Copyright
Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

. (page 11 of 169)
Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 11 of 169)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


"Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 857; Steinschneider.
"Cat. Leyden," No. 22; St. Petersburg MSS., Fir-
kovich collection, No. 613). This work, which Avas
used by nearly all the later Karaite coditiers, con-
tains valuable information concerning the dilTerences
between the Karaites and the Rabbinites (in whose
literature the author was well versed), and the dis-
sensions among the Karaites themselves. Thus in
the section dealing with the calendar, in which the
year 1007 is mentioned, Levi states that in Irak the
Karaites in their determination of New-Year, resem-
bled the Rabbinites in so far as, like them, they
took for their basis the autumnal equinox, while in
some places the Karaites adopted the Rabbinitc cal-
endar completely.

Levi distinguishes between the views, in regard
to the calendar, of the earlier and the later Rabbin-
ites, and coiuits Saadia, whom he frequently at-
tacks with the utmost violence, among the latter.
In the treatise on zizit Levi says that he drew his
material from the works of his father and of his
predecessors. He excuses the inadequacy of treat-
ment marking some parts of the work ou the
"■round of the lack of sources and of the various
trials and sicknesses he had suffered during its com-
position.

Levi's "Mukaddimah," an introduction to the pe-
ricopes of the Pentateuch, is no longer in existence.
A fragment, on Dent, i., of the Hebrew translation
of Moses ben Isaiah Firuz was in the Firkovich
collection and was published by Pinsker, but was
lost during the Crimean war. He wrote also a
short commentary on the Earlier Prophets, a frag-
ment of which, covering tlie first ten ciiapters of
Joshua, still exists (Brit. Mus. Or. No. 308). Stein-
schneider believes it possible that Levi was also the
author of the short commentary on Psalms found
in the British Museum (No. 336). According to Aii
ben Sulaiman, Levi made a compendium of the lexi-
con "Agron" of David ben Abraham; liowever.
this is contested by Abu al-Faraj, who a.sserts that
the compendium was prepared by David himself.

BiBLior.R\PHV : Pinsker. Lihhutc Kadmoniimot, p. tU and In-
dex ; Fiirst, (lesch. dcx Karat rt. ii. Wiet .-n/.: Steinsclineider,
I'ttlewisthc vnd Apahttittische Litcratrii; p. :i5<> : idem.
JTehr. I'rhcrs. p. 945; Idem. Die Arahische Litcratnr der
Jutleii, § 40. T ^

K. I. Bk.

LEVI, JEDIDIAH B. RAPHAEL SOLO-
MON : Habbi at Alessandria and Sienna : died 1790 :
author of hymns for the reconsecration of tlie syna-



Levi, Judah
Levi, Raphael



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



34



Bibliography
hulicc. p. Si.
D.



gogue at, Sienna 1786; these hymns were printed iu
"Seder Zemirot we-Liiuinud," Leghorn, 1786.

SteiDschneider, Cat. Bodl col. 1289 ; Mortara,

I. E.

LEVI, JUDAH: Influential Jew at Estella,
Navarre, from 1380 to 1391. In 1380 and tlie fol-
lowing years he was commissioned, with Samuel
Amarillo, to collect the ta.x of five per cent on all
real estate in the district of Estella which within
the preceding fifty years had been sold or rented
by Jews to Christians or Moors without the
permission of the king. In 1391 he, with Yuze
Orabuena and Nathan Gabay, occupied the position
of farmer-general of taxes. He was engaged also in
banking and exchange. He appeared frequently at
court in connection with business of the king's, and
always took the part of his coreligionists. He was
utterly inipoverisiied during the last years of his
life, as may be seen from the letter of Benveniste
ibn Labi (Vienna MSS. p. 205). The king, in view of
Levi's needy condition and in recognition of his serv-
ices, granted him a yearly pension of sixty florins
from the state treasury. After his death, which
occurred about 1392, he was unjustly stigmatized as
a heretic.

BiBLiooRAPiiY: Jacobs, Sources^ Nos. 14o8, 1477, 1533, 1536;
Kayserling, Gesch. der Juden in Spanien, i. 57, 89; Gratz,
tiescli. viii. 413.
G. M. K.

