Isidore Singer.

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from him (Gen. xiv. 18-L'()). Reference is made to
liim in Ps. ex. 4, where the victorious ruU'.v is de-
clared to be "i)riest forever after the order of Mel-
chizedek." The story is neither an invention nor
the product of a copyist's error, as Cheyne (" Encyc.
Bibl.") thinks, but rests upon ancient Jerusalemic
tradition (as Josephus, "B. J " vi. 10, allirnis;
conip. Gunkel, "Genesis," 1901, p. 261), "Zedek"
being an ancient name of Jerusalem (probably con-
nected with the Pheniciau IvdvK = "Zedek " = "Ju-
piter"; coinp. Shab. 156a, b; Gen. R. xliii. ; Pesik.
I{. 20; see Bau<lissin, "Studien zur Seinitischen
Reliijionsgesch." 1876, i. 14-1.5). Hence " 'irlia-ze-
dek" (Isa. i. 21, 26). "neweh zedek" (Jer. x.xxi. 23,
1. 7), "sha'are zedek " (Ps. cxviii. 19). The city's
first king, accordingly, was known either as " Adoni
Zedek " (Josh. x. 1 et seq. ; comp. Judges i. 5-7, where
" AdcMiizedek " is the correct reading) or as "Malki-
zedek." The fact that he united the royal with the
priestly dignity, like all ancient (heatlicn) kings,
made him a welcome type to the composer of the
triumplial song (Ps. ex.).

But to the Jewish propagandists of Alexandria,
who were eager to win jiroselytesfor Judaism with-
out submitting them to thorite of cir-

Type of cumcision, Melchizedek appealed with

Ancient especial force as a type of the niono-
Monothe- theist of the pre-Abrahamic time or
ism. of non-Jewish race, like Enoch. Like

Enoch, too, he was apotheosized. He
was placed in the same category wiLh Elijah, the
Messiah ben Joseph, and the Messiah ben David
(Suk. 52b, where "Kohenzedek" should be corrected
to "Malkizedek"). The singular feature of sui)er-
natural origin is ascribed to all f(mr, in that Ihey
are descrii)ed as being "without father and
without motiier, without descent, having nei-
ther beginning of days nor end of life, but
made like unto the son of God abiding forever"
(Heb. vii 2-3; comp. Ruth. R. v. 3, where the
original text [see "Pugio Fidei," p. 125] referred
also to Ps. ex. 4, Isa. liii. 2, and Zech. vi. 12, comp.

Yalk., Pieubeni Bereshit, 9d; Epiphanius, "IIa;re-
sis," Iv. o). According to Midr. Teh. to Ps. xxxvii.,
Abraham learned the practise of charity fiom Mel-
chizedek. Pliilo speaks of liim as "the logos, the
jiriest whose inheiitance is the true God " (" De Alle-
goriis Legum," iii. 2()).

Th(^ Samaritans identified the city of Salem with
their sanctuary on Mount Gerizim (see LXX., Gen.
xx.xiii. 18; comp. Eusebius, "Pra'paratio Evange-
lica," ix. 17). .

The rabbis of later generations, rather antagonis-
tic to the cosmopolitan monotheism of Alexandria,
identified Melchizedek with Shem, the ancestor of
Abraham (Ned. 32b; Pirke R. El. xxiii.; Targ. to
Gen. xiv. 4). A singular story is told of ]\Ielchize-
dek in the Ethiopian Book of Adam and Eve, which,
before it was turned into a Christian work, seems to
have presented a strange combina-
The tion of Jewish and Egypliiin elements

