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A later authority, frequently well informed in mat-
ters of history (Solomon Luria, "Yam shel Shelo-
moh," to Git. iv., JSo. 66), says that Meir himself
prevented any such high sum being paid for his lib-
eration lest the government should repeat this ex-
pedient of imprisoning important men for the pur-
pose of extorting money. He therefore remained in
prison from June 28, 1286, until his death (1293). He
bore his seven years of captivity heroically. In the
beginning he was consoled by the hope of a speedy re-
lease; and later on he submitted in the thought that
it was the will of God, whose ways are always just.
Even in prison he was occupied solely with studying
and teaching. He wrote, or revised, a large part of
his works; and his responsa now took the place of
oral instruction.

Meir was a voluminous writer. His works include :
(1) Tosafot to several Talmudic treatises. Pas-
sages are quoted therefrom to Berakot,
Literary Shabbat, 'Erubin, Yoma, Gittin, Ne-
Activity. darim, Baba Kamma, Baba Mezi'a,
Baba Batra, Shebu'ot, Menahol,
and Hullin. The tosafot to Yoma in the editions
are those of R. Meir, and are the only tosafot of his
that have been printed. (2) Responsa, of which
various parts have appeared (Cremona, 1537;
Prague. 1608; Lemberg, 1860; Berlin, 1891). (3)
"Hilkot Berakot." or "Seder Berakot," regulations
for the various formulas of blessings to be pro-
nounced in performing certain actions. The book
is frequently cited in the works of Meir's pupils,
and is probably identical with the " Birkot Malla-
RaM," issued in 1558 in Rivadi Trento. (4) "Hilkot
Shehitah," regulations for the ritual slaughtering and
subse(iuent examination ("bedikali ") of animals, in
manuscript in the Bodleian Library, Oxford (Neu-
bauer, "Cat. Bodl. Ilebr. MSS." Nos. 1171,2275).
(5) " Hilkot Abelut," or " Hilkot Semahot," on mourn-
ing customs. This work, somewhat abbreviated, is
included also in the " Mordekai " to Mo'ed Katan;
but in all the passages where the author speaks in
the first person, the third person has been substitu-
ted, so that here Meir's work appears everywhere
in quotaticm. Judah b. Nathan ha-Levi edited and
published this work under the title " Sefer Mahaneh
Lewiyyah," Leghorn, 1789. (6) " Halakot Pesukot,"
decisions on various subjects, in manuscript at the
Bodleian (Neubauer, I.e. No. 781,2a). This library
contains also various collections of Meir's decisions
(Neubauer, I.e. Index). (7) " Piske 'Erubin," short
summary of the Talmudic-rabbinical regulation of
the 'enib. (8) "Hiddushim," novella; to various
treatises of the Talmud. Azulai possessed a copy



439



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Meir of Rothenburg'



of this work. (9) Minhaginv of ritiuil ceremonies in
the synagogue, in manuscript in tlie Vatican and
Bodleian libraries. (10) Treatise ou the marital du-
ties of husband and wife, in manuscript in the Vati-
can Library. (11) Commentary on the si.\th order
of the Mishnah, of which there have been published
in Komm's edition of the Talmud (Wilna, 1H97) the
con.mentaries to the treatises Nega'im and Ohoiot,
from an Oxford manuscript, and fragments of the
rest from citations in Lippman Heller's Mishnah
conunentary. (13) Masorctic notes, in manuscript
in ilu! Vatican and Oxford libraries. It is not im-
])i(iliable tliat jMei'r was the author also of the
"Likkuteha-JMaimuni," found in the Austrian manu-
script of the " Mordekai " (see Mokdkcai b. Hii.i.kl).
and consisting of veiy brief extracts from Alaimou-
ides' "Yad," with occasional decisions by other au-
thors referring to the subject or short remarks by
the author himself. Meirisnot, however, the author
of the cabalistic-ethical works " Sefer Emunot " and
" Be'er Mayim Hayyim," which are ascribed to him
by some scholars.

