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they call either "Mekilta de-R. Simeon b. Yohai,"or

"Mekilta Ahritade-R. Shim'on," or simply "Mekilta

Aheret" = "another mekilta." From it passages

are cited, especially by Nahmanides in liis Penta-

teuchal commentary on Gen. xlix. 31; Ex. xiv. 19,

xxi. 3, xxii. 12; Lev. xxiii. 24; and by R. Todros

ha-Le vi in his works " Sefer ha-Razim" and " Ozar ha-

Kabod " (MSS. in the KOnigliche Hof- uud Staatsbi-



bliotiiek, Munich; comp. M. H. Landauer in " Orient,
Lit." 1845. vi. 182 ct .se(j.). Until recently, aside
from these quotations and some given by certain au-
thors of the sixteenth century, as Elijah Mizrahi in
liis commentary on Rashi's commentary on the Pen-
tateucii, R. Siiem-Tob b. Abraham in his ".Aligdal
'Oz" to Maimonides' "Yad," and R. Meir ibn Gab-
bai in his"Tola'at Ya'akob" (ii. 63b, Cracow, 1570),
the only other extract of an}' length from the Mekil-
ta de-R. Shim'on which was known was the one i)iib-
lishcd by R. Isaac Elijah Landau from a manuscrijit
of R. Abraham Ilalami, as an appendix tohisedition
of the Mekilta( Wilna, 1844). There were, therefore,
various erroneous opinions regarding this lost work.
Zuuz ("G. V." p. 419, note a) considered it as a cah-
alistic work ascribed to R. Simeon b. Yohai. M.
H. Landauer (I.e.) identified it with the Mekilta de-
li. Yishmael, while J. Perles (in "Monatssehrift,"
1858, pp. 145 et seq.) held that the medieval authors
applied the name "Mekilta de-R. Shim'on" merely
to his maxims which were included in the Mekilta
de-R. Yishmael, since separate sentences could be
called "mekilta". M. Friedmann was the first to
maintain, in his introduction to the Mekilta of R.
Ismael (pp. 54 et seq., Vienna, 1870), that, in addi-
tion to R. Ishmael's work, there was a halakic mid-
rash to Exodus by R. Simeon, which was called the
"Mekilta de-R. Shim'on," and that this Mekilta
formed part of the Sifre mentioned in Babli (Sanh.
86a; Ber. 47b; Meg. 28b; Kid. 49a; Sheb. 41b; Hag.
3a). This assumption of Friedmann's was subse-
quently confirmed by the publication of a geonic
responsum (Harkavy, "Teshubot ha-Ge'onim," p.
107, No. 229, Berlin, 1888), where a baraita from the
Sifre de-Be Rab to Exodus is (j noted, which is the
same passage as that cited by Nahmanides from the
i\Iekilta de-R. Shim'on b. Yohai, in his commen-
tary on Ex. xxii. 12. This extract designates the
work of R. Ishmael as the " Mekilta of Palestine,"
in contradistinction to R. Simeon b. Yohai's mid-
rash. It is clear, therefore, that the Mekilta of R.
Simeon was implied in the title Sifre de-Be Rab
(comp. Hoffmann, "Einleitung in die Halachischen
Midraschim," p. 46); and it is mentioned in the Mid-
rash Tehillim (ed. Ruber, Wilna, 1891), p. 252 (comp.
Buber's note there), under the Hebrew name " Mid-
dot R. Shim'on b. Yohai." It is possible also that
Simeon himself intended to refer to liis midmsli
in his saying: "Learn my middot" (Git. 67a).
The Palestinian sources, the Yerushalmi and the
haggadic midrashim, introduce l)araitot from this
Mekilta with the phrase. "Teni R. Shim'on " = " R.
Simeon has taught" (comp. Friedmann, introduc-
tion to his edition of the Mekilta, pp. 55 et seq. ;
Hoffmann, I.e. p. 48). The phrase "Teua de-Be R.
Shim'on" is extremely rare, however, in Bahli,
where this midrash ranks as one of the " Sifre de-Be
Rab" (Hoffmann, I.e. p. 50). Many sentences of
R. Simeon are quoted there in the name of his son
Eleazar, so that Hoffmann lias very plausibly con-
cluded {I.e. p. 51) that Eleazar edited his father's
midrash.