LEVI BEN LAHMA : Palestinian haggadist
of the third century. He seems to have been a
pupil of Simeon ben Lakish, whose haggadot he
transmitted (Ber. Sa); but he transmitted some hag-
gadot of Hama b. Hanina also(R. H. 29b; Zeb. 53b).
Ta"an. 16a records three haggadic controversies be-
tween Levi b. llama and Hanina, the former being
supposed by Heilprin ("Seder ha-Dorot," ii.) and
Baclier ("Ag. Pal. Amor." i. 354, passim) to be
identical with Levi b. Lahma. One of Levi's own
haggadot asserts that Job was a contemporary of
Moses, inferring this from a comparison of Ex.
x.xxiii. 16 with Job xix. 23 (B. B. 15a).

8. 8. M. Sel.

LEVI, LEO NAPOLEON : American lawyer
and communal worker; born Sept. 15, 1856, at Vic-
toria, Texas; died in
New York Jan. 13,
1904. Destined for a
commercial career,
Levi was sent to New-
York to take a com-
mercial course, but
manifesting no interest
in his fatlier's bu.siness,
he returned to Victoria
in 1871, and in 1872 en
tered the University of
Virginia at Charlottes
ville, Va., to study
law. He won the dc
hater's medal and the
essayist's medal in one
year. Levi returned,
after liaving finished
his studies, to Trxas. but being only slightly over
twenty years old, he had to resort to jjroceedinps to




Leo Napoleon L«'Vi.



remove his disabilities so that he could without de-
lay be admitted to the bar. In 1878 Levi stumped
the state of Texas on behalf of Gustav Sleicher, who
was running for Congress and was elected, defeat-
ing Judge Ireland. Although he refused to hold
a political office, Levi always took an active interest
iu public affairs both iu Texas and iu New York, to
which latter state he removed in 1899, establishing a.
law-office in New York city.

His main activity, however, was as a communal
worker, especially in his connection with the B'n.\i
B'ritii, of which he became president in 1900. In
1887 Levi addressed an " o])eu letter " to the Ameri-
can rabbinate, under the title "Tell Us: What Is
Judaism?" The replies being unsatisfactory, he
answered his own interrogation iu the pamphlet
"Judaism in America." His last public act was in
connection with the petition to the Russian gov-
ernment drawn up iu protest against the Kishinef
massacre of April 19-20, 1903 (see " Report of the
Executive Committee of the I. O. B. B. for 1902-3 " ;
Isidor Singer, " Rus.sia at the Bar of the American
People," 1904, ch. iii. ; Cyrus Adler, "The Voice of
America on Kishineff," 1904).

A. S.

LEVI, LEONE: English political economist;
born in Ancona, Italy, in 1821 ; died in London May
7, 1888. Levi went to England at an early age, was
converted to Christianity, and became a member of
the English bar (1859). He devoted much time and
energy to the organizing of chambers of commerce.
In 1850 he published his " Commercial Law of the
World " ; in 1852 he was appointed to the chair of
commercial law in King's College, London. Levi
was an active member of the council of tlie Royal
Statistical Society, and contributed to its journal
many papers bearing on the industrial occupations
of the people. In 1887 he attended the congress of
European statisticians at Rome. It was owing to
Levi's suggestion of the benefits which would re-
sult from the possession of an international com-
mercial code that the acts were passed (1858) where-
by the mercantile laws of the United Kingdom
were made uniform on many points.

Levi was the author of: "Taxation, How It Is
Raised and How It Is Expended " (1860) ; " History of
British Commerce and of the Economic Progress of
the British Nation horn 1863 to 1870" (2d ed. 1878);
"Work and Pay"; " AVar and Its Consequences."
He also delivered a number of public lectures and
contributed many economic articles to journals and
magazines. He was created doctor of political and
economic science by the University of Tubingen
in 1861, and was a fellow of the Society of Anti-
(juaries an<l of the Royal Geographical Society; the
King of Italy conferred u])on him the rank of cav-
alier of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus and the Order
of the Crown of Italy.

Bibmoorapiiy: The Titin" (London), May 9, 1888; Boase,
Modern EnalMi Iiio(irai)}iii, s.v. Laic Jintrnal. 1888.

.T. G. L.

LEVI, LEONE : Italian author and journalist;
born at Nizza-Monferrato in 1823; died at Turin
Nov. 8, 1876; educated at the Collegio Foil at Vcr-
celli. Although a man of affairs and a lawyer, he



35



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Levi, Judah
Levi, Raphael



still found time to devote himself to literature, his
most important work being his " Lampi della Societa
Contemporanea," a faithful delineation of modern
life. His "Massime a Casaccio," as well as his
"11 Tempio di Torino " (his last work), was pub-
lished in the " Corriere Israelitico " of Triest.