Melchize- emanating from a sect afterward

dekites. known as the jNIelchizedekites. There
(iii. 13-21) Noah tells his son Shem be-
fore his death to take "Melchizedek, the son of Ca-
naan, whom God had chosen from all generations of
men, and to standby the dead body of Adam after it
had been brought from the ark to Jerusalem as the
center of the earth and fulfil the ministry before
God." The angel Michael then took away JVIel-
chizedek, when fifteen years of age, from his father,
and, after having anointed him as priest, brought iiim
to (Jerusalem) the center of the earth, telling his
father to share the mystery oidy with Shem, the son
of Noah, wliile the Holy Spirit, speaking out of the
ark when the body of Adam was hidden, greeted
Melchizedek as "the first-created of God." Shem
went, carrying bread and wine, and, assisted by the
angel, brought the body of Adam to its destination.
Melchizedek oll'ered the bread and wine upon the
altar they built near the place where Adam's l)ody
was deposited, and then Shem departed, leaving the
pure lad in his garment of skins under the sole
protection of the angc-l, no one on earth know-
ing of his whereabouts until, at last, Abraham met
him. Compare also "Die Schatzhohle" (Bezold's
transl. 1883, pp. 26-28), where the father of ]\Iel-
chizedek is called "Malki" and the mother " Yo-
Zedek"; and see the notes to Malan's "Book of
Adam and Eve" (1882, pp. 237-238). Against the
opinion of Roeusch (Das Buch der Jubililen," 1874,
p. .502), that the story of Melchizedek has been in-
tentionally omitted from the Book of Jubilees, see
Charles in his Commentary to Jubilees (xiii. 2.5). A
renmant, probably, of these Melchizedekites ap-
pears in early Christian literature as a heretic sect
which regarded Melchizedek as a great heaveidy
l)ower and as a son of God, superior to Jesus
(Epiphanius, "Iheresis," Iv. 1-9; Hippolytus. " He-
futatio Iheresium," vii. 36. x. 20; pseudo-Tertul-
lian, 48; Augustinus, " De llieresibus," 34; see
Herzog-IIauck, " Real-Encyc." «.». "Monarchianis-

BiHi.ior.RAPHY: Friedlilnder, Antichrist, 1901, pp. 88-89.
s. K-

MELDOLA : Ancient Scphardic family whose
genealogy can be traced through sixteen genera-

(l) Isaiah Meldola (b. 1382; il. ISW; lived in Toledo aiic: Mautua)

(2) Samuel Meldola (d. Uloi


(3) Isaiah Meldola (d. 1475)


(4) David Meldola (expelled from Spain 1492)

(5) Raphael Meldola (15tli and 16th cent.)
(fi) Samuel Meldola (d. 1530)

(7) Jacob Meldola (16th cent.)

(R) Eleazar Meldola (d. UIV))


(lU) David Israel Meldola (t>. 101-' ; d. 1679)
m. (o) Miriam Azubi ; (^) Henriqiies

(0) Samuel Meldola (physician m nul;(> of Mantua 1651)

(11) Eleazar Meldola

(h. 1H4;5: d. 17(1-')

ni. <(!) 1677 Reina Senior

ih) Iti'.ll Sanili Senior

(19) Abrahaui Meldola

(1). c. 1645: d. 1720 or 1728;

hazz;in of (Jreat Synagopiie, Lephom)

m. lieina Hannah Diaz Paruo

(I-.') Raphael Meldola

(h. 1685; d. April 17, 1748;

cliiif rabbi, Pisa and BayotiDe)

ni. 1701 Rflchel Meldola (cousin)

Istrilia Meldola
and 4 others


Flachel Meldola

(d. 1758)
m. 1701 Raphael
Meldola (cousin)


Eleazar Mel-
dola (b. 1703
i n Leghorn ;
d. 17ti:?) in.
Le:ih Ahulafla
of Florence


(b. 1705 in

Leghorn ;

(1. 1755;

m. Reina.

daughter of





(b. ]70i»)
m. Joshua

(had issue)

lb. 1740
in Am-

(b. 1742
in Am-

sterdam) sterdam)
m. Aaron
de Shab-





(b. 1772)

(h. 1744)
111. Sam-
uel ben
1771, in



(b. 1773)



(b. 1775)

(i;i) David
Meldola (b. 1714
in Leghorn ;
hakam in
m. Hachel
of Moses Ra-
phael d'Agiii-
lar, 17:!!i




(b. 1715 ;

d. 1736)

(b. 1722)

(b. 1740)
m. Abra-

(b. 1748
in .\m-
m. E.sther

of Abra-





(b. \::i))
m. at Co-


of Ham-
burg 1787

(b. 17.52)

Meldola (h.
17.54 in Am-
slerdain :
sell led in
1772); 111. (a)
Angela Is-
rael 1776;
(h) Gracia
da Silva


(c) Ulrica



(b. 1790)

Rachel David
Meldola Meldola
(b. 1780) (b. 1782)
in. Jacob m. Angela,
de Moses daugliter



