanuel Munk
and Nathan Zuntz of Berlin, Isidor Rosenthal of
Erlangeu; the histologist Gustav Jacob Born of
Breslau; the pathologists Ludwig BRiEGERand Os-
kar Israel of Berlin; the clinicians Imar Boas and
AVilhelm Ebstein of Gottingen, Albert Frankel
and Julius Lazarus of Berlin, Ludwig Lichthei.m
of Konigsberg, Martin Mendelsohn of Berlin,
Oscar Minkowski of Strasburg, Carl Posner,
Ottomar Rosenbach, Hermann Sex.\tok, Georg
Anton Solomon, all of Berlin ; the dermatologists



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