Isidore Singer.

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for cooking. The prohibition against partaking of
blood was extended by the Rabbis to include, under
certain conditions, flesh containing blood (based
on Gen. ix. 4; see Blood). Hence various reg-
ulations are prescribed in the rabbinic codes
which tend toward the elimination of blood from
tiie meat befoi-e it becomes tit for use. The pro-
hibition against blood, however, applies only to the
blood of mammals and birds, not to the blood of
fishes or of locusts, and even in mammals and l)ir(ls
only the blood whicli is contained in the veins or
which is congealed on the surface, or which has be-
gun to flow from tiie meat, is forbidden; as long as
the blood is a part of tiie meat it may be eaten.
For instance, one may cut off a piece of raw meat,
wash off all the bloo(l that may have gathered on its
surface, and eat it (Ker. 201), 21a; Shulhan 'Aruk,
Yoreh De'ah, 67. 1). When, iiowevor, meat is to
be used for cooking, during which process it will

certainly discharge a great deal of its blood, it is
necessary to salt it, in order to let the blood flow
freely for a time before cooking it. Meat that is to
be roasted over an open tire need not be salted, fur
all the blood that will be discharged during roast-
ing will be consumed in the fire. The custom, how-
ever, is to salt it a little even in this case (Hul. 14a,
and Tos., s.v. " We-Nasbiu"; Yoreh De'ah, 76).

In preparing meat for cooking the following proc-
ess is observed : The meat is first soaked in water
for about half an hour in order that the pores may
be opened to emit the blood. If it is
The left in the water longer than twenty-

Process, four hours, both the meat and the
vessel containing it become unfit for
use, for the meat is then regarded us if it had been
cooked (i?t^'UJ^3 XIH nn tyns), and meat cooked
without previous salting is forbidden. It is cus-
tomary not to use for any other purpose the vessel
in which meat is soaked before salting, although if
it is used (after it has been washed) the food cooked
in it, even if placed in it hot, is permitted for food
(Yoreh De'ah, 69, 1). The meat is next placed on
a wicker basket, or on straw, or on a slanting board,
and thickly salted on all sides. In the case of poul-
try the body should be opened and the entrails re-
moved before it is salted. The meat is left in the
salt for about an hour, or, if urgent, for about
twenty minutes. The salt is then shaken off, and
the meat is rinsed twice, after which it may be
cooked (I.e. 69. 4-8). If the meat is cooked before
the salt is washed off, the pot and all that it contains
are forbidden, unless the quantity in the pot is sixty
times greater than the quantity of the salt and the
moisture of the blood upon it. If the meat is cooked
before it is salted, the pot and all that it contains are
forbidden, unless the quantity in the pot is sixty
times greater than the piece of unsalted meat, and
even then, according to some authorities, the piece
itself is forbidden (I.e. 69, 9,11; see also " Be 'er

Three days from the time the animal is slaugh-
tered the meat does not discliarge its blood throi>g]i
salting, and therefore may not be cooked except by
roasting over an open fire. If, how-
Details, ever, water has been poured over it dur-
ing that time, it may be salted within
three days from Ihe time the water was poured
over it, and may then be used in cooking (I.e. 69, 12,
13). The liver, because of the abundance of blood
it contains, must be cut open and roasted before it
may be cooked (Hul. lUa; Yoreh De'ah, 73). Be-
fore salting the head must be cut open and the brains
removed; the horny parts of the legs must be
removed (I.e. 71) ; the heart must be cut open ; audit
is also customary to open the large veins of the lungs
before salting {I.e. 72).

Many pieces of meat, even if some are beef and
some poultry, may be placed one on the top of the
other in salting. Fish and meat, however, should
not be salted together, for the fish, after discharging
all its blood, will absorb the blood discharged by
tlie meat {I.e. 70). The intestines should not be
salted with other parts, although if this be done
they may still be used in cooking (I.e. 75). Eggs
found in the body of a fowl need salting, but must




not be salted witli otlier moat {I.e. 75, 1, Isscrlcs

BinLiOGRAPiiY : Maimonides, Ya<\, Ma'aknlnt Asurf)t,*i;
C»ro,Shulhn)i''A>uI:,Y<>irli A>.'((//, (i'j-TS ; linkcuh. §S 411)-
4;il; Kol Uo, 1U3; Or Zanui\ i. 4t)9-lTH; JtoUnult Ailitiii
§§ 30-35.