Bibliography : Corriere Israelitico, 1876-77, p. 185; Mortara,
Indice.
s. U. C.

LEVI, LIONELLO: Italian philologist; born
at Triest June 33, 1869; educated at the gymna-
sium of Triest and the universities of Pisa, Rome
(Ph.D. 1891), and Berlin. He has been teacher of
literature, later of classical philology, at the gym-
nasia of Benevento (1891-93), of Rome (1893-95), of
JVIodcna (1896), and of Parma since 1896. In 1895 he
became lecturer on Greek literature at the University
of Rome, and in 1896 of Bologna.

Levi has contributed to several journals essays
on Greek and Latin literature, and is the editor of
Luciau's " Peregrinus " (Berlin, 1893) and of three of
the recently discovered odes of Bacchylides (Parma,
1899).
Bibliography : De Gubernatis, Dizionario Bingrafico.

s. F. T. H.

LEVI, MORITZ : American educator ; born
Nov. 33, 1857, at Sachsenhausen, Waldeck; edu-
cated at the University of Michigan (graduated 1887)
and at the Sorbonne, Paris. He became junior pro-
fessor of the Romance languages at the University
of Michigan in 1903. He has edited "L'Avare" of
MoliSre (1900) and "I Promessi Sposi " of Manzoni
(1901), and has compiled (with V. E. Francois) a
French reader (1896). ^

LEVI, MOSE GIUSEPPE : Italian physician ;
born at Guastalla 1796 ; died at Venice Dec. 27, 1859.
He graduated as doctor of medicine from the Uni-
versity of Padua in 1817 and settled in Venice, where
he practised until his death.

Levi was the author of : " Saggio Teorico-Pratico
Sugli Aneurismi Interni," Venice, 1833, which essay
received the prize from the Royal Academy of
Naples; "Dizionario Compendiato delle Scienze
Mediche," ib. 1837-33; " Dizionario Classico di Medi-
cina e Chirurgia," ib. 1833-40 (the two last-named
being translations from the French); "Enciclopedia
delle Scienze Mediche," ib. 1834-47; "Ricordi In-
ferno agl' Incliti Medici"; "Chirurghi in Venezia
Dopo il 1740," ib. 1840; "Encyclopedia Anatomica,"
ib. 1847; "Dizionario Economico della S.cienze Me-
diche," ib. 1856 (incomplete). He translated also:
Albert's " Hautkrankheiten," Venice, 1835; the
works of Hippocrates, with Latin text, ib. 1838;
and Burdach's " Physiologic, "^■6. 1845. He further
wrote the following biographical works: "Aglietti,"
1836; "A. S. Ruggieri," 1836; "G. Tommasivi,"
1847; and "J. Penolazzi," 1856.

Bibliography : Hirsch, Biographisches Lexikon.

s. F. T. H.

LEVI, MOSE RAFFAELE: Italian physi-
cian ; born at Triest Aug. 9, 1840 ; died at Florence
March 10, 1886. After graduating from the Uni-
versity of Padua (1863) he became assistant at the
General Hospital in Venice. In 1868 he was one of



the founders of the maritime hospital for scrofulous
children at the Lido of Venice, at which institution
he was physician-in-chief till 1873; he then removed
to Padua, where he became privat-docent at the uni-
versity and practised medicine, treating especially
the diseases of children.

In 1878 he was appointed chief departmental phy-
sician at the General Hospital at Venice, lecturing
there upon pediatrics. This position he resigned on
account of illness in 1881, and then left Venice. In
1884 he was appointed professor of pediatrics at the
University of Florence.

Levi from 1864^ was collaborator and from 1873

to 1879 editor-in-chief of the "Giornale Veneto di

Scienze Mediche." He wrote many essays in the

medical journals of Italy. Among his works may

be mentioned: "La Patologia Cellulare Conside-

rata ne' Suoi Fondamenti e nelle Sue Applicazioni,"

Venice, 1863 (German transl., Brunswick, 1864);

" Delia Frequenza della Tenia per I'Uso Medico della

Carne,"etc., ib. 1865; "Due Case di Sifilide Cere-

brali," ib. 1879; "Delia Emiglobinuria ad Access!

Freddo," ib. 1881.

bibliography: Cautanl, in Hirsch's Biographisches Lexi-
kon.



s.



