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remember them for their deeds."

" May God remember the soul of . . . together with the souls
of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, because he bequeathed ... to
the cemetery (Rememra De spirteine . . . comine spirteine
. . . ki ad layds . . . pour amour ki f esis, cil le memred . . . ) ;
because he did this, may God remember him together with
the pious who dwell in paradise. Amen ! "

The formulas in French were added later, prob-
ably after 1306, when a number of Frencli exiles
settled at Nuremberg.

Several of the extant memor-books, single lists
from manuscripts and printed texts, as well as
works dealing with the subject, have been used by
Salfeld in his edition of the Nuremberg memor-book
(see his " Marty rologium," pp. xxvi. et seq.), and a
discussion of their form, contents, and importance
for the history of scholars and of persecutions will
be found tliere. The following list gives a survey
of his material :

Hebrew Codex No. 45 of the Landes- and Unlversitats-Bibllo-
thek in Strasburg, pp. 15-16, with lists of the martyrs of Worms
of 1096 and 1349.

Hebrew Codex No. 87 (42) of the municipal library, Hamburg,
fols. 31 et seq., with 165 places of persecution la 1298 et seq.
(Salfeld, I.e. p. xxvll.).

Extract from a memor-book of 1313-14, formerly in the posses-
sion of Chief Rabbi Charleville-Versailles, containing a list of
places in which persecutions occurred between 1298 and 1303
CJellioek, "Kontres Hamkonen, Martyrer- and Memorbuch," p.
9, Vienna, 1881).

Mahzor, MS. Oxford, Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No.
1108, with a list of places of the persecutions of 1349 (reprinted
ln"R. E. J."lv.29).

Oxford MS., Neubauer, " Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 1171, with
lists of 1319 (reprinted in " R. E. J." iv. 29, 30).

Codex Epstein in Vienna (formerly In the possession of Hal-
berstamof Bielltz), prayer-book according to the German ritual,
with a list of communities in which martyrdoms took place
(first ed. " Isr. Letterbode," vili. 89 ; republished in " Martyro-
loglum," p. 79; comp. also pp. xxlii., 272).

Wlbel, translation of an old fragment of a Jewish martyrol-
ogy ("Unschuldige Nachrichten auf das Jahr 1740"), dating
from the second half of the fifteenth century.

Two anonymous memor-books of German communities
(" Martyrologlum," p. xxviii.).

Manuscript of Carmoly, In possession of Dr. Brann at Breslau
iih.).

Memor-books of the following places: Alsheim, eight-
eenth century ; Bayersdorf . written in 1689 ; Bergheim-on-the-
Erft, begun In 1677; Bingen, in 1787; BOdigheIra, 1745; Bonn,
1725; Bretten, between 1716 and 1742; Coblenz, 1580; Deutz
(Cologne), beginning with 1.5S1 ; Dittigheim, 1746; FlOrshelm,
nineteenth century; Frankfort-on-the-Main (first entry 1627);
Fflrth, memor-book of the Neuschule, of the Waisenvereln, of
the Klaus, and of the Altschule (edited by Lowenstein in Gei-
ger's"Zeltachrlft,"i. 274, il.91 etscq.); Gaillngen, 1842; Gross-
Gerau, seventeenth century; Hagenau, 1800; Hanau, part 1.,
1601; Kastel. 1785; Klrchhaln, 1773 ; Kochendorf, 17:«; Kreuz-
nacb, 16.38; Tlriegshaber; Mayence communal mertior-books of
1583 and 1837, Krankenpflege-Verein No. 3, beginning of eight-
eenth century, and Rellglonsgesells<'haft, 18.v3; Mannheim,
1784 ; Michelstadt, beginning of eighteenth century ; MInden,



beginning of seventeenth century ; Nieder-Ehnheim ; Nurem-
berg (necrology of 1349 ; ed. Lowe, " The Memor-liook of Nurn-
berg," London, 1881); Ober-Ehnheim ; Oppenheiin, 1795 (after
an earlier copy); Partenheim, 1738; rfersee (comp. Perles in
" Monatsschrift," xxii. 503 et acq.): Rlieinbach near Bonn, one
necrology of 1650; Sontheim ; Strasburg; Treves, 1064; Vi-
enna; Weilmiinster, 1708; VVeisenau near Mayence, 1782 (after
an earlier c<ipy); Worms, i., ii., iii ; Xanten, on the lower
Rhine, one part of 1776.