The Mekilta de-R. Shim'on has disappeared; but
some extracts from it have been preserved in the
collection known as "Midrash ha-Gadol,"as I. Lewy
first pointed out ("Ein Wort Dber die Mechilta des



447



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Mekilta

Mekize Niidamim



R. Simon "). These fmgmeuts have been collected
by D. Holfmann and published under tlie title
"Mechilta des R. Simon b. Jochai'Mn the Hebrew
montldy "Ila-Pcles" (vols. i. to iv., paxsiin).

Tliis Mc'kiha compiled from the Midrash lia-Gadol
preserves abundant material from the earliest Scrip-
tural commentaries, quoting, for instance, a sentence
from tiie " Doreshe Resliumot " on Ex. xxi. 12C'Ha-
Peles," iii. 2o8) which is found nowhere else. It
conlains also mucli from post-Talmudic literature
(comp. Hoffmann, I.e. p. o87, note 19), for the col-
ieetor and redactor of the INIidrash ha-Gadol had a
peculiar wa}' of dressing sentences of such medieval
authorities as Rashi, Ibn Ezra, "'Aruk,"and Mai-
monides in niidrasliic garb and presenting them as
ancient ma.xims (comp. Schechter, Introduction to
"Midrash ha-Gadol," p. 13, Cambridge, 1902).

Bnn.'ociUAiMiY : M. Friediiiann. introduction to his edition of
the Mekilta. pp. 51-73, Vienna. 1870; D. Hoffmann, Kinleituiig
in die HaUicliixchen Miclraj<r)iim. pp. 4iy-r>h Berlin, 1887; I.
Lewy, Eiii )\'i)rt Uber die MecJtilta de.< I{. Sinum, Breslau,
188ii.
s. J. Z. L.

MEKILTA LE-SEFER DEBARIM : A ha-

lakic midiash to Deuteronomy from the school of
Rabbi Ishmael. No midra.sh by this name is men-
tioneil in Talmudic literature, nor do the medieval
authors refer to such a work. Althougli Maimon-
ides says in Ins introduction to the Yad ha-Haza-
kah, "R. Ishmael explained from 'we-eieh shemot '
to the conclusion of the Torah, that is, the Mekilta,"
he did not see this midrash, which also includes
Deuteronomy, since he does not quote any Mekilta
passages to that book of the Pentateuch in his
"Sefer ha-Mizwot," although he draws upon the ha-
lakic midrashim in discussing most of the com-
mandments. Maimonides probably knew, therefore,
merely through an old tradition which he had heard
that such a midrash by R. Ishmael existed.

But there are other circumstances which prove
that there was once such a work. Many midrashic
baraitot to Deuteronomy are introduced in the Tal-
mud with the words "Tena debe R. Yishmael," and
may be recognized in form and substance as Ishmael 's
midrashim (comp. Hotlmann, "ZurEinleitung indie
Halachischen Midraschim," p. 77; idem, " Ueber
cine Mechilta zu Deuteronomium," in the "Hildes-
heimer Jubelschrift," German part, pp. 83-98). B.
B. 124b quotes a passage to a verse in Deuteronomy
from the "She'ar Sifre de-Be Rab," a term by which
the Mekilta de-Rabbi Yishmael isdewgnated (comp.
Hoffmann, I.e. p. 40). This clearly indicates that
there was a midrash to Deuteronomy by R. Ishmael
at the period of the Amoraim. This work, which
was called also "Mekilta," disappeared at an early
date, and was therefore unknown to the medieval
authors. The editor of the Midrash ha-Gadol, how-
ever, knew it and included many passages from it
in his collection. The citations from R. Ishmael's
Mekilta to Deuteronomy which are contained in the
Midrash ha-Gadol have been collected by D. Hoff-
mann and printed under the title "Likkute Mekilta:
Collectaneen aus einer Mechilta" in the "Plildes-
heimer Jubelschrift," Hebr. part, pp. 3-82, and sep-
arately under the title "Likkute Batar Likkute:
Neue Collectaneen aus einer Mechilta zu Deutero-
nomium " (Berlin, 1897). It appears from these pas-



sages that this midrash contained much valuable
material from tlie earlier halakic exegetes. Espe-
cially noteworthy is the statement that R. Simon
Gamaliel, together with R, Johanan b. Zakkai, ad-
dressed a circidar letter to the Galileans and other
communities C Likkute Mekilta," ]). 30), a slate-
meut wliich certainly antedates the parallel passage
in Tosef., Sauh. ii. (i.