Moses de


(b. 1803)

of Michael
(b. 1801)

David Meldola (2:!) Jacob
1745; chief of Meldola
the great yeshi-

hah, Leghorn)

m. daughter of

Jacob Ispinoza

(d. K(il)

(14) Moses Hezekiah
Meldola (b. 1725 at
Leghorn ; d. 1791 ;
professor Oriental
languasres, I'aris

(15) Ra-
phael Mel-
dola (b.
17.54; d.
ha hail I of



m. Stella



(b. Leg-
horn )


(21) Jacob Reina

Meldola m. Abra-

(poet, ham

Leghorn) Meldola

I 17;j2

(22) Raphael
David Mel-
dola (18th
cent.; head
of the
Reshit Hok-

(rabbi at


A braham
(d. 1774;

(17) Da-
vid Mel-
dola (b.
1797; d.

18"):) ;

ding rab-

(16) Rica
(b. 179i»
in Leg-


horn ; d. (chem-


m. 1819






hi of Se- Aaron de

phar- Sola of

dim, London

London) I

Abraham de Sola
(b. London 182);
d. Montreal 18^2;
profes-sor, Mon-
treal) m. Esther
Joseph 18.52

Eliza de Sola

(b. 1830;

d. 11HI4)

m. Rev.


Pereini Mendes


13 other
sons and

(b. 1815;
d. 1881)

(b. 1849
In Lon-
don ;
or of
try ; Fel-
low of




A. D. Meldola de Sola Clarence I. de Sola 5 others

(rabbi Spanish and

Portuguese Jews,


m. Katherine

Samuel 1887

(has issue)

'president Canadian
Zionist Federation)
in. Belle Maud Gold-
smith 1901

F. de Sola Men-
des (rabbi
Shaiiray Te-
ll lab. New York)
m. Lsabel Cohen
(has issue)


H. Pereira others
Mendes (rab-
bi Congrega-
tion Shearith
Israel, New
York) in.
liosalie Pisa
(has issue)

C. I. DE S.





tions without a break to Isaiah Meldola of Toledo
(born in 1282). Under Spanish names it long flour-
ished in Toledo, and produced many men of note and
of learning. The name "Meldola" seems to have
been assumed when some of the family first estab-
lished themselves in Italy, prior to the going of
Isaiah Meldola to Mantua. One branch, however,
took the name "Montallo"; and from this branch
was descended the Portuguese Marano family of
Montalto, including Elihu Montalto (physician to
Marie de Medici, queen of Henry IV. of France, and
counselor to Louis XIII.), as well as the painter G.
S. D. Montalto.

Subjoined is the genealogical tree of the Meldola
family. The numbers in parentheses correspond to
those given in the text.

1. Isaiah Meldola: One of the sages of Castile;
born in Toledo, Spain, 1282; died at Mantua, Italy,
in 1340. He was hakam of Toledo after having
previously served as dayyan. Owing to politico-
religious troubles he left Spain for Italy, where
some of his relatives had already settled, and he was
appointed chief rabbi of Mantua and head of the
college there.

2. Samuel Meldola : Son of Isaiah (No. 1); born
in tiie earlier half of the fourteenth century ; died in
1415. He succeeded his father as hakam of Mantua
and as head of the college. He was distinguished
as a preacher, and was the author of several theo-
logical works.

3. Isaiah Meldola: Sou of Samuel (No. 2);
born in Mantua toward the close of the fourteenth
century; died 1475. He was hakam and dayyan,
and was the author of " Hazon Yesha'yahu," a com-
mentary on Isaiah, printed in Mantua. He also prac-
tised medicine and wrote a work on physiology.

4. David Meldola : Sou of Isaiah Meldola (No.
3) ; boru at Mantua in the early part of the fifteenth
century ; died about 1505. He went to Spain, where
he made efforts to maintain the Spanish Jewish
colleges, but returned to Italy in 1492. Rejoining
his relatives in Mantua, he was received at court
with favor. He devoted his declining years to the
writing of a number of Jewish theological works.

5. Raphael Meldola: Son of David Meldola
(No. 4) ; born about the middle of the fifteenth cen-
tury; died during the earlier half of the sixteenth
century. He was hakam of the Jewish community
of Mantua, and also a court councilor.

