Copyright
Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

. (page 103 of 169)
Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 103 of 169)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


Gustav Behrend, Heinrich Kobner, Oskar Lassar,
Georg Richard Lewin, all likewise of Berlin, Albert
Neisser of Breslau, Paul Gerson Unna of Ham-
burg ; the surgeons Robert Kutner, James Israel,
William Levy, all of Berlin ; the pediatrists Adolf
Baginsky and Livius FIjrst of Berlin and Eduard
Heinrich Henoch of Dresden ; the gynecologist
Ernst Frankel of Breslau, Leopold and Theodor
Landau of Berlin, Julius Schottlander of Heidel-
berg, Paul ZwEiFEL of Leipsic; the neuropathists
Hermann Oppknhei.m, Emanuel Mendel, Albert
Moll, and Ernst Julius Remak, all of Berlin ; the



Medicine
Medina



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



422



bacteriologist Paul Ehrlich of Frankfort-on-the-
Main; the orthopedist Leopold Ewer of Berlin;
the ophthalmologists Julivis IIirschberg of Berlin,
Hermann L. Coiin of Breslau, Ludwig L. Laqueur
of Strasburg, Max Solomon of Berlin, Leopold
Weiss of Heidelberg; the pharmacologists Max
Jaffe of Konigsberg, Oskar Matthias, Eugen
Liebreich and Louis Lewin of Berlin; the
otologists Ludwig Katz and Ludwig Lowe of
Berlin; the laryngologists Paul Heymann anil B.
Fkankel of Berlin; the encyclopedist Albert Eu-
i,ENBURG of Berlin ; the forensicist Adolf I>essek of
Berlin; the hygicnist Ernst Levy of Strasburg; the
historian Julius Leopold Pagel of Berlin; the an-
thropologist Abraiiam Lissauer of Berlin.

Hungary : The neuropathist Otto Schwai{TZEr
VON Babarcz; the oculist Nathaniel Feuer ; the
clinician Fricdrich Koranyi, all of Budapest.

Italy : The specialist of forensic medicine Sal-
vatore Ottoi.engiii of Sieima; the clinician Benia-
iiiino LiTZZATTO of Padua; tlie great alienist Cesare
LoMBUOSO and the patliologist Pio Foa, both of
Turin.

The Netherlands : The clinician Samuel Sieg-
niund Roscnstein of Leyden.

Rumania : The physician Karpel Lippe.

Russia : Isaac Dembo of St. Petersburg, author of
" llaShehitah weha-Bedikah" ; the ophthalmologist
Max (Emanuel) Mandelstamm; the hygienist and
court physician Joseph Vasilievich Bertensohn and
liis nephew Lev Bertensohn of St. Petersburg;
the physician Joseph Chazanowicz of Byelostok,
founder of the Abarbanel Library at Jerusalem;
till' clinician W. Manassein of Kasan ; Isidorus
Hrennson at Mitau. Of tiie physicians at present
piactisingin Courland 19.2 per cent are Jews.

Switzerland : The pathologist Moritz Roth of
Basel.

Turkey : Elias Cohen Pasha of Constantinople.

United States: The first Jewish physician men-
tioned in colonial times in the United States is Jacob
Luinbrozo, who prac:tised about 1639 in Maryland.

Tiie number of Jewish pliysicians in tlie United
States to-day (1904) is very large, but only a few—
mainly those who liave ac(]uired official positions —
can be mentioned here: tin; general practitioners
Mark Blumentlial, Simon Brainin, David A. D'An-
cona, Julius Fricdcnwald, Boleslav Lapovski, Mau
lice T. Lewi, Samuel J. Mcltzer, Alfred Meyer,
William Moss, Max Rosenthal, Arthur
In the Uni- F. Sampson, J. F. Schamberg, Laza-
ted States, rns Schimey, C. D. Si)ivak, Richard
Stein, Jacob Tcschner; tlie physi-
ologist David Riesman : tlie pathologists Albert
Ahrams, Isaac Adlcr, Simon Flexner, and Bernaid
S. Talmey; the liydrotlierapist Simon Baruch ; the
niicroscopist Isidore Berman ; the surgeons G. W.
i'.irkowitz, Natlian Jacolison, Howard Lilientlial,
William Meyer, Joseph RanschofF, and Lewis N.
Steinbach; the jurisprudent N. E. Brill; the aurists
William Cowen, M. D. Lcdcrman, and Max Toep-
litz ; the gynecologists Joseph Brettauer, Louis
Ijadinsky, and S. Marx ; the Jaivngologists Jacob
da Silva Soils Cohen, Max Freudentlial, and Emil
Mayer; the clinicians Henry W. ]5ettinMini. Solomon
da Silva Solis-Cohen. Joseph and Julius Kichherg,