Many other valuable memor-books exist besides
tliose used by Salfeld. Tliat of Buttenwiesen has
been edited by Lamm in " Monatssclirift," xlv. 540 ti;
seq., while those of Binswangen, Edenheim, Ehren-
breitstein( formerly called Thai; firstentry 1647), Em-
den, Harburg (Swabia), Ilochberg near Wiirzburg,
Oettingen, Steppach, Wallerstein, Wittelshofen, and
many others are still unedited. The memor-book of
Missiitz belonging to the Klaus Synagogue of Zecha-
riali Lewi of Vienna has been described by Kauf-
mann (in Berliner's "Magazin," xvii. 289 et seq.),
who used also the one of Dilsseldorf (" Aus Heinrich
Heine's Ahnensaal," p. 274), while that of Mamels-
dorf has been mentioned byZunz ("Literaturgesch."
p. 113) and others.

Further study on the subject, together with scien-
tific editions of the memor-books, would probably
yield valuable data for statistics, economics, gene-
alogies of scholars and families, nomenclature, dip-
lomatics, ritual, and liturgy, as well as for Jewish
history in general. See Martyrology.

Bibliography: Salfeld, ilfnrfi/roZoomm. 1896-98; Stem and
Salfeld, Nilrnberg im MittelaUer, Kiel, 1894-96.
J. S. Sa.

MEMOBIAL DATES : Jewish communities,
as a rule, have taken no note of birthdays of any
of their members and only in rare cases of the dates of
death. One of tliese cases is the anniversary of the
day on which Gedaliah was assassinated (3d Tishri),
upon which a fast is observed by Jews in all parts
of the world ; and on the 18th lyyar (Lag be-'Omer),
Jews living in Palestine visit the tomb of Simon
ben Yohai, believing this date to be the anniversary
of the latter's death. Jews of eastern Europe,
furthermore, record the days on which eminent rab-
bis die, because on every '"Jahrzeit" (anniversary of
the day of death) they make it a practise to visit
the graves of such rabbis, and to ask for their inter-
cession in heaven.

Besides these " Jahrzeiten " there are a number
of days which, although they have acquired a re-
ligious aspect, have also a historical significance, and
are observed either by the Jews as a whole or by
local communities. Thus the Ninth of Ab is ob-
served as a fast-day, for on that day the Temple
was twice destroyed. On the twenty-fifth of Kislew
the Feast of Hanukkah begins, because on that day
Jtulas Maccabeus consecrated anew the Temple at
Jerusalem (165 B.C.).

Tiie communities of Cologne, Worms, Mayence,
and a few other cities in the Khine district observed
fast-days in memory of the martyrs who died during
the First Crusade (Zimz. "Ritus," p. 127). Polish
Jews fast on the 2()th of Siwan on account of the
Cossack atrocities of 1648 (see Fasting and Fast-
Days). In Crete and Frankfort-on-the-Main as well
as in certain communities in Egypt, special feasts
or Purims are celebrated in commemoration of mi-
raculous events. The Alexandrian Jews observed a



459



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Memor-Book
Memorial Dates



memorial day iu bonor of the translation of the Bible
into Greek (Philo, "Vita Mosis," ii., § 7; see also
Festivals).

Iu imitation of these memorial days sanctified by
religion, other dates of Jewish interest have been
recorded from time to time, and are used in calen-
dars, almanacs, and at times in the Jewish press.
In recent years large collections of notable dales
have been made by Jewish scholars and historians,
beginning with L. Zunz. The following list gives
in calendric order the more important and inter-
esting of these:

January.

1. Jair Hayyim Bacharach, German rabbi, died, 1702. Several

thousand Jews killed by an earthquake at Safed and Ti-
berias, 1837.