F. T. H.



LEVI, NATHANIEL: Australian merchant
and politician; born at Liverpool, England, Jan. 80,
1830. In 1853 he went to the gold-lields in Victoria;
in 1858, having settled in Melbourne, he joined the
firm of John Levi & Sons. In 1860 he was elected
member of the Legislative Assembly for ilary-
borough, being the first Jew elected to Parliament
in Victoria. While in the Legislative Assembly he
took great interest in the abolition of the tea and
sugar duties, in the taxation of uncultivated lands,
and in the forming of labor loan-laws. In 1893 he
was elected member of the Legislative Council. In
1885 he founded "The Melbourne Daily News."
Levi was treasurer and president of the Melbourne
Hebrew Congregation for many years, and has been
connected with all the chief Jewish communal in-
stitutions of the city.

Bibliography : Jewish World, June 7, 1901.



LEVI, RAPHAEL : German mathematician ;
died May 17, 1779, in Hanover, whither his father,
Jacob Joseph Levi, a poor pedler, had gone with him,
then a boy of eight years, and had died a few days
after their arrival. The orphan lad was provided
for at the Israelitische Armenschule. At one time
Leibnitz had occasion to hear some of his observa-
tions in respect to building materials, and was
struck by the strong intellectual power which they
manifested. He became very much interested in
him, and himself instructed him in the higher mathe-
matics. A portrait of Levi has been preserved in
the Leibnitzhaus.

Of Levi's published works the following may be
mentioned: "Zwei Logarithmische Tafeln," Han-
over, 1747; " Vorbericht vom Gebrauche der Neu-
erfundenen Logarithmischen Wechseltabellen mit
Fortsetzung," Leipsic, 1748; "Supplement zu dem
Vorbericht,"" etc., Hanover, 1748; "Tekunat ha-
Shomayim: Ueber Astronomic und Kalender-



Levi ben Shem-Tob

Leviathan



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



36



kunde, Nanu'iitlicli Coininontinuisr der Talinud-
ischeu und Hubbiuischen Ausspruche Dariiber, urn
Hilkot Kiddushlia-Hodesh Maimuni'szu Verstcheii.
Dazu Xoton uiid Glossen von Mose ben .Tckuticl,"
AnistcrdaiiL 1756; and "Neuc Conipendiose Allg.
Cours- und Wcfliscl-Tafclu," etc. Several of liis
minor writings remained uniniblislied; but, from
material contained in them, Simon Waltsch (Simeon
ben Nathan Nata') issued a commentary on Maimon-
ides' rules for the calendar, Berlin, 1786.

Bibmography: BriilU in AUg. Deutsclic Bingraphie, xviii.
50."); Blog?. ScUr lia-Hainn"U p. 31;5, Hanover, 1848; Furst,
Bihl. Jtul. ii. SM.
S >I. Co.

LEVI BEN SHEM-TOB: Portuguese convert ;
lived at the end of tlie tifteentli century; notorious
for his hostility to his former coreligionists. Ac-
cording to Abraham b. Solomon of Torrutiel (Neu-
bauer, "M. J. C." i. 113-114), it was Levi b. Shem-
Tob (Shem Ra) who advised King Emanuel of
Portugal to close all the synagogues and forbid the
Jews to attend prayers. This order not proving
effective. King Emanuel, on the advice of Levi,
issued another (April. 1497), ordering the baptism
of all Jewish cinldren (Zacuto, "Yuhasin," p. 227,
ed. Filipowski). Levi is identitied by some scholars
with a certain Antonio who was chief surgeon of
King John II., and who wrote a pamphlet entitled
"Ajudo da Fe Contra os Judeos" (Kayserling,
Gesch. der Juden in Portugal," p. 86).
BiBLiOGRAPMY : Gfiilz, Ge^chichte der Juden, 3d ed., vlli. 381.

G. M. Srt,.

LEVI, SIMHAH ARYEH BEN EPHRAIM
FISCHEL : Russian llebiaist and author of the
nineteentli century ; born at Hrubieszow, govern-
ment of Warsaw. He wrote a double commentary
on Job, preceded by a preface and two poems (Lem-
berg, 1833); and *' Dibre Purim " (Zolkiev, 1834), an
epic poem, the central figures in which are Ahasuerus
and Esther. He began the compilation, on original
lines, of a Hebrew (lictionary entitled "Memalle," of
which only the letter X appeared (Warsaw, 1839).
Benjacob criticized this work severely in "Pirhe
Zafon " (ii. 201-208, Wilna, 1844).