Meir was also a voluminous liturgical poet, nine-
teen of his poems being included in the German
Mahzor. On account of his great au-
As Pay- thority as a Talmudist, his composi-
yetan. t ions were included even in the liturgy
of the Day of Atonement and of the
Ninth of Ab. Althoiigh ]\Ieir was a German, he
modeled his poems upon those of Judah ha-Levi,
without, however, equaling them. Still his piyyutim
show great command of language, and to a certain
extent true poetic inspiration also. The best-known
among his poems is his dirge on the public burning
of Hebrew books at Paris in 1244, composed in the
strophic rime of Judah ha-Levi's "Zionide," and ri-
valing its model in warmth of imagination and depth
of feeling, though much inferior to it in purity of
language and in versification. Mei'r likewise wrote
commentaries on earlier piyyutim, being probably
encouraged to do so by his father, who himself wrote
such comments (Zunz, "Ritus," pp. 195, 199).

The great authority which Mei'r enjoyed during
his life increased rather than lessened after his death.
Aside from Pashi and Rabbenu Gershon, he is the
only one upon whom the honorary title "Me'or ha-
Golah " ( = " Light of the Exile ") has been conferred.
It would be ditficult to overestimate his influence ou
the development of the religious life of the Jews of
Germany. He is also one among the few Germans
whose authority extended far beyond the limits of
their own country, and that not only during their
lives — even Solomon ben Abraham Adret, the
greatest Spanish Talmudist, consulted Me'ir on diffi-
cult questions— but also for generations afterward.
Me'ir's renowned pupil, Asher ben
His His- Jehiel, introduced the teachings of
; torical Im- his master into Spain and Portugal.
I portance. The great influence which Me'ir ex-

! ercised upon the religious life of the

Jews was chiefly personal, acting directly upon his
pupils, who on their part endeavored to perpetuate
the authority of their master. In addition to Asher
ben Jehiel, especially noteworthy among Mei'r's pu-
pils were Mordecaib. HiLLELand MEifRnA-KoHEN,
who were largely instrumental in establishing his



authority through tiieir widely circulated compendi-
umsof tlie Liiw. Through the works of these pupils
it is possible to form an opinion of Me'ir's importance,
althougii most of his works, with the exception of the
responsa, either have perished or remain unpub-
lished. The tosafot to Yoma, of which, as lias been
said above, Mei'r is the author, show him to liave
been a most, clear and logical thinker; and it is easy
to see how his nietiiods of Talmud study became the
model for his pupil Asher b. Jehiel, who in hia
" Halakot " follows directly in his master's footsteps.
These tosafot show also Me'ir's fine insight into
methods and system, as evidenced by his fref|uent
references to the composition and methods of the
Mishnah (conip.. e.fj., Yoma 2a, catchword "Shi-
be'at,"and ih. 73b, catchword " Yomha-Kippurim ").
Although Me'ir was well versed in the works of
his predecessors and studied them in detail, he was
very independent in his views and often combated
with vigor those of the old authorities. Me'ir was
the representative of uncompromising Talmudism,
which looked upon the Talmud as the norm and rule
of life. For this reason he was opposed to mysti-
cism, which had flourished in Germany from the
time of Eleazar of Worms, as well as to the phil-
osophic trend of the Spanish school.
Tenden- It is especially noteworthy that he
cies. showed a marked independence of the