2. Persecutions of Jews at Lauda and Bischofshelm, 1335.

3. " Neue Stattigkeit " for Frankfort-on-the-Main makes right

of domicil perpetual, 1617. Rachel, French actress, died,
1858.

4. Moses Mendelssohn, philosopher and religious reformer,

died, 178G. Wilhelm Beer, German astronomer, born,
1797.

5. Joseph Salvador, Jewish historian, born, 1796. Edward

Lasker, German statesman, died, 1884.

6. First auto da fe held at Seville, 1481.

7. Disputation at Tortosa, Joseph Albo being one of the partici-

pants, 1413. Sir Julian Goldsmid, English member of Par-
liament, died, 1896.

8. Samuel Cahen, translator of the Bible into French, died,

1862.

9. Llebmann Adler, American rabbi, born, 1812.

10. David Nieto, haham of London, died, 1728. Poll-tax abol-

ished in France, 1784.

11. Abraham Mapu, Russian Hebrew writer, bom, 1808. LeUo

delta Torre, Italian Jewish theologian, born, 1805.

12. Edict of Juan II. of Castile, withdrawing civil jurisdiction

from the Jews, conflnned, 1412.

13. Law of Baden forms Jews into special religious community

with all privileges, 1809. Alexander I. of Russia issues
edict removing Jews from villages to towns and cities In
the governments of Moghilef and Vitebsk, 18:.'5.

14. Hebrew books, confiscated under bull of Feb. 28, 1593, burned

at Rome, 1601. Great Are in the Frankfort ghetto, 1711.

15. Leopold Dukes, Hungarian Jewish scholar, born, 1810.

16. Johann Jacob Raabe, translator of the Mishnah, born, 1711.

17. Marcus Herz, physician and philosopher, bom, 1747.

18. Soloiuen Sulzer, reformer of syn8g<i8»l music, died, 1880.

19. Marcus Herz, physician and philosopher, died, 1803. Isaac

D'lsraell, English litterateur and father of the Earl of
Beaconsfleld, died, 1848.

20. Moritz Oppenheim, German painter of Jewish family life,

bom, 180(J.

21. Jews expelled from France, 1306. Nathan Marcus Adler,

chief rabbi of the British empire, died, 1890.

22. David Cassel, Jewish historian, died, 1893. English Zionist

Federation founded, 1899.

23. Abraham ibn Ezra, Bible exegete and poet, died, 1167.

24. Ferdinand Julius Cohn. German botanist and zoologist,

born, 1828. Isaac Artom, Italian statesman and senator,
died, 1900.

25. Disputation at Paris on the Talmud, 1240.

26. First edition of the Hebrew Pentateuch printed at Bologna,

1482.

27. Jerome Napoleon grants full civil rights to Jews of West-

phalia, 1808.

28. Llppold, master of the Brandenburg mint, executed, 1573.

Theodor Benfey, German Sanskritist and philologist,
born, 1809.

29. Abraham Furtado, president of the Sanhedrin summoned by

Napoleon, died, 1817.
31. Henry III. issues regulations for English Jewry, 1253.

February.

1. BogumllDawlson, German actor, died, 1872. Mass-meetings
held at New York and London expressing sympathy with
the persecuted Jews of the Russian empire, 1882. Perez
Smolenskin, Russian Hebrew writer, died, 1885.

3. FellxMendelssohn-Bartholdy, composer, bom, 1809. Charles
the Bourbon, King of Naples and of the two Sicilies, in-
vites the Jews back for fifty years, 1740.



4. " Resettlement Day " in England. Oliver Cromwell grants

Carvajal and other Jews right of residence, 1657. Joseph
Siiss Oppenheimer executed; many Jews driven from
Wiiritemberg In consequence, 1738.

5. Rashi on the Pentateuch, the earliest dated printed Jewish

book, issued at Regglo. 1475. The disappearance of Father
Tomaso (Thomas) gives rise to the Damascus Affair,
1840. Nehemiah Brull, Jewish scholar, died, 1891.