6. Samuel Meldola : Son of Raphael Meldola
(No. 5); boin (luring the latter part of the fifteenth
century; died 1530. He was physician to the Duke
of Mantua, winning eminence by his .skill as a prac-
titioner ; and lie wrote a work on medicine. He was
also hakam and dayyan of Mantua.

7. Jacob Meldola: Son of Samuel Meldola (No.
6); born about the beginning of tiie sixteenth cen-
tury; died about 1580; one of the chief rabbis of
Mantua. He was tiie father of two sons, Eleazar
(No. H) and Samuel (Xo. 9).

8. Eleazar Meldola: Elder son of Jacob Mel-
dola (No. 7); born in the sixteenth century ; died,
according to most authorities, in 1655, but one author-
ity places the date niuch earlier. He succeeded
his father as hakam of Mantua, and was very distin-
guished as a preacher, liis oratorical powers securing

for him renown throughout Italy. A volume of his
orations was published in Venice.

9. Samuel Meldola: Italian physician; lived
during the seventeenth century; younger son of
Jacob Meldola (No. 7) and brother of Eleazar Mel-
dola (No. 8). He was physician to the Duke of
Mantua, and was the author of a work on medicine,
entitled "Refu'ot Te'alah." He devoted attention
also to religious and metaphysical studies and
was the author of " Keri'at Shenia' " and " Debar

10. David Israel Meldola : Son of Eleazar
Meldola (No. 8); born at Mantua 1612; died, accord-
ing to most authorities, in 1679 at Florence, while
one source gives an earlier date. He was trained
for the rabbinate in his native city, but on account
of the war, famine, and pestilence he fled to Flor-
ence. He went thence to Leghorn, where he was
head of the college for more tlian twenty years,
and was then persuaded to return to Florence to
accept office as hakam and ab bet din.

Meldola was the author of a commentary on Scrip-
tural passages, and of "Emimah Omen," a work on
the Jewish faith. He married Miriam Azubi, and
after her death espoused a grandniece of Elihu
Montalto. He was survived by two sons: Eleazar
(No. 11), from whom springs the elder branch of
the family, and Abraham (No. 19), from whom is
descended the younger branch,

1 1 . Eleazar Meldola : Elder son of David Israel
Meldola (No. 10); born 1643; died 1702 (one author-
ity states 1704). He went from Florence to Leghorn
with his younger brother, and became head of the
Talmud Torah, and chief rabbi of Leghorn. He was
noted as a grammarian and as the author of a work
entitled "Halakah we-Haggadah." He married in
1677 Reina Senior, daughter of Jacob Senior, by
whom he had seven children. After her death he
married (1691) Sarah Senior, by whom he had five

12. Raphael Meldola: Italian rabbi; born at
Leghorn in 1685; died April 17, 1748; fifth child of
Eleazar Meldola (No. 11) by his wife Reina Senior.
He was originally named Samuel Jacob Meldola,
but on his recovery from a dangerous illness his
name was changed to Raphael. He was elected
rabbi of Pisa in 1722. In 1729 he was elected to
succeed Isaac da Costa as chief rabbi of Bayonne
and St. Esprit, and he remained hakam of these
congregatioDS until 1741, when he returned to Leg-

Meldola was the author of a large number of theo-
logical and ethical work.s, the most important being
"Mayim Rabbim " (Amsterdam, 1737), and his re-
sponsa, in several volumes, which gained for him a
European reputation, and which were afterward
published by his son David in Amsterdam. He
wrote also a poem in honor of Mendelssohn's "Je-
rusalem." He married in 1701 Rachel Meldola, the
daughter of ids uncle Abraham, by whom he had
seven children. His third son, David (No. 13), and
his youngest son, Moses Hezekiah (No. 14), became
very distinguished. His second son, Abraham, born
in Leghorn 1705. was a noted typographer.

13. David Meldola : Third son of Raphael
Meldola (No. 12); boru at Leghorn 1714; died (it is




said) at the; age of 104. lie went with his father to
Bayonne, left that city in 1735, and settled in Am-
sterdam, wliere lie undertook the publication of his
father's works, as well as some of his own writings.
He was appointed hakam of several of the religious
societies and philanthropic organizations.