Max Einhorn, A. A. Eshner, Joseph Oakland Hirsch-
felder, G. A. Knopf; the pediatrists S. Henry Des-
sau, Frederick Forchheimer, Henry lUoway, Abra-
ham Jacobi, Henry Koplik, and Nathan Oppenheini;
the dermatologists William Gottheil and Sigismund
Lustgarten; the ophthalmologists Harry Frieden-
wald, Emil Gruening, Charles II. May, and H.
Scharpringer; the neurologists Josepli Frankel, G.
W. Jacoby, Bernhard Sachs, and William Leszyn-
ski ; the biologist Jacques Loeb ; the bacteriologist
Milton Joseph Roseuau; and the dentists Leopold
Greenbaum and John I. Hart.

BiBLiO(iRAPHY : Carmolv, Histaire des Medecins Juifs, Brus-
sels, 1844 (a book full of material, but of ten unreliable) ; Hyrtl,
]Jax Arabbiche und HcbrULsclie in der Anntomie, Vienna,
1879; Miinz, Ucher die Jildii^chen Acrzte im Mittelalter,
Berlin, 1887; M. Horovitz, J(tdisc/(6 Aerzte in Frankfurt-
ar« -Moi/i, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1886; Landau, OeHch.der
JUdi^chen Aerzte, Berlin, 1895; Hirsch, Bioff. Ler.; Pagel,
Bio{i. Lex.; Steinschneider, Wis^enxcitaft und Charlatanerie
Untcrden Arahern im Neuntcn Jahrhundert, inVirchnw's
Archiv, xwvi.; idem, Constantinus Africanus und Seine
Ai-ahiachen Quellcn, ib. xxxvii.: Idem, Die Toxicolngischcn
Schriflen der Aiaher bis Ende des XII. JahrhundcTU, ib.
lii.; idem, Ueher Medicin in Bihel und Talmud und Uher
Jlhiigche Aerzte, in Wiener Klinische liundnchau, 1896;
idem, Hetir. Uehers.; idem, Donnolo, Berlin, 1868; idem,
Hebr. liibl.; idem. Die Arabiiiche Literatur der Juden,
Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1902; Wiistenfeld, Die Academien
der Araber und Ihre Leiirer, GiJitinpen, 1837; idem. Die
UcbergetziuHien Arabii^clier Wcrke in das Lateinisctie,
neit den XI. Jahrhundert, lb. 1877 ; idem. Die GeschicMn-
schreibcr der Araber und Hire Werke, ib. 1882; Haeser,
Lehrbuch der Oeschiehie der Medizin und der Ei>ide-
m i,st7ie)i Kra nkheiten, .)Kna., 1882; Aaron Friedenwald, Jewish
Fhiixiciana and the Contribuliini of the Jews to the Science
of Medicine, in Publ. of the (iratz College, 1S97, Philadel-
phia, 1897 ; Vogelstein and Rieger, Gesch. der Juden in Rom,
Berlin, 1895 96; Berliner, Gcsch. der Jnden in Rom, Frank-
fort-on-ilie-Main. 1893 ; Joseph Jacobs, The Jeu's of Angevin
England, pp. 114, 340, London, 1893; idem, Jewish Year-
Book: Kayserling, Ziir Gesch. der Jlldischen Aerzte. In
Monatsschrift, vii. 165 ; Kaufmann, Un Steele dc V Existence
d'une Famille de Juifs de Vienne et de Posen, in R. E. J.
XX. 275; Dollinger, Die Juden in Europa. in Akademische
VoHriige, vol. i., Nordlingen, 1890 ; Revue des Etudes Juives,
xli. 77-97, xlvii. 221-2.54, xlviii. 48-81, xevi. 265-272.
J. F. T. H.