S. S.

J. 11. G.

MELLI: Family of scholars and rabbis that de-
rived its uame from Melli, an Italian village in tiie
province of Mantna. The family can be traced back
to the lifteenth centur3'.

Eliezer Melli: Rabbi of Venice in the sixteeulli
cenUny. He is mentioned in the responsa of Moses
Proveiif-al (No. 194).

Elijah ben Abraham Melli : The earliest
known member of the famil}'; rabbi of Parma in
the second half of the lifteenth centiny. Among
the Italian manuscript responsa in the possession of
Moitara there is one of I'^lijah Melli's, addressed (1470)
to Jo.seph Colon, concerning the divorcing of a bap-
tized Jew. It was issued at Parma, where Melli was
rabbi. Appended to it is the answer of Joseph Colon
approving the bill of divorce.

Jehiel Melli : Rabbi of Mantua in the begin-
ning of the seventeenth century; author of "Tap-
pnhc Zahab " (Mantua, 1623), au abstract of Elijah
de Vidas' book on religious ethics, " Reshit Hok-
mah " ; appended are annotations concerning ritual
laws. It was published with the "Hanhagot" of
Ashcr ben Jehiel by Melli's son-in-law, David Porta-

Phinehas Elijah ben Zemah Elijah Melli :
Rabbi in Mantua in the sixteenth century. He re-
ceived the degree of chief rabbi Jan. 15, 1581. He
was distinguished as a Talmudist, and is quoted by
Lampronti ("Pahad Yizhak," iv. 24) and Moses
Provencal (, Nos. 97, 112). Responsum
No. 231 of the 260 responsa of the Italian rabbis
is his.

Zemah Elijah b. Phinehas Elijah Melli :
Rabbi in Mantua in the sixteenth century. He re-
ceived the degree of chief rabbi on the same day as
his father. Responsa of his, addressed to various
contemporaries, are among the manuscripts in the
possession of Mortara.

BiBLiOKRAPHY : Fiienn, Keneset Tis7-a''el. p. 560; Mortara. Tn-
dice, pp. 38-39;, v. 125,379; vi. 134, 193, 264; Stein-
schneider. Cat. Bodl. col. 1280.

D. M. Sel.

poet; born in Spain about 1550. His translation
of some of the Psalms into Spanish verse brought
him under the suspicion of the Inquisition, and he
was imprisoned. When, after several years of tor-
ture, he was acquitted (1611), he left Spain and emi-
grated to Amsterdam. He soon gained a reputation
as a stylist and scholar; became a member of the
academy " De los Pintos " ; and was finally appointed
rabbi of the Portuguese synagogue Bet Yisrael in
Amsterdam. There are many allusions in his verses to
the tortures he underwent while imprisoned by the

BiBi.iooRAPHY : Kayserling, SephardUn, pp. 109 ct seq.; De
Barrios, Iiisigve jeaiha de, Jns Pintos; idem, Rclacion de
Ins Puetas, p. 53 ; Wolf, Bibl. Hebr. til. 177, 205, 1068.

G. W. M.

Com )().sii()r and translator in Leghorn (1777-93);
.son of Jacob Raphael Melol and brother of David
Hayyim Melol. He translated or edited the "Sefer
Azharot ha-Kodesh " and the Book of Ruth (Leg-
horn, 1777), and translated into Ladino "Seder Hat-
tarat Nedurim," the litual for dissolving an oath,
"conio suelen praeticar en la Yesiba de Gemihith
llasadim" (I'b. 1792). Mordecai Melol, a relative of
his, edited " Alegria de Purim " (ib. 17iJ2).

Bnn.iOGRAPiiY: Frsoh and (iruber, Enrj/c. section 11., part 28,
p. U3; Kayseiiintr, llibl. Esjj.-Port.-Jud. pp. 08, 92.

♦■ M. K.