Hoffmann's collection of extracts from the Mekilt»
includes also many quotations from ^laimonides'
"Yad" (comp. llotfmann, "Ueber eine Mechilta,"
p. 85, and his preface to the "Likkute Mekilta," p.
4). Aside from the |)assages included in the Mitl-
rash ha-Gadol, some fragments of the Mekilta have
been preserved in the Cairo Genizaii ; these were
discovered by Schechter and published by him in
the "J. Q. R."

Bibliography : D. Hoffmann, Zxir Einleitunp in die Hahi-
chischen Midrascliittu p. 77, Berlin, 1887 ; idem, Uclici- cine
Mechilta zu Denternnnmivm, in Jubelschrift zitm Sirb-
zigMen Gebitrtstao des Dr.Ixr. Hildesheimer, German part,
pp. 83-98, Berlin, 1890.
s J. Z. L.

MEKIZE NIRDAMIM: International society
for the publication of oKl Hebrew books and manu-
scripts. It was established first at Lyck, Germany,
in 1864, under the direction of Rabbi Nathan Adler,
Sir Moses Montefiore, and Joseph Zedner (London),
Albert Cohn (Paris), S. D. Luzzatto (Padua), M.
Sachs (Berlin), Eliezer Lipman Silberman (Lyck),
and M. Straschun (Wilna). It was reestablished at
Berlin in 1885 under the supervision of Abraham
Berliner (Berlin), Moses Ehrenreich (Rome), J. Der-
enbourg and David Ginsburg (Paris), S. J. Hal
berstam (Bielitz), A. Harkavy (St. Petersburg), M.
Jastrow (Philadelphia), David Kaufmann (Buda-
pest), and M. Straschun (Wilna).

The society has published the following works:

18(54. 'Et Sofer, by David Kimhi.

1864-88. Pahad Yizliak, by li. Isaac Lampronti, letters j-n.

Lyck-Beriin,
1864-98. Teshubot ha-Ge'onim : one hundred and twenty re-

sponsa of the Geonini. Lyck.
1864-1903. Diwan le-R. Yehudah ha-Levi. Lyck-Berlin.
1866. Melammed ha-Talmidim, by Jacob Anatoli.

1866. Eben Sappir, by Jacob Saflr.

1868. Pesikta ha-Yeshanah, attributed to Rab Kahana.

1868-71. Imre Shefer, by N. H. Wessely.
1871. Wikkuah 'al ha-Ahabah, by Judah Abravanel.

1871. Sefer Toledot Rabbenu Yizhak Lampronti.

1871. Sefer ha-Musar, by Ephraim of Modena.

1874. Tagmule ha-Nefesh, by Hillel b. Samuel of Verona.

1874. Sefer ha-'Ibbur, by Abraham.ibn Ezra.

1874. Peru»h 'al-Shir ha-«hirira, by Moses ibn Tibbon.

1874. Yihuse Tanna'im we-Amora'im, by a contemporary

of Ra.shi.

1881. Ha-Sarid weha-Palit, by Saadla Gaon.
1881-83. Sefer Hasidim.

1882. Metek Sefataylm, by R. Immanuel Frances.
18a5. Perush 'al Sefer Yezirah, by Isaac Barcelona.
1885-87. Teshubot ha-Ge'onim.

1885-1904. Kobe? 'al Yad, a series of collected smaller works
collections of old documents.

1886. Tarshish, diwan of R. Moses b. Ezra.
1886-92. Maimonides, commentary on Seder Tohorot.

1887. Sefer ha-Galuy, by R. Joseph Kimhl.
1887-92. Halakot Gedolot.

1888. Sefer Zikkaron, by Joseph Kimhi.

1889. Ma'yan Gannini, commentary on Job, by Samuel b.

Nissim Masuuth.
1889-93. Mahzor Vitry, by R. Simhah, pupil of Rashi.

1890. Yehudah Ya'aleh, by Judah Colofma and Isaac Hir-

schenson.
1891-92. Teshubot MaHaRaM, responsa of R. Meir of Rothen-
burg.



Melamxned
Helchior



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



448



Sefer ha-Shorashim, by R. Jonah ibn Janab.

Midraah Zuta, on the Ave Megillot.

Megillat Sedarim. by Abraham Brody.

Seder ha-Hakamim.

Minhat Kena'ot, by U. Jehiel of Pisa.

She'elot u-Teshubot she be-Sefer ha-Yashar le-Rab-

benu Tarn.
Midrash ha-Torah, commentary on the Pentateuch, by

Solomon Astruc of Barcelona.
Kebod Hakamim, by David Messer Leon of Mantua.
Orhot Hayyim, by Aaron ha-Kohen of Lunel.
Tashlum Abudarham, Jose b. Jose's "Abodah " and

other ritual poems, with notes by Abudarham.
Midrash Sekel : Tob, by Menahem b. Solomon.
Sefer ha-'Ittim, by Judah b. Barzilai of Barcelona.