Bibliography : Zeltlin, Bibliotheca Hehraica Post-Mendel)<-
sohniana, p. 2til.
H. K. M. Sei,.

LEVI B. SISI (SISYI ; SUSYI) : Pales-
tinian scliolar; (li.sciple of tlie patriarch Judah I.
and school associate of his son Simeon ('Ab. Zaraii
19a); one of the semi-lannaim of the last decades of
the second century and of the early decades of the
tliird. He assisted Judah in tiie compilation of tlie
Mi.shnah and contributed baraitot (Yoma 21a).
Many of Levi's baraitot were eventually embodied
in a compilation known as " Kiddnsliin de-Be Lewi "
(Kid. 76b; B. B. 52b). In tiie Babylonian Gemara
Levi is seldom ([uoted with his patronymic, and
neither in that nor in the Jerusalem Gemara nor in
the Midrashim is lie fjuoted with tlie title of
"Rabbi." Keeping this in mind, the stud.nt of
rabbinics will easily deterniine whether passag(^s
written under the name "Levi" without a patro-
nymic must be credited to Levi bar Sisi or to a
younger namesake wlio is almost always cited as



"R. Levi " (see Lkvi II). But although Levi bar
Sisi is not given the title " Rab," he was highly es-
t e;ned among the learned, and in many instances
where an anonymous jiassage is introduced with the
statement D'OSn ^:zh IHoi? (="it was argued be-
fore the sages ") it is to be luiderstood that the argu-
ment referred to was advanced by Levi before Ju-
dah I. (Sanh. 17b; comp. Men. 80b; Me'i. 9b; see
Rashi and Tos. ad loc).

Judah I. later spoke of Levi bar Sisi as of an
equal. But the latter did not always succeed in
impressing the public. At the request of a congre-
gatif)n at Siiuonias to send it a man who could act
at once as lecturer, judge, superintendent of the
synagogue, public scribe, and teacher, and attend
to the general congregational affairs, Judah I. sent
Levi. When, however, Levi entered on office he
signally failed to satisfy the first requirement.
Questions of law and of exegesis were addressed to
him, and he left them unanswered. The Simonias
congregation charged the patriarch with having
sent it an unfit man, but the patriarch assured it
that he had selected for it a man as able as himself.
He summoned Levi and propounded to him the
ijuestions originally propounded by the congrega-
tion; Levi answered every one correctly. Judah
thereupon inquired why he did not do so when the
congregation submitted those questions; Levi an-
swered that his courage had failed him (Ycr. Yeb.
xii. 13a; comp. Yeb. 105a; Gen. R. Ixxxi. 3). A
late midrash speaks of him as a Biblical scholar and
good lecturer (Pesik. xxv. 165b).

After Judah's death Levi retired with Hanina b.
Hama from the academy, and when Hanina received
his long-delayed promotion Levi removed to Baby-
lonia, wiiither his fame had preceded him (Shab. 59b ;
see H.vMNA b. Ham.\). He died in Babylonia, and
was greatly mourned by scholars. In the course of
a eulogy on him delivered by Abba bar Abba it was
said that Levi alone was worth as much as the
whole of humanity (Yer. Ber. ii. 5c).

Bibliography: Bacher, ^ff. Tan. 11. 5:U) ; Frankel, Mcho.p.
IKib; Halevy, 7>)rot ha-HMnniim, ii. tiOa ; Heilprin, Sedc/'
)ia-Doi-()t, ii.; Weiss, Dor, ii. 19:.'.



s. s.



S. M.



LEVI BEN SOLOMON: Galician Talmudist ;
lived at Brody in the first half of the eighteenth
century. He was the author of "Bet Lewi," ha-
lakic novellic and explanations of the difficult pas-
sages in Rashi and Tosafot (Zolkiev, 1732).
Bibliography: Stelnschnelder, Cat. Bodl.col. IClfi.

s. s. I. Bu.

LEVI, SOLOMON B. ISAAC : Rabbi and
scholar of the sixteenth century. He was born in
Smyrna, became director of the academy 'Ez Hayyim
at Salonica, and went subseiiuently to Venice. He
was versed in jihilosophy, natural sciences, and math-
ematics as well as in the Talmud and the Halakaii.
and was eminent as a preacher. He wrote a largo
number of devotional and halakic works, including
the following: " Leb Abot." commentary to Abot
(Salonica, 1565 and 1571); " Dibre Slielomoh." five
sermons for each of the weekly sections and feast-
days (Venice. 1596); " Lehem Sheiomoh." commen
tarv to tiie Talmud, the Midrash, and the Zohar (/A



87



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Levi ben Sbem-Tob
Leviathan



1597); respoDsa to the Tur and the Shulhan 'Anik
(Salouica, 1652); " Leb Slielonioh," similar in con-
tents to the preceding.