MELS, ALFRED (pseudonym of Martin
Cohn) : German author; born at Berlin Apiil 15,
1831 ; died at Summerdale, near Chicago, July 22,
1894. He studied at the University of Berlin' but
in 1848 ran away to join the Foreigu Legion of
Algiers. He was severely wounded while on the
way to Oran in charge of a detachment of recruits.
Tiring of this life, he went to Paris, where he found
literary employment with Alexandre Dumas.

In 1850 Mels as a private joined the rebel army of
Sleswick-Holstein against Denmark, and at Idstadt
was again wounded. Recovering, he returned to
Paris as correspondent for various journals. Later
he went to Madrid to become the editor of "Las
Novedades." This position he resigned in order
to join the Spanish army, in which he rose to the
rank of captain. In 1864 Mels returned to Ger-
many to become a contributor to the " Gartenlaube "
and, later, to the "Daheim." In 1866 he jiublished
anonymously "Der Feldzug der Main-Armee," an
account of the progress of the Prussian army oper-
ating in the vicinity of the Main in 1866. In i!S09 he
went to (he Paris Exposition as representative of
"Daheim" and "Ueber Land und Meer."

On the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian war Mels
was appointed by the London " Times " one of its
correspondents with the German army ; but after
the fall of Sedan he resigned in order to accompany
Napoleon III. to Wilhelmshohe. Thence he went
to Vienna, where he became the feuilletonist of the
"Wiener Tageblatt." In 1873 he published, under
the nom de plume "Don Spaveuto," an expose and
a satirical criticism of Viennese journalists and their
methods: "Typen und Silhouetten von Wiener
Schriftsteller und Journalisten." From Vienna he
went successively to Graz, Zurich, Paris, Italy, and

Mels's best-known work is the comedy "Heine's
Junge Leiden " (1872), which has been performed
more than 2,000 times. An equal measure of suc-
cess was achieved by "Der Neue Fruhling" (1877),
after tAvo other plays, "Der Staatsanwalt " (1875)
and "Das Letzte Manuscript" (1876), had been only
moderately successful. Among Mels's other w(5rks
are: "Erlebtes und Erdachtes" (1869); " Herzens-
kJlinpfe" (1869); "Gebilde und Gestalten" (1870);
" Selfsame Schicksale" (1872); " Unsichtbare Machte"
(1875); and "Feme Horizonte" (1876-78). Mels
embraced Christianity in 1859.

Bibliography: Unsrre Zeit, 1. 672-675; BornmuUer, Schrift-
stcUer-Leviknn, 1882, p. 484; Franz Bruinmer, Dcutsches
Dichter-Lexihon, 1876.
8. E. Ms.




MELUN(Hebrew, pK^"©, pN'^D, pi5'0, orJlN^^-JD):
Principal town of the dcpartineut Seine-et-Marne,
France. There was a very important Jewish com-
munity here as early as the twelfth century. The
scholars connected with the Talmudic school of the
city took part in the sj'nod held at Troyes about
1160 under the direction of Kashbam and R. Tarn
("Kol Bo," No. 117, where pK''>''D ''D3n must be
read instead of pN"*^ *D3n). A Jew of Melun, Vi-
vaut, was appointed in 1202 to collect the taxes of
his coreligionists; another, Leo Crossius, obtained
permission in 1204 to live at the Chatelet in Paris. In
Dec, 1230, Saint Louis, King of France, together
with the barons at a meeting held at Melun, promul-
gated the following decrees: (1) henceforth Jews
will not be permitted to make contracts; (2) they
will be considered the property of the barons in
whose territory they live; (3) in cases of migration
they may be forcibly returned to tlieir former
homes; (4) debts due to them shall become void if
not collected within nine legal terms, and shall no
longer bear interest; (5) the vouchers for their
credits shall become worthless if not submitted to
tlie barons before All Saints' Day.