superstition then prevailing in Ger-
many among Jews as well as non-Jews. Thus he
paid no regard to the " danger " of so-called pairs (see
ZuGOT), i.e., of using or partaking of things in pairs
("Tashbez," No. 552); he trimmed his nails in the
sequence of the fingers {ib. No. 56(»); and he advised
that Jews might go bareheaded {ih. No. 549). He
admitted that he knew nothing of eschatological
secrets, of which the mystic books of his time were
full {ib. No. 247), and declared emphatically against
indiscriminate emigration to Palestine. Only those
should go there, he claimed, who could support
themselves well, and wcmid be able to lead a holy
life in the Holy Land {ib. Nos. 559-562). Where
the Halakah, according to him, demanded onerous
observance, this must be carried out; for he held
that the Talmiidic regulations must not become
an object of derision, meaning thereby that they
must be enforced by the authorities, so as not to lose
their significance (Responsa, ed. Cremona, No. 194).
Next to the Halakah, lie assigned to religious prac-
tises a great authority, and endeavored to put them
upon a firmer basis than their existing one. Me'ir is
cited as an authority for many religious customs of
the house and the synagogue, as his influence gave
stability to usages which hitherto had been variable.
In moral as well as ethical questions he inclined
to the rigorous interpretation. The following sen-
tence in one of his responsa is characteristic : " Cursed
be the woman who has a husband and does not adorn
herself; and cursed be the woman who has no hus-
band and adorns herself " (Responsa, ed. Prague, No.
199). The question whether a lawyer could bring
into court arguments which he was convinced were
false, he answered as follows: "No Jew may become
guilty of such an ignominious sin against truth and
justice" (Responsa, ed. Ciemona, No. 246). IMe'ir'n
importance lies in the fact, therefore, that he led the



Meir Toen Samuel
Meisel



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



440



German Jews away from the mysticism to -wliicli
they were trending, and toward a rational, thorough
study of the Tahnud; also in that he endeavored to
put their variable religious practises upon a lirm
basis, his principle being to decide religious ques-
tions in conformity with the conclusions at which
he had arrived by independent study of the Talmud
("Tashbez," No. 531).

When Meir was imprisoned in Alsace, many of his
relatives also went to that country, members of his
family being found there for centuries (Neubauer,
"La Famille de Meir de Rothenburg," in "R. E. J."
xii. 91-94). The Weil family of southern Germany
claimed Meir as its ancestor; and there were also
many Jews at Prague who designated themselves

as j-iinjtoiiD N"inD nns::'nD-

BiBLiofiRAPiiv : S. Back, R. Meir hen BarucJu Frankfort-on-
tlie-Main, 1.^95; Carmolv, m iosV'i Annalen, 18:39, pp. a-tS-
349; Duschak, in Kokelic I'izlwk, xiii. 20-21; (iiiitz, (Vcsc/i.
vii.. Index; idem, in Wertli'ehner's Jahrh. f\ir Isracliteii.
18U2-ti3, pp. 40-54; Gi'idemann, Goich. 1. lVO-173: D. Kaiit-
mann, Die Grabstci))e li. Meir's vnn Rothenlmri] luid
Alevander Wimpfoi's in Worms, in Monatssclirift, xl.
126-130; idem. i7j. pp. 185-188; Kohn, MardDChal hen HiUel,
pp 30-32, 8.5-SS ; Landshutli, "Ammude ?ia-'A/)oda/i. pp. UiO-
161: I. L(.eb, in R. E. J. xx. 21-22; Lewysohn, Sechzig Epi-
taphien, pp. 3.')-39; Steinsclineider, Cat. Bodl. s.v.; Weiss,
Dor, V. 75-77 ; Renan-Neubauer, Les RahhiiiK Franqais, pp.
452-4til ; Neubauer, Cat. Bodl. llehr. MSS. Index ; Wiener,
Rcficntcn ; idem, in Manatsxelirift, xii. 168-172; Zunz, I/i-
teratinriesch. pp. a57-362; idem, S. P. pp. 310-312 (contains
translations of some of Mei'r's piyyutim); idem, Z. G. Index.

s. s. L. G.