6. Solomon Munk, French Arabic scholar, died, 1867. Elijah

Benamozegh, Italian rabbi and cahalist, died. IfiOO.

8. Shabbethai Cohen (Shach), died, 1663. Berthold Auerbach,

German novelist, died, 1882.

9. Opening of the Sanhedrin at Parts, 1807. Isaac Adolphe

Creiiiieux, French statesman, died, 1880.

11. Societat Felix Libertate founded at Amsterdam, 1795.

12. Auto da 16 at Toledo at wliich 740 Jews were reconciled,

14.%. Ludwig Borne, German writer, died, 1837. Isaac
Baer Levinsohn, the IMendelssohn of Russia, died, 1860.

13. Zacharias Frankel, Jewish scholar and theologian, died,

1875.

14. Two thousand Jews burned at Strasburg, 1349. Jews or-

dered to leave Vienna, 1670.

15. Caret Asser, Dutch jurist, bora, 1780.

16. Emancipation of the Jews of Sweden, 1870. Commission

appointed to revise the laws concerning the Jews of Rus-
sia, 1883.

17. Heinrich Heine, German poet, died, 1856.

18. "Hatti Humayun" issued, granting full civic rights to

Turkish Jews, 1856. Congregation of the Holy Olllce de-
clares forcible baptism of Jewish children by Christian
nurses effective, 1705.

19. Peter Beer, Austrian educator, bora, 1758. Henry IV.

grants Jews of Speyer protection to life and property,
1090.

21. Johann Christopher Wolf, Christian bibliographer of Jewish

books, born, 1683.

22. Johann Reuchlin, champion of the Jews and defender of the

Talmud, bom, 1455. Isaac Marcus Jost, Jewish historian,
born, 1793.

23. Franz Delitzsch, Christian Hebraist, born, 1813. Sir George

Jessel, master of the rolls, England, born, 1824.

24. Moritz Oppenheim, German painter of Jewish family life,

died, 1882.

25. Bull of Nicholas V. prohibiting Christians from having so-

cial intercourse with Jews and Saracens, 1461.

26. Jews expelled from all Papal States except Rome and An-

cona, 1659.

27. Benedict Spinoza, philosopher, died, 1677. Paulus CasseL

Jewish scholar and convert to Christianity, bom, 1821.

28. Vincent Fettmilch and his chief accomplices executed,

Frankfort, 1616. Berthold Auerbach, German aevialiflt,
born, 1S12. Rachel, French actress, Iwrn, 1820.

March.

1. About four thousand Jews burned at Worms, 1349.

4. Gregory IX. issues bill forbidding Christians to dispute on

matters of faith with Jews, 1233. " Rights of Man " de-
clared in Holland, 1795. Religious freedom proclaimed In
Austria, J 849.

5. The states of Austria demand that no Jews be permitted to

dwell there, 1460.

6. Massacre of Jews at Navarre, 1328.

7. MordecalJaffe, codifler of rabbinical law, died, 1612. Joseph

Almanzi, bibliophile and poet, died, 1860.
9. Julius Fiirst, Hebrew philologist and Jewish bibliographer,
died, 1873.

10. Ignaz Moscheles, German composer, died, 1870.

11. Bull of Benedict XIII. against the Talmud and any Jewish

books attacking Christianity, 1415. Edict giving the Jews
of Prussia citizens' rights, 1812.

12. Judah Lob Bensew, Jewish grammarian and lexicogra-

pher, died, 1811. Ludwig Augustus Frankl, German wri-
ter and poet, died, 1893.

13. Aaron of Neustadt (surnamed Blumlein), uncle and chief

instructor of Isserlein, died, 1421.

14. Mob attacks the Jewish quarter at Cordova, slaughtering

many Jews and Maranos, 1473. Heyman Steinthal, lin-
guist and philosopher, died, 1899. Ludwig Bamberger,
German deputy and political economist, died, 1899.

15. Albert Cohn, Orientalist and philanthropist, died, 1879.

Peddling prohibited In Rumania; 20,000 Jews are thus de-
prived of a livelihood, 1884.