The Jews occupied a special quarter at Melun,
called "La Iviferie," which is mentioned in the doc-
uments of the years 1206, 1212, and 1218, preserved
in the archives of Notre Dame of Melun. In a doc-
ument dated Jan. 5, 1307, there is a reference to the
sale of a house and barn, situated in the Jews' street,
that had belonged to the Jew Donin and liis neph-
ews. Another document, of the year 1311, refers
to the sale of a house situated in the manor of the
"liopital S. Jean de Hierusalem, rue de la Iviferie,
iouxte la maison qu'ou appelle I'eschole aux Juifs."
In the library of Melun there is a manuscript of the
fourteenth century entitled "Breviarium Judaicum,"
being a mahzor (partly unedited), according to the
Frencli ritual, for the holy-days of Rosh ha-Shanah
and Yom Kippur (described in detail by M. Schwab
in " R. E. J. " xiii. 296-299). Like the Jews in other
parts of France, those of Melun were forced in 1306
by King Pliilip the Fair to leave tlie city without
hopes of ever returning.

The most prominent scholars of Melun include:
(1) Meshullam b. Nathan, identical, according to
Z. Kahn (ib. 1. 236), with the Narbonne scholar of
tiie same name. Mesiiullam is known to have gone
in 1150 from Narbonne to Melun, where he soon ac-
quired a high reputation. He corresponded with R.
Tarn and the most famous rubbisof his time. He is
quoted in the tosafot to Bezaii (16a), 'Abodah Zarah
(29b), and Pesaliim (105a). (2) Nathan b. Meshul-
lam, son of the preceding; was living at Etampes
in 1180. (3) Jedidiah, teacher of Abraiiam ben
Nathan of Lunel. (4) Menahem Sire Leon, or Mes-
.ser Leon (13th cent.). (5) The tosafist David of
Melun, and (6) his son Judah, who in 1225 directed
tlie Talmud school and was one of the four French
rabbis who took part in 1240 in the religious con-
troversy at Paris against Nicholas Donin.
Bibliography : Ordimnancen des Roin de France, 1. .W: Dep-
plnjr, Les JuifH dansle Mnyen Am. V- 125; Carmoly, Ttine-
raires de In Terre Sainte, p. 187; Zunz, Z. <i. pp. 48, .53, 94 ;
Renan-Neiihauer, Len Kcrivainx Juifn Fradmi.s, p. 410;
P. E. J. II. 38. xlil. 2994m, XV. 234 ; Gross, Gallia Judaica,
pp. 351 353.

G. S. K.

MIN) : English author; born in 1874. He is the
author of the following works : " Life of Thackeray "
(1899); "Thackeray's Stray Papers" (1902); "In
the World of Mimes" (1902); and "Introduction to
Thackeray's Works " (1903-4). He is a contributor
to the "Fortnightly Review," "Tlie Bookman,"
"Temple Bar," and to other English periodicals.

Bibliography: Literary Year-Booh, 1904.

I. L. B.

MEM: Thirteenth letter of the Hebrew alpha-
bet; the meaning of the name is " water," the prim-
itive shape of the letter resembling waves (see Al-
phabet). "Mem" has two forms: one for the
beginning or middle of a word (D), and one for the
end (D). Its numerical value (in post-Biblical wri-
tings) is 40. Being a labial, it interchanges in the
Semitic group of languages with other labials, that
is to say, with D, 1, 3, and sometimes also with the
liquids 1, J, p. In composition it appears as a pre-
fix, denoting place, time, instrument, or agent, and
is employed to form all participles except the "kal "
and "nif'al," and numerous substantives.

T. M. Sel.

MEMEL : City in the district of Konigsberg,
East Prussia. It has a population of 19,796, inclu-
ding 1,214 Jews (1900). The earliest mention of the
Jews of Memel occurs in connection with the ad-
journment of the diet by Duke Albrecht April 20,
1567, Avheu he decreed their expulsion from the city.
In 1664 the Great Elector granted the Dutch Jew
Moses Jacobsohn de Jonge the right of residence in
the city. De Jonge, who carried on an extensive
business, was finally compelled by financial dillicul-
ties to leave, and after that Jews were permitted to
enter only during the fairs. Furs and Hebrew books
were important articles of trade. The Prussian edict
of 1812 enabled the Jews again to settle in Memel,
and the extensive commerce in wood carried on with
Russia attracted many Polish and Russian Jews,
among others, to the city. The community was not
organized until 1862, when the hebra kaddisha was
established. The first rabbi was Dr. Isaac RiJLP
(1865-98), who established the parochial school and
the hospital, as well as the method of religious in-
struction, and was actively interested in behalf
of the Russian Jews. He was succeeded by Dr.
Emanuel Carlebach.