MEIR BEN SAMTJEIi (RaM) : French tosa-
fist; born about 1060 in Pamerupt; died after 1135.
His father was an eminent scholar. Meir received
his education in the Talmudical schools of Lorraine,
his principal teachers being Isaac ben Aslierha-Levi
and Eleazar ben Isaac of Mayence (Pardes, ed.
Constantinople, p. 33a; comp. Neubauer in "Mo-
natsschrift," 1887, p. 503), with whom he later car-
ried onacorrespondence(" Or Zarua',"ii. 75b; "Sefer
ha-'Ittur," ed. Lemberg, i. 52).

Mei'r married Pashi's second daughter, Joehc-
bed, by whom he liad three sons (Conforte, " Kore
ha-Dorot," ed. Cassel, p. 14a), Samuel ben Me'ir
(liaSIIBaM), Isaac ben iMeir (RIBaM), and Jacob
ben Meir (I^iabbenii Tam), all of them well-known
scholars. Accoi'ding to Gross, Mei'r had also a
fourth sou, Solomon. Samuel ben Simhah of Vitry,
father of the tosafist Isaac the Elder, was Mei'r's
son-in-law. Jle'ir'sson Isaac, the often-quoted tosa-
tist, died in the prime of life, leaving seven children
(see Rabbenu Tam, "Sefer lia-Yashar," ed. Vienna,
No. 610, p. 72b; ed. Rosenthal, No. 41, p. 71). This
loss distressed the father to such an extent that he
felt indisposed to answer a halakic question ad-
dressed to him by his friend Eleazar ben Nathan of
Mayence («/>.).

Me'fr attained a very great age, and is sometimes
designated as " the ohl " ("ha-yashish "; ih.; "Sefer
Seder ha-Kabbalah," in Neubauer, " M. J. C." p.
184; Elie/.er b. Nathan, p. 148a). From the fact
that his grandson, I.saac ben Samtiel, born about
1120, speaks of religious customs which he found
conspicuous in his grandfather's house, and from
other indications, it has been concluded that Me'i'r
was still alive in 1135.

Me'ir was one of the founders of the school of
tosafists in northern France. Not only his son and



pupil Rabbenu Tam ("Sefer ha-Yashar," ed. Vien-
na, No. 252, p. 27a), but also the tosafot (Tos. Ket.
103b; Tos. Kid. 15b, 59a; Tos. I^Ien. 100a) quote
his ritual decisions. It was Me'ir ben Samuel who
changed the text of the Kol Nidke formula (see
"Sefer ha-Yashar," ed. Vienna, No. 144, p. 17a). A
running commentary on a whole passage of the
Gemai-a (Men. 12a et seq.), written by him and his
son Samuel in the manner of Pashi's commentary,
is printed at the end of the first chapter of ]\Ienahot.
Me'ir composed also a selihah beginning " Abo
lefaneka," which lias been translated into German
l)y Zunz ("Synagogale Poesie," p. 183), but which
has no considei-able poetic value {idem, "Litera-
turgesch." p. 254; Landshuth, " 'Annnude ha-'Abo-
dah," p. 108).

BmuoGRAPiiY: Azulai, S7iei)i ha-Gedollm, e.A. Wilna, i. 118,
No. II ; Uratz, O'csth. vi. 68-144; Gross, Gallia J^idaicn, pp.
304, 542, 635 ; D. Rosin, Samuel hen Meir alu Sell rifterhlarer,
m Jaln-eshericht den Jlidiscli-ThcoJagisclien Seminars, pp.
3 et f<eq., Breslau, 1880 ; Weiss, Dnr, iv 336 ; idem, Sefer Tn-
ledot Gedole Yisrael (Tuledot R. Ya'akoh hen Meir), p. 4,
Vienna, 1883; Zunz, Z. G. i>. 31 ; see also Isaac ben MeIk ok
NARiiON.VE ; Jacod ben MeJr Tam ; and Samuel ben Me'(r.
G. M. So.