16. Jews of York slay themselves In order to avoid baptism,

1190.



M«xnorial Dat as



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



460



17. Napoleon Institutes the system of consistories in France,

ISaS. Jac'ques-Fran(;ois-bromenthal-Elie Hai^vy, compo-
ser, died, 18C3. Judah P. Benjamin becomes secretary of
war of the Confederacy of America, 1862.

18. Leopold Zunz, Jewish scholar, died, 18^6.

19. Jews of Brest-Lltovsk granted free trade and occupation

and half of the tolls, 1527.

20. Riots in many cities of Germany, 1848.

21. Leo da Modena, Italian rabbi and author, died, 1648. Three

Jews executed at Wilna on a false blood accusation,
1691.

22. Charter granted to Jews of England by Richard I., 1190.

Jews permitted to return to Lithuania, 1503. Michael
Beer, German poet, died, 1833.

23. Talmuds burned in Rome at the Feast of Pentecost, 1322.

Naphtali Herz Wesel (Hartwig Wessely) , died, 1805. Isaac
Artom elected senator in Italy ; first Jew to hold such an
office, 1877.

24. Joseph Caro, codiner of rabbhilcal Judaism, died, 1575.

Solomon Halberstam, Jewish scholar, died, 1900.

25. Joseph Almanzi, bibliophile and poet, born, 1801.

26. Isaac M. Wise, American Reform rabbi, died, 1900.

27. Wllhelm Beer, German astronomer, died, 1850.

28. Lazarus Bendavid, German philosopher and reformer, died,

1832. James Darmesteter, French Orientalist, born, 1849.
Jews expelled from Moscow by order of the governor-
general, 1891.

29. Meir ben Todros ha-Levl Abulafla (RaMaH), nasi and Tal-

mudist, died, 1244. Jews who served in Russian army
permitted by edict to settle in Finland, 18.58.

30. Moses ben Maimon (Maimonides), philosopher, born, 1135.

Solomon Sulzer, reformer of synagogal music, born, 1804.

31. Edict of expulsion of Jews from Spain issued by Ferdinand

and Isabella, 1492.

April.

1. Disappearance of Esther Solymosi gives rise to a blood ac-

cusation at Tlsza-EszlAr, 1882. Baroness Clara de Hlrsch,
philanthropist, died, 1899.

2. Jews expelled from Genoa, 1550.

3. Charles V. of Germany issues edict against blood accusations,

1544. Hirsch Kallscher, founder of modern Zionism, born,
1T95.

4. Isaac da Fonseca Aboab, hakam at Amsterdam, died, 1693.

Opening of the Anglo-Jewish Historical Exhibition in the
Royal Albert Hall, London, 1887.

5. Moses Ephraim Kuh, first German Jewish poet, died, 1790.

6. Aaron Bernstein, German publicist, bom, 1813.

7. Emancif>ation of the Jews of Prussia, 1848.

8. Ferdinand III. grants Bohemian Jews right of residence In

all royal towns, 1648. One hundred and twenty-eight
Jews killed by soldiers and populace at Bucharest as the
result of a blood accusation, 1801.

10. Karl Isldor Beck, Austrian poet, died, 1879.

11. First anathema against Hasidim issued at Wilna, 1772. Fer-

dinand Lassalle, socialist agitator, born, 1825.

12. Jews of Cracow plundered and many murdered by soldiers,

1464.

13. Sabbato Morals, American rabbi, born, 1823. Edict of Nich-

olas I. founding agricultural colonies in Russia ; general

Jewish regulations issued in Russia, 1835.
U. Deutsch-Israelitlsclier Geineindebund founded, 1869.
15. Dankmar Adler, American architect, died, 1900.
IR. Menahem ben Jacob, poet and teacher at Worms, died, 1203.

17. Frederick the GreatlaBuesa "General-Privlleghim" for the

Prussian Jews, 1750. Pope Pius IX. issues edict to re-
move the walls of the Roman ghetto, 1848.

18. Charge of host desecration at Prague leads to massacre of

Jews, 1389. Earl of Beaconsfleld, English premier, died,
1881.