MEDINA : Second sacred city of Islam ; situated
in the Hijaz in Arabia, about 250 miles north of
Mecca. It is celebrated as the place to which the
Hegira (Mohammed's flight fiom Mecca) was di-
rected, and as the capital and burial-place of Mo-
hammed. According to Arabic tradition, Yathrib
and the Hijaz were originally peopled with Amale-
kites, who were displaced by the Israelites. There
are dilferent accounts as to when this displacement
was effected : some say that it occurred under Moses
(comp. "Kitab al-Agliani," iv. 263); some, under
Josluia; and some, under David, who it is stated
resided in the Hijaz during Absalom's rebellion.

Jews may have settled in the Hijaz after the sack
of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar; and it is proba-
ble that they came in successive colonies, e.'i., after
Pompey's attack upon Judea (64 B.C.), after Titus'
coiKpiest of Jerusalem (TO C.E.), and again -after
Hadrian's persecution of the Jews (in 136 c.e.; see
Akabia).

The Jews had a very lich and flourishing settle-
ment at Yathrib and built strongholds in the city
and vicinity. The ])rincipal families were tiie Banu
Kainuka', the Banu Kuraiza, and the Banu al-
Na(lir. The latter two were known as the " Al-
Kahinan," because they traced their descent from
Aaron. In the fourth century Aral) tribes from
"S'emen began to encroach upon the Jews in Medina.
Thev were divided into two clans, the Banu Aus and



423



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Medicine
Medina



the Banu Khaziaj. By calling in outside assistance
and treacherously massacring at a banquet the prin-
cipal Jews, these Arab clans finally

Jewish gained the upper hand at Medina to-
Tribes at ward the end of the filth century (for

Medina, date see " J. Q. K. " vii. 175, note). From
this time the Jews letired into the
background for about a century. About four or five
years before the Hegirathe Jews took an active part
in the battle of Bu'ath between the Banu Aus and
the Banu Khazraj. The Banu Nadir and the Banu
Kuraiza fought with the Banu Aus, Avhile the Banu
Kainuka' were allied with the Banu Khazraj. The
latter were defeated after a long and desperate
battle.

It is probable that the presence of Jews in Medina

did much to prepare the way for Mohammed's

teaching. When the prophet first went to Medina

he was inclined to be friendly toward

Moham- the Jews. They were included in the
med's Atti- treaty between him and the inhab-

tude To- itants of Medina. lie also made cer-
ward Jews tain concessions to them on the ground
of Medina, of religion, and adopted their kiblah
—Jerusalem— in the hope of winning
them to his cause. They, however, ridiculed him,
and delighted in drawing him into arguments to ex-
pose his ignorance ; so that his conciliatory attitude
was soon changed to enmity. A few Jews were
converted to Islam, among them Abdallah ibn
Salam, whom Mohammed called the "servant of
God," and of whose conversion the prophet made
much.

Finally Mohammed began to use actual violence
toward the Medina Jews. After the battle of Bedr
.a woman called Asma, said by some to be a Jewess,
wrote satirical verses, and was killed in her sleep,
probably with Mohammed's consent. Not long be-
fore, Abu 'Afak of the Banu Amr, who had been con-
verted to Judaism, had been assassinated for having
displeased Mohammed by writing verses ridiculing
the new religion. Mohammed then seems to have
decided to get rid of the Jews in a body, since they
were a constant menace to his cause. He began
with the Banu Kainuka', who were goldsmiths, and
lived by themselves in a fortified suburb. He first
summoned them to accept his religion, and they re-
fused. Soon a pretext was found for an open at-
tack. A Moslem girl was insulted by a Jew of the
Banu Kainuka' ; the Jew was killed by a Moslem,
and the latter in turn was killed by the brothers
of the murdered Jew. Mohammed immediately
marched against the Banu Kainuka'
Mohammed and besieged them in their stronghold.