1893-96.

1894.

1895.

1895.

1898.

1898.

1899.

1899.

1899-1901.

1900.

1900-01.
1902.

Bibliography : H. D. Lippe, Dibliographisches Lexicon, i.
451 eb se(/., Vienna, 1881; new series, i. 391, Vienna, 1899;
Verzeichnias der Schriftai dea Vcrein Mektze Nirdamim,
1885-95, 189G. 1898.

G. A. S. W.

MELAMMED (" teacher") : A term which in Bib-
lical times denoted a teacher or instructor in gen-
eral {e.g., in Ps. cxix. 99 and Prov. v. 13), but which
in the Talmudic period was applied especially to a
teacher of children, and was almost invariably fol-
lowed by the word "tinokot" (children ; B. B. 21a).
The Aramean equivalent was " makre dardcke " {ib. ).
The melammed was appointed by the community,
and there were special regulations determining how
many children he might teach, as well as rules gov-
erning the choice of applicants for the office and
the dismissal of a melammed (ib.). These regula-
tions were extended and augmented in the post-
Talmudic period.

Besides the teachers appointed by the community
there were others who were privately engaged by
the parents of children ; hence it became necessary
to define accurately the mutual rights and duties of
the melammed and of the parents. While giving
instruction the melammed was not allowed to do any
other work (Shulhan 'Aruk, Hoshen Mishpat, 333,
5). If he was ill, and therefore unable to teach for a
time, as much was deducted from his wages as the
lessons for that time would have cost (ib,) ; but if,
on the other band, the pupil was ill and could not
take his lessons, the melammed received full pay-
ment (ib. 335, 1). The melammed was not allowed
to punish liis pupils too severely ; and he had to
teach both in the daytime and during part of the
night (Shulhan 'Aruk. Yoreh De'ah, 245, 10-11).
He might not leave his pupils alone, nor neglect
his duties; and he was required to be pious and to
understand his vocation (ib. 245, 17). Only a mar-
ried man might be a melammed {ib. 245, 20-
21). In addition to these regulations many others
concerning the melammed are given in Yoreh
De'ah {I.e. and 246), as well as in Hoshen Mish-
pat {I.e.). but some of them are not observed at
present.

A distincti(m is now made between the village

melammed, who is engaged as a private tutor by

a Jew living in a village, and who teaches the child

in the house of its parents, and the

Regula- melammed in a town, who k-iiches in

tions for hisown home, which servcsattlie same

Private time as a schoolroom (sec Hkdek).

Tutors. A distinction is likewise drawn be-
tween the " melammed dardeki " and
the "melammed gemara." The former teaches chil-
dren of both sexes to read and write Hebrew, and



also a chapter or two of each weekly lesson from
the Pentateuch, and he generally has one or more
assistants (in German "behelfer"). The gemara
melammed, on the other hand, teaches Bible and
Talmud to the boj^s, and, when they are older,
the Shulhan 'Aruk as well. Searching questions
are seldom asked concerning the melammed's peda-
gogical fitness; and it frequently happens, more-
over, that parents, for charity's sake, send their
children for instruction to persons who are unfit for
any other vocation, but who possess more or less
knowledge of the Talmud. As the profession of a
melammed is not an enviable one, it is mostly prac-
tised by people who can not find any other employ-
ment. In Russia and Poland, therefore, the word
"melammed " is, in slang, synonymous with "good-
for-nothing " or " dolt. " Among the Karaites, how-
ever, the term denotes, like " rab " among the Rab-
binites, "teacher" and "master," and is regarded as
a title of honor. Consequently there are among the
Karaites many learned men who are called by the
title "ha-melammed ha-gadol" (the great master),
or merely " ha-melammed " (the master ; comp.
Pinsker, "Likkute Kadmoniyyot," Index; Gott-
lober, "Bikkoret le-Toledot ha-Kara'im," pp. 195,
207, Wilna, 1865).

Bibliography: Lampronti, Pahad Yizhah, s.v., In addition
to the authorities cited In the article.
J. J. Z. L.