19. Massacre of Jews at Cordova by soldiers of Sulalman ben al-

Haklm, 1013. Jacob Eraden, German rabbi, died, 1776.

20. Levi ben Gershon, philosopher and commentator, died, 1344.

Proselyte Nicholas Anthoine burned at Geneva, 1632.

21. Baron Maurice de Hirsch, philanthropist, died, 1896.

22. Isaac Adolphe Cr(5mleux, French statesman, born, 1796.

Uriah Phillips Levy, American commodore, born, 1792.

23. Louis XIII. of France issues edict forbidding Christians, un-

der penalty of death, to shelter Jews or converse willi
them, 1615. Elijah ben Solomon of Wilna. the " Gaon,"
bom, 1720. Poll-tax In territories of Brunswick-LOne-
burg abolished. 1803.

24. First recorded auto da 16 held at Troyes, 1288.

25. Anti-Semitic league of (iermany presents a petition with

255,000 signatures to Bismarck, 1881.



26. Duti^h West India Company directs Peter Stuyvesant to al-
low Jews to dwell and trade i a New Netherlands, 16.")).
Jews expelled from Russia ;md the Ukraine by Catherinr,
1727.

37. Meir of Rothenburg died, 12i)3. Anti-Semitic riot at Eliza-
bethgrad begins a series of excesses against the Jews in
South Russia, 18S1.

29. Antony Samuel Adam-Salomon, French sculptor, died, 1881.

30. Decree ordering Jews to leave Spain publicly announced,

1492.

May.

1. Moses Isserles, Polish rabbi and code annotator, died, 1572.

Johaun Jacoby, German statesman, boin, 1805. Sir Francis

Henry Goldsmid, M.P., first English Jewish lawyer, born,

1808.
3. All the Jews of England thrown into prison, 1287. Glacomo

Meyerbeer, composer, died, 1864.

3. Jews of Speyer massacred by ihi^ Crusaders, 1096.

4. Benjamin II., Rumanian traveler, died, 1864.

6. Ludwig Borne, German writer, born, 1786. Judah P. Ben-

jamin, statesman and lawyer, died, 1884.

7. Attack on the Alcana (smaller Jewry) of Toledo by the ene-

mies of Samuel ha-Levl ; 1,3TO injured, 1&55.

8. Anti-Jewish riots in different parts of Russia, especially in

Kiev, 1881.

10. Great auto da fe at Lisbon, 1682.

11. Bull of Benedict XIII. against Talmud and any Jewish

books attacking Christianity, 1415. Abraham Geiger, Jew-
ish scholar and theologian, born. 1810.

12. Massacre of the Jews of Worms by Crusaders, 1096. Synod

of Vienna under Cardinal Guido orders Jews to wear
pointed hats, 1367.

14. Solomon Munk, French Orientalist, born, 1803.

15. Bogumil Dawison, Polish-(ieraian actor, born, 1818. Rus-

sian " May Laws" issued, 1882.

16. Emancipation of the Jews of Holland, 1796. Heyman Steln-

thal, philosopher and linguist, born, 1823.

17. First Jewish school in Hungary opened at Alt Ofen, 1784.

William Steinitz, chess-player, born, 1836.

18. Anti-Jewish riots in Algeria, 1897.

19. Isaac Alfasi, Talmudic author, died, 1103.

20. Samuel Alatri, Italian philanthropist, died, 1889.

21. Thirty Jews burned at Bosing, near Presburg, 1529.

33. Martyrdom of Brussels Jews charged with host desecration,
1370. Israel ben EliezerBa'alShem-Tob (BeSHT), founder
of the sect Hasidim, died, 1760. Mor'decai M. Noah, Amer-
ican diplomat and communal worker, died, 1851.

23. All the Jews of Austria seized, 1420.

24. Riot at Frankfort-on-the-Main on account of a Jewish per-

vert; 180 killed and Jewish quarters destroyed, 1341.
Abraham Geiger, Jewish scholar and reformer, born, 181(1.