Attacks After a siege of fifteen days they sur-
Jews. rendered, and their lives were spared
onlj'^ at the urgent request of Ab-
dallah ibn Ubai, the influential leader of the Arab
opposition, whose pleading Mohammed dared not
ignore. Being allowed to leave the country, they
emigrated toward the north. Their departure weak-
ened the Jews, who if they had been united might
have withstood Mohammed's attacks.

About a month after the emigration of the Kai-
nuka', AbuSufyan, theleader of the Meccan opposi-
tion, visited Huyayy of the 15unu al-Nadir, but.



being refused admittance by him, spent the night
with another influential man of the same tribe and
obtained information from him concerning the state
of Medina. Another Jewish poet was assassinated
about this time at Mohammed's desire. This was
Ka'b ibn al-Ashraf of the Banu Nadir, who had
been stirring \ip the Kuraish at Mecca by his verses
after the battle of Bedr. Ibn Sanina, a Jewish mer-
chant, was killed on the day after Ka'b; and the
Jews now began to fear to leave their houses. In
the summer of 625 Mohammed attacked and be-
sieged the Banu al-Nadir. There appears to have
been no satisfactory pretext for the attack. Mo-
hammed claimed that he had received a revelation
telling him of the treachery of the Jews. After a
siege of fifteen or twenty days Abdallah ibn Ubai
prevailed on the Nadir to surrender. They were
exiled, being allowed to take their goods with them,
and emigrated toward the north, settling in Khai-
bar and in Syria.

There were now left only the Banu Kuraiza, and
Mohammed soon found a pretext to attack them.
Some of the Jewish exiles, chief among them being
the above-mentioned Huyayy, had stirred up the
Kuraish and other Arab tribes against Mohammed,
and they persuaded the Banu Kuraiza to join them
in their plans. Mohammed, however, succeeded in
making the Jews and their Arab allies suspicious of
each other; and the allies, who had been besieging
Medina, suddenly departed in the midst of a storm,
thus leaving the Kuraiza unsupported. Mohanmied
marched against them, claiming to have received a
special revelation to that effect, and laid siege to
their fortress, which was a few miles to the southeast
of the city. They surrendered after a month's
siege, without having risked ^a fight. Their fate

was left to the decision of Sa'd ibn

Fate Mu'adh of the tribe of Aus, who, in

of Medina spite of the pleading of his own tribe,

Jews. condemned the men to death and the

women and children to slavery. The
sentence Avas executed ; and 750 Jews were killed in
cold blood. Huyayy was the last to die, with his
last breath denouncing Mohammed as an impostor.
The prophet wished to make a beautiful woman of
the tribe, by the name of Rihanah, his wife, but, tra-
dition says, she preferred to be his slave instead.
Thus the last of the powerful Jewish tribes in
Medina was destroyed. Neither Mohammed, how-
ever, nor his successor drove all the Jews out
of the country. That extreme measure was taken
by Omar, who claimed to have heard the prophet
say that all Jews should be exiled. Medina is one of
the Moslem cities that neither Jews nor Christians
may enter. See Banu Kainuka' ; Banu Kuraiza;
Banu al-Napiu.

Bibliography : Caussin de Perceval, Essai mr VHistnire des
Aral>e:<, passim; Gratz, Gefich. iv. 66, 75 et seq., Sl-S.1;
Hirschfeld, Fssai sur VHMoire des Juif a de Medinc, in R.
E. J. vii. 167 ct seq., x. 10 et seq.
J. M. W. M.

MEDINA : Prominent Jewish family, members
of which lived during the sixteenth and seventeenth
centuries chiefly in Turkey and Egypt. Most prob-
ably it took its name from one of the two Siuuiish
cities named Medina.