Bihmogra'phy: Nepi-Ohirondi, Toledot Uednlc l'i",s?-a«7, p. X)] ;
Ben.iacoli, Ozar ha-Scfarini, passim; Steinsctineider, ('<tt.
Binil lol. 23153.
v.. I. E.

LEVI, SYLVAIN: French Orientalist : huvu
at Paris .March 28, 186:1 He received his educallDn
at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes, where he became
"agrege es lettres" in 1886. Here, too, three years
later he was appointed "maitre de conferences" in
Sanskiit; and in the following year his duties were
so extended as to include lecturing on the relig-
ions of India in the section for the science of
religion. Of both these departments he is now
(1904) the director. In 1889 Levi was promoted to
be "charge de cours" in Sanskrit in the Faculty of
Letters; and the next year he received the degree
of "docteur es lettres," presenting as his thesis
"Quid de Gra'cis Veterum Indorum Monumenta
Tradiderint." The same year saw the publication
of his " Theatre Indien," which is the standard work
on its subject. In 1894 Levi was appointed pro-
fessor of Sanskrit in the College de France, a posi-
tion which he still holds.

In addition to the two works already mentioned,
Levi has edited and translated the lirst eight chap-
ters of Kshemendra's "Brhatkathamanjari" (Paris,
1886), and has published a treatise entitled " La
Doctrine du Sacritice dans les Brahmauas" (/b.
1898). He is also the author of numerous briefer
studies, especially in the "Journal Asiatique," as
well as of many reviews of Oriental books; and he
is a collaborator on the " Revue Critique " and " La
Grande Encyclopedic," to which he has contributed
a large number of articles dealing with the litera-
ture and religion of India.

Levi has been president of the Societe de Lin-
guistique de Paris and of the Societe des Etudes
Juives; he is also a member of the committee of the
Alliance Israelite Universelle. In 1897 he was sent
on a nnssion to India by the Ministry of Public In-
struction.

BIBLIOGRAPHY : La Grande Encyclopedic.
s. L. H. G.

LEVI-CATELLANI, ENRICO: Italian law-
yer; born at Padua June 12, 1856; educated at the
university there. In 1885 he was appointed assist-
ant professor, and in 1890 professor, of international
law at the same university. Levi-Catellani is a cor-
responding member of the Padua Regia Accademia
di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti and of the Regio Istituto
Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti, and a member of
the Association for the Reform and Coditication of
International Law, at London, and of the Institut
de Droit International. He is the author of the fol-
lowing works: " Le Colonic e la Conferenza di Ber-
lino" (Turin, 1885); " Storia del Diritto Internazio-
nale Privato" (ib. 1895); " Delia Riformaagl' Istituti
della Cittadinanza e della Naturalizazione," a paper
read at the fourth congress of Italian lawyers; "La
DottrinaPlatonicadellc Idee e il Concetto di Societa
Internazionalc," in the Fr. Scliupfer Memorial Vol-
ume; "Realtaed Utopie dellc Pace " (Turin, 1899);



and numerous articles in literary and scientific jour-
nals.

BdiLiOGRAPHY : Aiiituaiiii (IcUa 7>. l')iiccr!<itd dl Padova,

1885-86 <7 seq.

s. U. C.

LEVI-CIVITA, TULLIO: Italian physicist;
born at Padua .Muich 29, 1873; educated at tlie uni-
versity there (Ph.D). He was successively ap-
pointed assistant professor (1898) and professor (1902)
of applied mechanics, and professor of lugher me-
chanics. He is also (1904) instructor in applied me-
chanics in the Regia Scuola di Ai)plicazione per gl'
Ingegneri connected with the university.

Bibliography: A)inuari<) delht R. Univcrsitd di Padnvit,
1898-99 el acq.

s. U. C.

LEVI-PEROTTI, GIUSTINA : A poetess,
supposed to be of Sa.ssoterrato, and assumed, until
recently, to have addressed to Petrarch a sonnet be-
ginning " lo Vorrei pur Drizzar Queste Mie Piume."
This poem, to which Petrarch is .said to have re-



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 11 of 169)