MEIR B. SAMUEL OF SCZEBRSZYN :

Hebrew author of the seventeenth century. In the
disastrous years of 1648-49 he lived at Sczebrszyn,
Russian Poland, an honored member of the commu-
nity, whence he escaped, on its invasion by the Cos-
sacks, to Cracow ; there he published liis "Zokha-
'Ittim"(1650), an account, in Hebrew verse, of Jew-
ish persecution during the Cossack uprising. This
book was afterward published by Joshua b. David
of Lemberg under his own name; Steinschneider
was the first to discover this plagiarism. Meir
wrote also "Mizmor Shir," a Sabbath hymn, in Ara-
maic and JudfBo-German (Venice, 1639).

Bibliography: Gurland, Le-Korot ha-Gczernt, iv. 3; Stein-
schneider, Cat. Bodl. No. 6324 ; Fiirst, Bild. Jud. ii. 34:).
IT. R. A. S. W.

MEIR BEN SIMEON OF NARBONNE :

Talmudistand controversialist; lived at Narbonne in
the second half of the thirteenth century. He was
a disciple of Nathan ben Me'ir of Trinquetaille, and
a contemporary of Nahmanides, with whom he main-
tained a scientific correspondence. IMeir enjoyed a
high reputation as a commentator. Asher ben David
invokes liis authority in his (Asher's) commentary
on the thirteen attributes (m"irD "r); and the anony-
mous commentator on the Targuin Onkelos highly
praises Me'ir in his " Patshegen."

Meir was the author of a controversial work en-
titled "Milhemet Mizwah" (Parma MSS. No. 274!/).
It is divided into five parts: (1) an account of a
religious disputation held in 1245 before the bishop
En Guillem de la Broa and in the presence of the
Jewish notables of Narbonne and Capestang; (2)
controversies with Christian ecclesiastics;. (3) con-
versations of an apologetic nature, and explanations
of Biblical passages concerning the Messiah and
of Talmudical haggadot interpreted by Christians
in favor of their belief; (4) commentary on the
"Shema'" and on the thirteen attributes of God;
and (5) letter on the "Sefer ha-Bahir," which work
Meir (U-clares to be a forgery.

Another work by Meir, entitled "Meshib Nefesh,"
defending the first chapter of Maimonides' " Yad ha-



441



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Meir ben
Meisel



Samuel



Hazakah " against the attail^s of an anonymous
writer, is also extant in manuscript (MS. Ginzburg,
No. 572, 10).

According to Neubauer(" Isr. Letterbode," iii. 57),
Mei'r is identical with the Meir ben Simeon men-
tioned in a Talniudical compilation (Neubauer,
"Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. ISoS, 2, ^ 065) and in
other works, where he is sometimes called "Ha-

Me'ili."

Bibliography: Steiiisclineider, He}>r. Bihf. xvi. 44, 07 ; Neu-
bauer, in Archives lies Missiiinsf, 3(1 series, i. 55t>; Lubetzivi,
Introduction to Sefer HashJamah ; (iross. In Monals-
schrift, 1874, p. 571 ; idem. QaUia Juilaica, pp. 4:^3-425; Re-
nan-Neubauer, Lcs Rahhlns Frangais, pp. 558 et seq.

s. s. I- ^^i-

MEIR B. SOLOMON B. DAVID : Gramma-
rian of the end of the thirteenth century. He wrote
a short but iuteresting grammatical work, which is
extant only in a manuscript formerly in the posses-
sion of Ilalberstani, but now in the Montefiore
Library (No. 410, 3; see " H. E. J." xiv. 788). In
the preface he states tlmt the author of the Hebrew
granuuar entitled "Petah Debarai " was his grand-
father. Purposing to summarize some of the ele-
ments of Hebrew grammar, Meir discusses, in seven
chapters, transitive and intransitive verbs, the mean-
ing of the "hif'il,"the"pi'el,"and the other derived
stems, and the pronominal suffixes of the verbs.
As he says in tlie preface, he intended thereby to
prepare for his own use an aid to study, and to con-
sider problems which had not been treated in the
work of his grandfather, referred to above.
Bibliography : W. Bacher, in R. E. J. x. 140 et seq.
T. W. B.