Medina
Megrillah



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



424



The following is a genealogical tree of those mem-
bers of the family whose relationship is established
(the numbers in parentheses correspond to those
given in the text):

(8) Samuel
(15ft"i-89)

I
(5) Moses



(4) Judah (10) Solomon



(9) Shemaiafr
(d. 1648)



Moses



1



Samuel



1. David b. Moses di Medina: Cabalistic au-
thor; flourished at the beginning of the eighteenth
century. He wrote: "Nefesh Dawid " (Constanti-
nople, 1736), a cabalistic commentary on the Penta-
teuch and the Five Scrolls; and "Kuah Dawid we-
Nishmat Dawid " (Salonica, 1747), in two parts, the
first being a commentary on the part of tlie Zohar
called "Iddera Rabba," and the second a cabalistic
commentary on Canticles.

Bibliography: Benjacob, 0|or ha-Sefarim, pp. 400, 544;
Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. s.v. Samuel Medina ; Zedner,
Cat. Hebr. Books Brit. Mm. p. 516.

2. Isaac Hayyim. di Medina : Editor of a

prayer-book for tlie congregation of Sienna, arranged

and published by him with the cooperation of Jedi-

diah Levi under the title "Seder Zemirot," Leghorn,

1786.

Bibliography: Benjacob, Ozar ha-Sefarim, p. 160; Zedner,
Cat. Hebr. Books Brit. Mils. pp. 484, 516.

3. Jacob di Medina: Son of Isaac Hayyim
(No. 2); author of liturgical poems published under
the title " Yashir Yisrael " (Leghorn, 1805), and of a
poem in the collection of congratulatory poems
" 'Et ha-Zarair " {ib. 1794 ?), published on the occasion
of the wedding of E. M. Kecanate.

Bibliography : Benjacob, Ozar ha-Sefarim, pp. 232 (where
" son of Moses " is erroneous, as the latter was only the co-
editor), 434 ; Zedner. Cat. Hebr. Books Brit. Mils. pp. 475,
516, t)51, s.v. Recariate (where the name "Medina" is miss-
iu(?), iind p. 675, s.v. Samuel b. Moses, the Priest.

4. Judah di Medina (surname Comprado or
Conrado) : Son of Moses (No. 5); mentioned by
Conforte as a scholar. His wealth aroused the en-
mity of a non-Jew, who killed him at the door of liis
own house. The Jews of Salonica seized the mur-
derer, and hanged liim at the scene of his crime.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Confofte, Jfore ha-Dorot, pp. 43b, 50a; Stein-
schneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 3004.

5. Moses di Medina: Son of Samuel (No. 8);
lived at Salonica. He is praised for his Talmudic
learning and for tlie generous use which lie made
of his wealth in the interest of Hebrew literature.
He published the responsa of his father and wrote
a preface thereto. A list of his published works is
given in Steinschneider, "Cat. Bodl." col. 3004 (see
also Conforte, I.e. p. 43b).

6. Moses Medina: Talmudic scholar; lived at
Constantinople, and later (c. 1650) at Jerusalem (see
Conforte, " Kore ha-Dorot," p. 49a; Steinschneider,
"Cat. Bodl." d.v. "Samuel Medina."

7. Moses Medina : Habbi of the Portuguese con-
gregation at London ; contemporary of David Nieto.
He wrote "Delia Diviua Provideucia" (London,



1705), a defense of Nieto's work of the same title
and published together with it.

BIBLIOGRAPHY : FUrst, Bibl. Jud. ii. 339; Steinschneider, Cat.
Bodl. No. 8910 ; WoLf, Bibl. Hebr. iii.. No. 1593b.

8. Samuel b, Moses di Medina (RaShDaM) :
Talmudist and author; born 1505; died Oct. 12,
1589, at Salonica. He was principal of the Tal-
mudic college of that city, which produced a great
number of prominent scholars during the sixteenth
and seventeenth centuries. His teachers were the
noted Talmudists Joseph Taitazak and Levi ibn
Habib, and among his schoolmates were Isaac
Adarbi, Joseph ibn Leb, and Moses Almosnino.
While on a mission to Constantinople he met
the noted grammarian Meuahem di Lonsano, who
studied under him for some time and who therefore
speaks of him as his teacher (Conforte, " Kore ha-
Dorot," ed. Cassel, p. 44a).