BiblioOraphy : Uulf, Ziir Gexc}i. der Juden in Memel, in
the first Bericht der Isiaelitifichen Religionsscliule, Memel,

IX H. V.

MEMOB-BOOK (German, " Memorbuch ") : A
manuscript list of localities or countries in which
Jews have been persecuted, together with the names
of the martyrs, and necrologies. Memor-books are
devoted primarily to the learned and influential, al-
though others may be included for special reasons,
particularly Jews distinguished for their noble char-
acter, or who performed their duties toward the
community with especial faithfulness or who gave
or bequeatlied gifts to its institutions. These me-
morials to the dead, which were intended to serve as
inspirations to the living, were read wholly or in
part at the memorial services (see Hazkau.\t Nesha-




MOT). The so-callt'cl " iiienimeru " — the reading of
the lists of martyrs aud of places of martyrdom —
was heard in the synagogue on the Sabbath before
the Ninth of Ab and on tlie Sabbath before Pente-
cost also.

The earliest memor-book extant is that of tlie com-
munity of Nuremberg. It was begun in 12W\ and
is so complete that it must have liad predecessors
which served as models for it. At all

Memor- events, notwithstanding their name,

book of the memor-booUs are not borrowed

Nurem- from the Christian Church, but are a
berg. product of Jewish piety ; for it has al-
ways been customary in Israel to re-
member the dead, to pray and to present offerings
for them, and to hand tlieir names down to poster-
ity. Indeed, the Christian Church adopted this
custom, which developed into the ritual observance
of All Souls' Day, from Judaism. Although the
different memor-books occasionally show a resem-
blance to a certain form of literature produced by
the Catholic Church — the diptychs borrowed from
the Romans, the "libri vitfe " or "libri viventium"
used until the Carolingian period, the later calen-
dars, necrologies, and martyrologies — yet many pas-
sages in the Church Fathers indicate that the
prayers for the dead were Jewish in origin, and
date from the time of the Apostles, who were Jews
(comp. Bautz, "Das Fegfeuer," p. 76, Mayence,
1888 ; Propst, " Liturgie der Ersten Drei Christlichen
Jahrhunderte." pp. 'dOi et seq.).

After it had become customary to remember
scholars, martyrs, benefactors, and others in prayers
on the Sabbath and on feast-days, the names of the
dead were entered in special books, with the formu-
las for the "hazkarah" or the "hashkabah" (see
Hazkarat Neshamot), generally beginning with
the words: " Yizkor Elohim nishmat ..." (May
God remember the soul of . . .). These books
contained, in addition to the general part — the intro-
ductory prayers and the names of the noble and
beneficent — a simple list of the dead, with notes on
their works and the sums spent for the repose of
their souls. A list of localities and countries where
persecutions had taken place either preceded the
necrologies or was added to them.

The original name of the memor-book was taken
from the Bible, and it was called either "Sefer Zik-
karon " (= "Book of Reifiembrance," after Mdil. iii.
16) or " Sefer ha-Zikrotiot " (= " Book
Name. of Commemorations"). The later title,
" Sefer Hazkarat Neshamot " (= " Me-
morial Book of Souls"), was soon superseded by
the general name "Memorial Book" or "Memor-
Book," which was applied to similar works in Chris-
tian circles also. The names " pinkes " (= " book,"
from the Greek Triva^), " Selbuch," aud " Totenbuch "
occur but seldom. The word "memor-book"
(■jmiCO, "imyOD, imrDSO) is derived from the
Latin "memoria" (see Salfeld, " Marty rologium,"
p. xii., note 5).