MELBOUB.XE : Capital of the British colony of
Victoria. Attempts were made to hold services in
Melbourne in the house of M. Lazarus in 1839 and
in that of Solomon Benjamin in 1841 ; but the first
congregation of the city was that entitled " The Holy
Congregation of a Remnant of Israel," which was
formed in 1844 with A. H. Hart as president. A
synagogue, under the presidency of the above-men-
tioned Solomon Benjamin, was built on land granted
by the government in 1847. The first minister was
tliQ Rev. Moses Rintel, a native of Edinburgh, who
was called from Sydney to fill the position. In 1858
a trivial difference split the community and led to
the formation of a so-called " Polish " section in op-
position to the English congregation. The division
was led by Rabbi Rintel himself, with whom the
president had quarreled because the former had not
been robed in his canonicals when attending the fu-
neral of the Avife of a leading member of the congre-
gation. Rabbi Rintel began to hold services in a
small hall in Lonsdale street, which was afterward
abandoned for a new location in Stephen (Exhibi-
tion) street.

The existence of the second congregation, calleil
the "Mikra Yisrael," had the good effect of stimula-
ting Judaism in Melbourne through the spirit of
rivalry which was created between the two sections.
In 1875 the "foreign," now known as the East Mel-
bourne, congregation built a synagogue in Albert
street, where it still continues to hold well-attended
services. Rabbi Rintel arrived in Melbourne in
1847, and he continued in his work there till his
death in 1880. During his later years he exercised
a considerable influence over the community. In
1865 he utilized the hall in Lonsdale street for a Jew-
ish denominational school, which was placed under
the control of a Mr. Curtis. The school had a short



449



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



He lammed
ISIelchior



life, owing to the suppression of denominational by
secular education.

T lie original congregation with its S3'nagogue in
Bourke street was looked upon for many years, and
indeed is still regarded, as the leading Jewish relig-
ious organization. It was ministered to successively
by the Revs. M. Rintel, A. Marks, A. F. Ornstein,
Raphael Benjamin, and Dattnar Jacobson. Joseph
Abrahams, present (1904) incumbent, arrived from
London in 1884, and has helped in the establishment
of the United Jewish Education Board, of which he
is president as well as of the bet din of Victoria. In
the latter position Abrahams has taken a firm stand
on the admission of proselytes. In East Melbourne
Rintel was succeeded by Revs. M. Grilnbaum, A.
D. Wolinski, I. Myers, and J. Lenzer. In 1873 the
Bourke street congregation established a Hebrew
denominational school, where both Hebrew and Eng-
lish subjects were taught. It was carried on with
great success for about twenty years, after which
time the congregation was compelled to close it on
account of an insufficiency of funds.

Intimatel}' connected with the Bourke street con-
gregation and for many years regarded as the lead-
ing representative Jew of Victoria was the late Hon.
Edward Cohen. Mayor of Melbourne on three oc-
casions, he was elected bj^ East Melbourne to the
Legislative Assembly, continuing to represent this
constituency till his death in 1877. His successor in
Parliament was the late E. L. Zox, who also took a
keen interest in synagogal and communal affairs,
being at different times tlie president and treasurer
of the Bourke street congregation. Among the
living public men who maintain an interested
connection with the synagogue is Sir Benjamin
Benjamin,

The highest official position hitherto occupied by
a Jew in Victoria was the attorney-generalship, held
by the Hon. I. A. Isaacs during the Turner ministry
from 1894 to 1899. His brother, J. I. Isaacs, was
a member of Parliament, having been elected by the
district of Owen in 1894. In addition to the above-
named Jews who have sat or are still sitting in the
Victorian Parliament, there are the Hon. N. Stein-
feld of Ballarat, the Hon. Joseph Steinberg of Ben-
digo (ex-president of the Bendigo congregation),
the Hon. F. J. Levien (whose parliamentary career
has extended over a longer period than that of any
other Jewish member and who was the first presi-
dent of the Geelong congregation), Theo. Fink, B.
J. Fink, and 1). B. Lazarus, the last-named of whom
was at one time an ardent supporter of the Jewish
community in Bendigo.

The congregation of St. Kilda, a suburb of Mel-
bourne, came into existence in the sixth decade of
the nineteenth century. The synagogue was erected
in 1873. For many j'ears past the congregation has
been composed for the most part of members of mid-
dle-class families in easy circumstances. The Mi-
chaelis family was for a long period among its chief
supporters. The post of minister has been held by
the Rev. E. Blaubaum since 1873. He is joint edi-
tor of the "Jewish Herald," a fortnightly publi-
cation which chronicles the doings of Australian
Judaism generally. In communal matters the St.
Kilda congregation, as a rule, cooperates with the
VIII.— 29



Melbourne institutions. In its district are situated
the almshouses and Montefiore Hall. There is a
federated board, appointed from the Bourke street,
Albert street, and St. Kilda congregations, to deal
witii the question of nuxed marriages — the most
dilHcult of all the problems engaging the attention
of the Melbourne community.