Among Samuel's many disciples who attained
prominence were Abraham de Boton and Joseph
Ibn Ezra. He had a controversy with Joseph Caro
and other rabbis at Safed, against whom he wrote a
polemical letter ("Ketab Tokahah"; see Azulai,
"Shem ha-Gedolim," s.v.). A grandson of his was
Samuel Hayyun, author of "Bene Shemuel," novel-
loe and responsa (Salonica, 1613?).

Samuel's works include: "Ben Shemuel," Man-
tua, 1622, thirty sermons on various subjects, pub-
lished with a preface by his grandson Shemaiah;
" Hiddushim " (unpublished), novellae on some Tal-
mudic tractates (Benjacob, "Ozar ha-Sefarim," p.
183) ; a collection of 956 responsa in four parts, of
which the first two were published during the life-
time of the author (1578-87?) under the title "Piske
RaShDaM" (Benjacob, I.e. p. 491; Conforte, I.e.
p. 38a, Cassel's note; Steinschneider, "Cat. Bodl."
No. 7056). A complete edition of the last-named
work was undertaken later by the author's son
Moses, who added a preface (Salonica, 1594-97 ; new
ed. ib. 1798).

Bibliography: Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. No. 8909; Zedner^
Cat. Hebr. Books Brit. Mus. s.v.

9. Shemaiah di Medina: Son of Moses (No.
5); born at Salonica; died at Venice June 3, 1648.
Being compelled to leave Salonica owing to a quar-
rel with certain influential men of that city, he
emigrated to Venice, where he occupied a very re-
spected position as a member of the rabbinate. Ja-
cob Frances wrote an elegy on his death.

Shemaiah was the author of many liturgical
poems, concerning which see Steinschneider, "Cat.
Bodl." s.v. He wrote also "Ma'amar al 'Onshe
Gehinnom " (unpublished), a treatise on punishment
in hell, dedicated to Isaac Aboab, Jr. A commen-
tary on Proverbs (Nepi-Ghirondi, "Toledot Gcdole
Yisrael," pp. 323, 352, 358) has been ascribed to him,
but whether correctly so is doubtful (see Stein-
schneider, S.V.). He also edited "Ben Shemuel," a
collection of sermons by his grandfather Samuel,
and "Bene Shemuel," the work of his relation Sam-
uel Hayyun, to which two books he wrote prefaces.

Bibliography: Ben Shemuel, Preface, Mantua, 1622; Ben-
Jacob, (nnr ha-Sefnrim. pp. 283. 3:il, 469; Conforte. Kore
hn-Dorot, Index ; Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. cols. 2516, 3004;
Wolf, Bibl. Hebr. iii.. Nos. 2195c-2196 ; Zedner, Cat. Hebr.
Books Brit. Mus. p. 696.



425



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Medina
Me^illah



10. Solomon di Medina: Son of Moses (No.
5); lived at Salonicu. He was personally acquaiuted
with David Conforte, who obtained from him some
biographical data concerning his grandfather Sam-
uel, and who speaks of him with respect. He was,
however, dead when Conforte wrote his " Kore ha-
Dorot" (1674-83; see Cassel's introduction, p. iv.),
as the latter adds to Solomon's name the eulogy y "j.

Bibliography : Conforte, Kore ha-Dorot, p. 38a; Steinschnei-
der, Cat. Bodl. col. 3004.

The following Medinas seem to belong to a difEer-
ent family:

Benjamin di Medina : Talmudist; died at Mo-
nastir, Turkey, about 1650. He was a pupil of Dan-
iel Estrosa (see Michael, "Or ha-Hayyim," No. 789),
and schoolmate of David Conforte (see the latter's
"Koreha-Dorot," p. 52b).