MEIR BEN TODROS. See Abulafta.
ME'IRI, MENAHEM BEN SOLOMON:

Proveu9al Talmudist and commentator; born at
Perpigiian in 1249; died thej-e in 1306; hisProven9al
name was Don Vidai Solomon. He was a disci-
ple of Heubeu ben Hayyim of Narbonne. Me'iri is
regarded as one of the most brilliant commentators
of the Middle Ages. His works are clear and con-
cise and bear the stamp of a scientific and logical
mind. Me'iri was the author of many works, most
of which are still extant. These are: a treatise on
penitence entitled "Hibbur ha-Teshubah," or "Me-
shibat Nefesh," still extant in manuscript (MS. de
Rossi, No. 1318); "Bet ha-Behirah," containing com-
mentaries on most of the books of the Talmud, sev-
eral of which were published, namely, those on
Megillah (Amsterdam, 1769), Yebamot (Salonica,
1794), Shabbat (Leghorn, 1794), Nedarim, Nazir,
and Sotah (ib. 1795), Yoma {ib. 1760), Abot (with
Me'iri's historical and literary introduction and a
short biography of the author by G. Stern ; Vienna,
1854); "Kiryat Sefer," a Masoretic work on the
method of writing scrolls of the Law, in two parts
I (Smyrna, 1863-81); commentaries on the Bible, of
j which only those on Proverbs and the Psalms are
i extant (the former was published at Leiria, 1492 ;
1 the latter is in manuscript; Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl."
i p. 69). Azulai mentions three other works by Me'iri
i which are no longer in existence: "Bet Yad," on
'; the obligation of washing the hands before meals
: and in the morning; "Magen Abot"; and "Ohel
Mo'ed." In the commentary on Sanhedrin, Me'iri
quotes another work of his entitled "Ketab Dat,"



which, judging from the title, must liave been a
catechism.

Me'iri was too much of a philosopher himself to
interdict the study of philosophy. Thus, when so-
licited by Abba Marl to give his adhesion to the ex-
communication launched against the secular sciences,
Me'iri wrote him a letter in which he emphatically
defended science, the onl}' concession he made being
to forbid the stud}' of secular sciences by any one be-
fore he has thoroughly studied the Talmud.

Bibliography: De Rossi, Dizioiiario, ii. 48; Aziilai, Shcm
ha-Oeilolim, 1. 128: Steinsctineider, Cot. Bodl. col. 1731;
Shorr, in Ozar Nehmnd. ii. ".!<.»; Stern, lift ha-Iirhirali. In-
troduction ;'Gei per', in He-Hainz, ii. 14; Cannoly, in Orient,
i. 704 ; Renan-Neul)auer, Les I{('il>hins Fia)irais, pp. 528 et
seq.; Griitz, Ge.sc/i. vii. 2.")(i et seq.; Gross, (jallia Judaica,
pp. 461-462.
s. p. I. Br.

MEISACH, JOSHUA: Russian Hebrew au-
thor; born at Sadi, government of Kovuo, 1848.
Meisach has written and edited over one hundred
works in Yiddish and Hebrew. He began his liter-
ary career in 1861 with the weekly "Ha-Karmel,"
since which year he has contributed to a great num-
ber of Hebrew and Yiddish periodicals, has edited
the magazine "Gan Perahim" (i.-iii., "Wilna- War-
saw, 1881-93), and has written various novels,
essays, etc. Among these are the following:
"Ha-Emunah we-HaskaJah," essays (Wilna, 1874);
"Miktabim mi-Sar shel Yam," essays (Warsaw,
1885-89); "Tefah Megullah," criticisms {ib. 1886);
"Bamat Yizhak," on the theater (tJ. 1889); "Ozar
Hadash," anecdotes and narratives from the Talmud
and the Midrash, alphabetically arranged (Wilna,
1898). Meisach now (1904) resides at Warsaw.