Meldolawas the author of: "Mo'ed Dawid " (Am-
sterdam, 1740), an astronomical and mathematical
work. Including a poem giving the rules of the
calendar (first published in the ritual work "Tefillat
Yesharim," ib. 1740); " Dibre Dawid" {ib. 1753);
"Darke Yesod ha-Limmud," on the methodology
of the Talmud {ib. 1754); "Darke Dawid" (Am-
sterdam und Hamburg, 1793-95); and many others
preserved in manuscript (Nepi-Ghirondi, "Toledot
Gedole Yisrael," p. 79). He married in 1739 Rachel
Sarpliaty (or Sarfatti), daughter of Eliashib Natha-
nael Sarphaty of Amsterdam and granddaughter of
Moses Raphael d'Aguilar, by whom he had eight
children, born in Amsterdam. His youngest son,
Abraham, born 1754, removed to Hamburg in 1773,
and was the author of many works, including "Tra-
duccion de las Cartos Mercantines y Manuales,"
Hamburg, 1784, and "Nova Grammatica Portugue-
za," Leipsic, 1785.

14. Moses Hezekiah Meldola : Youngest son
of Raphael Meldola (No. 12); born at Leghorn 1725;
died 1791. Though trained in the banking business,
he abandoned commercial pursuits to follow a pro-
fessional career. He won renown as a philologist,
and was the author of a number of books on Semitic
languages; he likewise attained to the rank of
hakam and was appointed professor of Oriental
languages in the University of Paris. He was the
father of two sons, Raphael (No. 15) and Isaac.

15. Raphael Meldola : Elder son of Moses Heze-
kiah Meldola (No. 14); born in Leghorn 1754; died in

London June 1, 1828; one
of the most prominent
members of the Meldola
family. He received a
thorough university tiain-
ing, both in theological
and in secular branches,
and displayed such re-
markable talents tha t vf hen
only tifteen years old he
was permitted to take his
seat in the rabbinical col-
lege. He was preacher in
Leghorn for some years,
and in 1803 he obtained
the title of rabbi.
In 1805 Meldola was elected haham of the Span-
ish and Portuguese Jews of Great Britain, and
proved a worthy successor of Sasportas and Nieto.
His name will ever be indissolubly associated with
that of Be vis Marks, London. Possessed of a re-
markably virile mind, he was a dominant factor in
the British Jewry of his generation. He was the
author of "Korban Minhali," "Huppat Hatanim "
(1796), and "Derek Emunah," published by Jiis son
after his death. He left several other works in
manuscript. His scholarship attracted around him
a circle in which were many of the most distin-
guished men of liisday, including Benjamin D'Israeli

Raphael Meldola.

and Isaac D'Israeli; and it is noteworthy that he
opposed the policy which produced the famous rup-
ture between the latter and the mahamad (see D'ls-
UAELi, Isaac). He maintained a literary correspond-
ence with many of the most i)rominent Christian
clergymen and scholars of his time; and his ac-
quaintance with the Archbishop of Canterbury and.
the Canon of Windsor led to his being received by-
King George III.

Meldola married Stella Bolafti (.Vbulatia), by whom
he had four sous and four daughters.

16. Rica Meldola: Eldestdaughter of Raphael
Meldola (No. 15) ; born at Leghorn 1799; married (May
20, 1819) David Aaron de Sola, senior minister
and preacher of Bevis Marks Synagogue, London,
and became the mother of a large family. Of her
sons, Abraham de Sola was professor of Semitic
languages and literature in McGill University, Mon-
treal, Canada, and rabbi of the Sephardic congrega-
tion in that city. He was the father of the Rev. A,
D. Meldola de Sola and of Clarence I. de Sola of
Montreal. One of Rica's daughters, Eliza, married
the Rev. Abraham P. Mendes of Birmingham
and London, England, and afterward of Newport,
R. I. She was the mother of the Revs. F. de Sola
Mendes and H. Pereira Mendes of New York.

17. David Meldola: Eldest son of Raphael
Meldola (No. 15); born at Leghorn 1797; died in
Loudon 1853. He obtained the rabbinical degree at
Leghorn, and after the death of his father was
elected presiding officer of the bet din of the London
Sephardic community. Altlumgh not given the
title of haham, he was the acting chief rabbi from
1828 until his death. It was during his incumbency
that the London Jewish community passed through
the stormy period of the early Reform movement.
Meldolawas the founder, in conjunction with Moses
Angel, of the Loudon "Jewish Chronicle." A pro-
found Hebraist and Talmudist, he was the author
of a number of writings, including several works in
manuscript on Jewish theology and prayers, besides
elegies, orations, and poems in Hebrew.