David di Medina : Rabbi in Cairo about 1650.
He wrote an approbation to Mordecai Levi's " Darke
No'am," published at Venice in 1697 (see Conforte,
I.e. p. 52a; Michael, I.e. No. 749; Steinschneider,
"Cat. Bodl." col. 2451, s.v. "Samuel Medina").

Samuel b. Isaac di Medina, a scribe (1491), is
mentioned in Neubauer, Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS. No.
30, 2542.

D. H. M.

MEDINA, SIR SOLOMON DE : English
army contractor about 1711. He was a wealthy
Jew who went to England with William III., and
■who attained some notoriety by his extensive deal-
ings with the English government of his day. " The
Jew Medina," as he was popularly called, held a
position of prominence in connection with the Eng-
lish forces. During the War of the Spanish Suc-
cession (1702-14) he accompanied the Duke of Marl-
borough on his campaigns, advanced him funds, and
furnished provisions for the troops. He also estab-
lished a systemof expresses which outstripped those
of the government, so that his agents were in posses-
sion of important news before it reached the minis-
ters of the crown. His negotiations were made evi-
dent in an attack on the Duke of Marlborough in
Parliament in 1711 for receiving from the Jew a
yearly payment of £6,000. Marlborough replied
that the money had been expended in obtaining
trustworthy information. It was said of Medina
that every British victory contributed as much to
his wealth as to the glory of England. For his serv-
ices he was knighted, being the first Jew in Eng-
land to receive that honor. Sir Solomon de Medina
was at one time the largest contributor to the Bevis
Marks Synagogue, and he remained faithful to his co-
religionists to the last. His descendants, however,
eventually abandoned Judaism.

Bibliography : Picciotto, Sketches of Ariqlo-Jewish History,
pp. 50, 58, 59; Jew. World, Feb., 1878; Diet. Nat. Biog.
J. G. L.

MEDINI, HAYYIM HEZEKIAH (known
also under his initials Dnn) : Palestinian rabbin-
ical writer; born at Jerusalem 1833; son of Rabbi
Raphael Eliahu Medini. At tlie age of nineteen, on
completing his studies in his native city, he received
the rabbinical diploma. He then went to Constanti-
nople, where for thirteen years he was a member of
a rabbinical court. In 1866 he was called as chief
rabbi to Kara-Su-Bazar in the Crimea. In 1889



Medini returned to Palestine, staying first at Jeru-
salem, and going in 1891 to Hebron, where he has
since been acting chief rabbi.

Medini's works include: "Miktab le-Hizkiyahu "
(Smyrna, 1865), Talmudic studies and responsa; "Or
Li" (j6. 1874), responsa; "Pakku'ot Sadeh " (Jefu-
salem, 1900); "SedeHemed," his chief work, an en-
cyclopedic collection of laws and decisions in al-
phabetical order, twelve volumes of which have
appeared since 1890 (Warsaw).

Bibliography: Nahum Sokolov, in Sefer ha-Shaiiah, Wa'

saw. 1900.

s. M. Fr.

MEGED YERAHIM. See Periodicals.

MEGIDDO ("nJD ; once Megiddon [pnJD, Zech.
xii. 11]): Capital of one of the Canaaniiish kings
conquered by Joshua; assigned to Manasseh (Josh,
xii. 21, xvii. 11; I Chron. vii. 29). Its Canaanitish
inhabitants were only put to tribute, not driven
out (Josh. xvii. 12-18; Judges i. 27-28). Megiddo
is repeatedly referred to in Biblical history. It is
mentioned in connection with Baana, one of Solo-
mon's commissariat officers, who had to provision
the king's household for one month in the year. Its
fortifications, which were of ancient date (being
mentioned in the inscription of Thothmes III.),
were restored by Solomon (I Kings iv. 12, ix. 15).
Ahaziah is said (II Kings ix. 27) to have died at
Megiddo after he had escaped from Jehu ; but in II
Chron. xxii. 9 it is said that Ahaziah was found in



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 103 of 169)