The memor-book of the community of Nurem-
berg, which was formerly designated by the mis-
leading term "Memor-Book of Mayence," on the au-
thority of Carmoly (in "Israelit," 1865, 1866), Gratz
("Gesch."), Nenbauer(in " R. E. J."iv. letseq.), and

others, was begun in 129G by a skilful scribe, Isaac
b. Samuel of Meiningeu, as a gift to be presented
to the community of Nuremberg at
So-Called the dedication of a new synagogue
Memor- (Nov. 1.5, 1296). It was then taken
Book of to Mayence, where it was stolen and
Mayence. sold. Subsequently it was acquired
by Carmoly, after whose death the
Israelitische Religionsgesellschaft of Mayence ob-
tained possession of it. It consists of three parts:
(1) the first necrology of the community of Nurem-
berg, a list of deaths and of gifts from about 1280
to 1346 ; (2) the martyrologium, a list of martyrs fi-om
1096 to 1349; aud (3) the second necrology of the
sj'nagogue of Nuremberg, a memor-book and list of
deaths and of gifts from 1373tol392. Theentirework
was edited by Salfeld (1896 and 1898) ; the necrolo-
gies by Stern and Salfeld ("Nurnberg im Mittel-
alter," pp. 95-205, Kiel, 1894-96); and the martyr-
ology at Berlin, 1898, text, translation, introduc-
tion, etc.

The first necrology, which was probably preceded
by forty-four pages containing a history of the per-
secutions or a cycle of elegies, is prefaced by a
prayer on the announcement of the
Contents. New Moon ; a benediction for the mem-
bers of the community who undertake
to keep the fast-day called " Sheni we-Hamishi we-
Shem " ; a benediction for the benefactors and per-
sons attending the synagogue ; a prayer for the sick ;
and the " Ab ha-Rahamim," a prayer for the martyrs
of Israel. This is followed by a poem referring to
the book, the building, and the dedication of the
synagogue, and closing with the words: "The
names of the donors have been entered in the Book
of the Beloved, who sleep in the grave." Then
come the prayers, found in nearly all the memor-
books, for the souls of the spiritual heroes of Israel
and of individual benefactors, and the prayers for
the dead ("yizkor"), in Hebrew and Old French, for
the individual martyrs and the persecuted commu-
nities. The martyrology is introduced by a sum-
mary of the persecutions of 1096 to 1298, the names
of the martyrs between 1096 and 1349, a list of cities
and villages in which persecutions took place under
Rindfleisch(1298) and Armleder( 1336-39), and at the
time of the Black Death (1348-49). The second
necrology is introduced by the ritual for the New
Moon aud a prayer for the members of the comrriO-
nity ("Misheberak," almost in the present form), to
which are added the same lists and other material
as in the first necrology.

As illustrations of the nature of the memor-
book there follows a translation of the oldest por-
tion thereof (t. e., the portion which, amplified ac-
cording as time and circumstance required, is com-
mon to all memor-books) and of two yizkor from
the Hebrew and one from the Old French:

" The following souls are remembered [in prayer] on all Sab-
baths of the year : Mar Solomon and Mistress Rachel, who have
done much for the welfare of the community and have averted
persecutions: our teacher R. Gershom, who by his teachings
was the light of the eyes of the Israelites in the Diaspora ; our
t^-acher R. Simon the Great, who has done much for the
communities and has averted persecutions ; our teacher R.
Solomon [b. Isaac, i.e., Rashi], who through his commentaries
was the light of the eyes of the Israelites in the Diaspora; our
teacher R. Jacob and his brother R. Samuel, whose love spread

Memorial Dates



the study of the Word of God in Israel ; Mar Isaac and Mistress
Bela, through whose efforts the toll was repealed at Coblenz ;
our teacher R. Meir b. H. Baruch, who has spread the study of
the Word of God in Israel."

" May ( Jod remember, as He has remembered the souls of Abra-
ham, Isaac, and Jacob, the souls of all members of communi-
ties who have been killed, stoned, burned, strangled, slaugh-
tered, drowned, broken on the wheel, hanged, or buried alive
because they remained true to their belief in the One God.
Since they have suffered this grievous pain, may (iod remem-
ber them, together with all pious men and women who rest in
paradise. To this we respond : Amen ! "

" May God remember, as He has remembered the souls of
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, the souls of all members of com-
munities who have striven for the welfare of the congregation,
have averted persecutions, have secured the repeal of taxes,
and have recovered scrolls of the Law from unworthy hands.
Whether a pious gift has been vowed for them or not. may God

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