25. Louis Philippe issues regulations for the internal organiza-

tion of the French Jews, 1844.

26. Martyrdom of Jews at Blois, 1171.

37. Jews of Mayence massacred by Crusaders, 1096. Jacques-
Fran(;ois-Fromenthal-Elie Hal^vy, composer, born, 1799.

39. Lelewel, Polish geographer and friend of Jews, died, 1861 .

30. Massacre of Jews at Cologne by Crusaders, 1096. Ignaz
Moscheles, German composer, born, 1794.

June.

1. " Privilegium Fredericianum " issued by Duke Frederick II.

of Austria, 1344.

2. Tolerance edict of Joseph II. of Austria issued, 1783. Grace

Aguilar, English novelist and writer on Jewish history,
bora, 1816.

4. Outbreaks against Jews of Seville, 1391.

5. Jews of Rome forbidden to practise usury, 1570. Sir Julius

Benedict, composer and conductor, died, 1885.

6. Henry II. imposes on Jews of Toledo a tax of 20,000 gold

"dollas" (= $9,6;W.000), 1369.

7. Louis Jacoby, (ierman engraver, born, 1828. David Kauf-

mann, Hebraist and Orientalist, born, 18.'j2.

8. Riots at Posen lasting to July 4, on account of a false mur-

der charge, lt)96. Fanny von Amstein, society leader at
Vienna, died. 1818.

9. Jacob Tam, most prominent of French tosaflsts, died. 1171.

Samuel Mohllever. rabbi and Zionist, died, 1898.
10. Six thousand Jews of Nemirov slaughtered by the Cossacks,

1648.
12. Jews of France ordered to wear a yellow badge, 1269.

15. Jews expelled from Genoese territory, 1567.

16. Many Jews murdered in Erfurt, 1221. Joseph Solomon del

.Medigo l)ora, 1591.



461



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Memorial Dates



17. Twenty-four wagon-loads of Talmuds and two hundred
other manuscripts burned at Paris, 1-44. Eighty Maranos
imprisoned by Alexander VI. at Rome, 1503.

20. Four thousand Jews slain at Toledo, l',J91. Cos.sacks slay

thousands of Jews at Honiel, Poland, ITiiT.

21. Rabbinical synod held at Ferrara, 1;»4. Jacques Offenbach,

composer, born, 1819.

23. Martyrdom of Jews of Weissenburg, 1270.

24. Jews treacherously murdered at Tulchiii by Cossacks, 1648.

Edgar Jlortara forcibly taken from his family, giving rise
to the " Mortara Case," 1858.

25. Religious disputation before Louis IX. of France, 1240. Two

liundred and flfty Jews murdered in Rothenburg-on-the-
Taubar, 1298.
2(i. Eipmann Heller forced to leave his post as rabbi at Prague,
1529. Adolf Jellinek, Jewish scholar, born, 1821.

27. Jews of Xanten massacred by Crusaders, 109(5. Joseph

Israels, Dutch painter, born, 1824.

28. Meir of Rothenburg imprisoned at Rotevil by Bishop Henry

of Basel, 1286. Jew badge Introduced into Venice. 1366.

29. Blood accusation at Xanten, 1891.

30. Edict forbidding Maranos to leave Portugal, 1557. Jews ex-

pelled from Prague, 1745.

Jui.Y.

1. Elijah ben Samuel burned at Rome, 1298. Bernard Beer,

(ierman-Jewish scholar, died, 1861.

2. Anglo-Jewish Association founded, 1871.

3. Mansion House meeting in London protests against the out-

rages of the Damascus Affair, 1840. Religious freedom
proclaimed in Germany, 1868. Theodor Herzl, Zionist
leader, died, 1904.

4. Judah ben Asher, Talmudist, died, 1349. Isabella Nunez

Alvarez burned in auto da f^ at Madrid, 1632.

5. Pope Innocent IV. issues bull against blood accusation,

1247.

6. Three himdred Jews murdered at Tarrega, Catalonia, 1348.

7. (iregory X. issues bull against blood accusation, 1274. Lud-



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