The oldest charitable institution in Melbourne is
the Philanthropic Society, founded in 1856. In 1863
the Jewish Friendly Society was formed; it still
does good work. A very useful society, founded
in 1888, is known as the "Jewish Mutual Aid." It
was the parent of the Sydney Mutual Aid, the ob-
ject of both being to grant substantial loans with-
out interest. The founders of the Melbourne society
were P. Biashki, J. P., and the Rev. I. Myers; the
son of the latter founded tlie Sydney society.

J. D. I. F.

MELCHIOR, MORITZ GERSON : Danish
merchant; born in Copenhagen June 22, 1816; died
there Sept 19, 1884. At the age of twenty-four he
entered the firm of Moses & Son G. Melchior, estab-
lished by his grandfather. His father and one of
his brothers, with whom he was associated in busi-
ness, died a few years after, and left the manage-
ment of the firm in his hands until, in 18.50, he was
joined by his younger brother Moses Melchior (b.
Jan. 29, 1825, at Copenhagen). Together they en-
larged the business greatly and founded a branch in
Melbourne, Australia, in order to establish a market
for Danish products.

Melchior filled several important public offices in
Copenhagen. He was alderman from 1851 to 1869,
a member of the Maritime and Commercial Court
(So og Handelsretten) from 1862 to 1883, and a mem-
ber of the Landsthing (Upper House) from 1866 to
1874. In 1861 he was one of the founders of the
free-trade societj', of which he later became the
director. He was one of the founders also of Pri-
vatbanken (1857), and leader of the Chamber of
Commerce (Grosserersocietetet) from 1873.

Within the Jewish community also Melchior was
prominent; he was a member of its representative
committee from 1849 to 1852, of which during the
last year he was the leader.

Hans Christian Andersen (the well-known author
of fairy tales) was often a guest in Melchior's house,
where he spent his last days.

Bibliography : C. F. Bricka, Dansk Bioyrafisk Lexicon.
s. F. C.

MELCHIOR, NATHAN GERSON : Danish

physician; born in Copenhagen Aug. 2, 1811; died
there Jan. 30, 1872; brother of Moritz G. and
Moses Melchior. Nathan graduated from the Uni-
versity of Copenhagen in 1835. In 1836-37 he
traveled, studying ophthalmology at the universities
of Berlin, Leipsic, Dresden, and Prague, and on his
return made the treatment of diseases of the eye his
specialty. In 1842 he became a member of the
Medical Society of Brussels, and in 18-13 of that of
Mechlin. During the war with Germany (1848-50)
he served as an army surgeon at a lazaretto in
Copenhagen. In 1853 the title of "professor" was
conferred upon him; in 1855 he was appointed
privat-docent inophthalmologj'at Copenhagsn Uni-



Melchizedek
Meldola



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



450



versity ; two years later lie became a member of the
board of directors of the newly foundetl Oplithal-
inological Institute in Copenhagen; and intlie same
year ha acted as vice-president of tiu! ophthalmo-
logical congress at Brussels. In 185(i lie was sent
abroad by tlie king to st\uly the means adopted by
foreign countries against tiie contagious Egyptian
eye-disease then ravaging a great part of Europe.

Melchior published a number of essays in Da-
nish medical journals, among which may be men-
tioned "Et Tilfffiide af Ileldig Oversktcielse af
Musculus llectus Internus paa begge Ojnene " and
"Nogle Ord nied Ilensyn til Prof. Switzer's Be-
mairiuiinger oin Operation for Skelen." To the
•'Annales d"Oeulisti(iue " lie contributed (1844) an
article entitled " Om Pupilleus Dilatation i Sund og
SygeligTilstand."

BiBi.ior.R.vrnY: C. F. Briclia, Dnnsk Bioorafl.sk Lc.iicoji;
ErsW'W, At III indeligl Furfalter-Lexiaon, Copenhafreu, 1S47.

8. F. (;.

MELCHIZEDEK (piV-'^i'a = "king of right-
eousness"): King of Salem and priest of the Most
High in the time of Abraham. He brought out
bread and wine, blessed Abram, and received tithes



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 109 of 169)