18. Raphael Meldola : Son of Samuel Mel-
dola, j^oungest son of Raphael Meldola (No. 15);
English naturalist and chenu'st; born in London in
1849. In 1875 he was sent by the Royal Society to
the Nicobar Islands in charge of an eclipse expedi-
tion. Since 1885 he has been professor of chemistry
at the Finsbury Technical College. He has made
many discoveries of important compounds and coal-
tar dyes. He is the author of a large number of
scientific works, among them the article on " Organic
Chemistry " in the "Encyclopedia Britannica," and
"The Chemistry of Photography," London, 1884;
and he has translated and edited Wei.smann's"Stud-
iesin the Theory of Descent," published in 1882. In
1895 and 1896 he was president of the Entomo-
logical Societ3\ Meldola lias accomplished much
for the ditTusion of technical instruction, being a
member of the Technical Instruction Committee of
the Essex Count}' Council. In recognition of his
services to science he was elected fellow of the Royal

The line of Abraham, younger son of David Israel
Meldola (No. 10), is as follows:

19. Abraham Meldola : Cliief hazzan of the




Great Synagogue, Leghorn ; died 1720 or 1738. Mel-
dola was the' author of two works on "hazzanut"
and Hebrew music. He married Reina Hannah,
daughter of Jacob Diaz Pardo, by whom he had a
daughter, Rachel, and two sons, David (No. 20)
and Jacob (No. 2a).

20. David Meldola: Elder sou of Abraham
Meldola (No. 19). He was hakam and chief of the
great yeshibah at Leghorn, and was the author of
several volumes of Hebrew poems. He married the
daughter of Jacob Ispinoza, by whom he had a son,
Jacob (No. 31), and a daughter, Reina.

21. Jacob Meldola: Italian poet; flourished
during the eighteenth century ; son of David Mel-
dola (No. 20). He was also minister of the Leghorn

22. Raphael David Meldola: Son of Jacob
Meldola (No. 21) ; lived during the latter half of the
eighteenth century. He was president of the Reshit
Hokmah College, Leghorn, and gained celebrity as a
poet and humorist. He published several volumes
of verse. He was the father of Jacob Meldola,
who occupied the rabbinate of Pisa some time in the
nineteenth century.

23. Jacob Meldola: Younger son of Abraham
Meldola (No. 19); died in 1761. He was a noted
theologian, and the author of "Sefat Hayyim." His
son, Abraham Meldola (d. 1774), was hazzan in
Italy, and was the author of two volumes of dis-

Bibliography : Sefer Tnledot Adam, manuscript, parti., by
Eleazar Meldola, Leghorn, beginninR 1679; part ii., by Ra-
phael Meldola, Leghorn, Pisa, and Bayonne, beginning 1702;
part iii., bv David Meldola, Amsterdam, beginning 1744 ;
part iv., by Abraham Meldola, Hamburg, beginning 1772 ; sup-
plemental part by David bar Raphael Meldola, London, 1828;
Dibre Dawid, Preface and p. 139, Amsterdam, 17.53 ; Pedi-
gree of the McMola Fainilu from death of Isaiah Meldola,
i;i40, extracted from a book of about 400 verses from an-
cient manuscripts by R. Meldola ; D. Meldola, Ttie Wau "/
Fa it/i, Preface, London, 1848; heon, Histoire des Jnif^ de Ba-
yonne, p. 364, Paris, 1893; (;aster. Hist, of BevUf Marks,
lx)ndon, 1901: Henry S. Morals, Eminent Israelites of the
Nineteenth Centuru, Philadelphia, 1880; The Gentleman's
Magazine {London), Oct., 1828; Jew. Chron. Jnly 25, 1*51;
The Hebrew Observer (Lond(m), March 11 and April 15,
1853; Lucien Wolf, Old Jewish Families in Erigland, in
The Leisure Hour (London), Aug., 1886; The Occident
(Philadelphia), xl. 80, 213; Israel (London), June, 1899;
April, 1901 ; et seq.
o. C. I. DE S.

MELIHAH ("salting"): The process of salt-
ing meat in order to make it ritually fit (kasher)

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 110 of 169)