Bibliography: Sefer Ziliknron, p. 68, Warsaw, 1888; Lippe,
Asaf lia-Mazkir he-Hadasli, p. 26-'; Zeitlin, Bibl. Fost-
Mendch. p. 235; Ha-'Yelntdi, 1904, No. 46.
H. R. A. S. W.

MEISEL : Bohemian family which became fa-
mous chiefly through Mordecai Marcus b. Samuel
Meisel, "primate" of Prague. The family seems
to have come originally from Cracow, to whose
community Mordecai Meisel bequeathed large sums
for charitable purposes; and there, toward the end
of the sixteenth century, the printer Menahem
Nahum b. Moses Meisel flourished. As early as
1477, however, the name of "Meisel" is mentioned in
documents relating to Prague (Lieben, "Gal 'Ed,"

p. 15).

Frummet Meisel : Second wife of Mordecai
Meisel; died Shebat 23, 1625. She contributed with
her husband to the building of the Meisel .^^yna-
gogue, and some of the gifts which they presented
on the occasion of its dedication (see Mordecai Mar-
cus Meisel) are still exhibited on the anniversary
of her death. On her tombstone she is described
as a woman distinguished for piety and morality.
It is furthermore stated that every synagogue of
Prague possessed votive offerings of hers, the most
noteworthy gift being a golden cup weighing 100
crowns; that she supported scholars liberally ; and
that she was hospitable and very philanthropic.
David Gans likewise praised her noble character and
herfidelity to her husband. It seems strange, then, to
read in the" 'Emek ha-Baka"(ed. Wiener, p. 141), that
she objected so strongly to the last will and testament
of Mordecai Meisel that he divorced her while he



Dfeisel



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



442



lay dying. Although this statement has been often
questioned, there must be some truth in it, for on
her gravestone she is designated as tlie daughter of
the famous elder Isaac Rofe (Lelcarz), not as Meisel's
wife.

Bibliography : Foges, AltertUmer (lev Prager Joxefsiodt,
.Prague, lH8:i; Lieben, Gal "Ed. ib. ia5f): A.Kisch, Dos Tes-
tament Mnrdochai Mevsel^, Frankfoit^on-the-Main, 1893.
i). A. Ki.

Judah Lob ben Simhah Bonim Meisel :

Printer and author at Cracow in the seventeenth
century. Meisel reopened, in 1663, (he printing es-
tablishment of
his fathcr-iii -
law, N a h u m
Meisel, and con-
tinued it until
1670. The first
work printed by
him was Jacob
Weil's "Shehi-
tot u-13edikot";
tlie last one, the
Eben ha - 'Ezer
and Hoshcn ha-
Mishpat of the
Siiulhan 'Aruk.
Meisel was the
author of a
work entitled
" T a ' a m e h a -
M a s s o r c t , " a
commentary on
llie Masorah, at
the end of which
tliere are some
novellas nn the
Talmud (Am-
sterdam, 1728).

B I nLIOGRAPIIY :

Steinsclinelder,
Cat. BikU. cols.
1373, 2!»><«; M.
Zunz, 'Ir lia-Zr-
dek. Supplement,
p. '34, note.

J. M. Ski,.



Mordecai
Marcus Meisel
(Miska Marek
in Bohemian
documents):
Ph i 1 ant li ro-
pist and com-
munal leader at
Prague ; son of
Samuel Mei.sel ;
born at Prague
1528; died there



Ho is mentioned in documents for
in 1569, as having business relations




Tombstone of Mordecai Meisel at Prague.

(From JuTubek, " Der Alte Prater Judenfriedhof.")



March 13, 1601. The persecution
of the Jews of Prague by the fanatical Ferdinand
I. occurred wliile Mordecai was a youth. In 1542
and 1561 his family, with the other Jewisii inhab-
itants, was forced to leave the city, tiiough only
for a time. The; source of tiie great wealtii wliich



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