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wig Chronegk, German theatrical manager and actor,
died, 1891.

8. Seligtiiann Heller, German poet, born, 1831.

9. Julius Oppert, Orietitalist, born, 1825. Lord Roth-schild

takes his seat as first Jewish peer in the British House of
Lords, 1884.
11. Czarina Anne expels the Jews from Little Russia, 1740. E.
H. Lindo, Jewish historian, died, 1865.

13. Godfrey of Bouillon takes Jerusalem, and nearly all the

Jews there are slaughtered, 1099. Solomon Yizhaki
( Rashi ) , commentator, died, 1105. Berlin Congress inserts
clause 44 into its treaty, 1878.

14. United Synagogue of London established by Act of Parlia-

ment, 1870.

15. Pope lays down principle that Jews were doomed to per-

petual servitude because they had crucified Jesus, 1205.
Royal decree expelling Jews from Portugal issued, 1508.
Act permitting Jews to trade in New Netherlands Issued,
16.55.

16. Grjziadio Isaiah Ascoli, Italian philologist, born, 1829.

17. Anti-Semitic riots at Neustettin, lasting two days, 1881.

18. Nathan Rothschild, founder of the London banking-house,

died, 1836.

19. Thirty-eight Jews burned at Berlin, 1510.

20. Religious disputation at Barcelona, Nahmanides defending

Judaism, 1263.

21 . Shabbethal ben Joseph Bass, founder of Jewish bibliogra-

phy, died, 1718.

22. First expulsion of Jews from France, 1306. About 10,000

Jews slain at Polonnoye, near Jitomir, 1648.

23. ShabbeHiai Zebl, pseudo-Messiah, born, 1626.

24. Jean de Bloch, Russo-Polish financier, born, 1836.

2.5. Jews expelled from Vienna, 1670. Johann Christopher
Wolf, bibliographer of Jewish books, died, 1739.

2C>. Pope Paul IV. establishes the ghetto at Rome, 1556. First
sitting of the Assembly of Notables, 1806.

27. Benedict Spinoza excommunicated, 1C56.

28. Emancipation in Hungary, 1849. Eduard Lasker secures the

passing of the " Austritt-Gesetz," permitting persons in
Prussia to sever connection with any religious community,
1876. Sir Moses Monteflore, philanthropist, died, 1885.

29. Max Nordau, writer and Zionist, born, 1849. Joseph Deren-

bourg. Orientalist, died, 1895.
no. Auto da f6 at Toledo, 1488.
31. Littlo St. Hugh of Lincoln disappeared, 1255. Nachman

Krochmal, Galician scholar, died, 1840.



AlGl'ST.

1. Mordecal ben Hillel killed during the massacre of Jews at

Nuremberg. 1298. Two Jews elected to the National As-
sembly of Holland, 1797. Last auto da f^ at which a Jew
was burned held at Valencia, is2ij.

2. Jews expelled from Spain. 1402. First Portuguese synagogue

at Amsterdam dedicated, 1675.

3. Patent for Itohemia removes all Jewish disabilities, 1797.

Carel Asser, Dutch jurist, died, 1836.

4. Samuel Cahen, translator of the Bible into French, bom,

179tj. Max Ring, German poet, bom, 1817.

5. Great massacre of Jews at Barcelona, 1391. Maria Theresa,

for an annual consideration of 3,000,000 gulden, suspends
for a period of 10 years the edict expelling Jews from
A ustria, 1748.

6. Marcus Eliezer Bloch, naturalist, died, 1799.

7. Bolko I. of Silesia grants Jews "Privlleglum Frederict-

anum," 1295.

8. Bull of Pius IV. permits Jews to lay aside the yellow hat on

journeys, 1561. Jacob Cliristian Basnage, Christian his-
torian of the Jews, born, lt>53.

9. Jews settle in Pinsk and secure lands for synagogue and

cemetery, 1506. Anti-Jewish riots at Frankfort ; house of
the Rothschilds attacked, 1819.

10. Leopold Zunz, Jewish scholar, born, 1794. Alexander I. of

Russia prohibits foreign Jews from settling permanently
in Russia, 1824.

11. Jonah Abravanel, Hebrew poet, died, 1667. Restriction on

the use of Christian praenomens removed in Bohemia, 1836.

12. Nahmanides visits Jerusalem, 1267. Jossel von Rosheim ob-

tains from Charles V. an extension of the Alsatian privi-
leges to the whole Holy Roman Empire, 1530. William
Steinitz, chess-master, died, 1900.

13. Johannes Buxtorf II., Christian Hebraist, bom, 1599.

14. Baruch Auerbach, educator and philanthropist, born, 1793.

15. Simon ben Asher, astronomer, died, 1342.

16. Johannes Buxtorf II., Christian Hebraist, died, 1664.

17. Papal edict forbids Jews to admit Christians Into synagogue,

1592.

19. Michael Beer, German poet, born, 1800.

20. Maranos of the Basque Provinces ordered to leave the Jew-

ish streets and to live among Christians, 1493.

21. Joseph Derenbourg, Orientalist, born, 1811.

22. Six thousand Jews slaughtered in Mayence, 1349.

24. Three thousand Jews slaughtered in Erfurt, 1349. Aaron

Chorin (Choriner), Hungarian rabbi, died, 1844.

25. Samuel David Luzzatto, Italian Jewish scholar, bom, 1800.

David Gans, Jewish historian and mathematician, died,
1613.
28. " "Alenu " prayer forbidden in Prussia, 1703. Isaac Samuel
Reggio, Jewish theological writer, died, 1855. Opening
of the first Zionist Congress at Basel, 1897.

30. Zebl Ashkenazi, rabbi in London and Amsterdam, died, 1658.

31. Joseph Pichon of Seville, chief royal tax-gatherer, executed

by order of Jewish judges, 1379. Ferdinand Lassalle. so-
cialistic agitator, died, 1864.

SEPTEMnEU.

1. Jews of Brest ordered to obey court of Rabbi Mendel Frank,

1531. Anti-Jewish riots at Frankfort-on-fhe-Main, under
Fettmilch, 1614.

2. Jews of Holland declared by the National Assembly citizens

of the Batavian republic, 1796.

3. Coronation massacre at London, 1189. James Joseph Syl-

vester, English mathematician, born, 1814. Anti-Jewish
riots at Stockholm, 1852.

4. Michael Sachs, German rabbi, bom, 1808.

5. Henrietta Herz, leader of Berlin salon, born, 1764.

6. Moses Mendelssohn, philosopher and religious reformer,

born, 1729.

7. Hirsch (Heinrich) Graetz, Jewish historian, died, 1891.

8. Israelsky, accused of ritual murder at Kimitz, acquitted,

1900.

9. Captain Alfred Dreyfus condemned a second time, 1899.

10. Jewish community founded at Berlin, 1671. Shabbethal

Zebi, pseudo-Messiah, died, 1676.

11. Jewish Colonization Association founded by Baron de Hirsch,

1891.

12. David Oppenheim, bibliophile, died, 1736.

13. Johannes Buxtorf I., Christian siholar, died. 1629. Shab-

bethal Zebi embraces Mohammedanism, 166i;.

14. Albert Cohn, Jewish scholar and philanthropist, bom, 1814.

15. Akiba Eger the Elder, rabbi and Talmudic author, died,

1780. Giacomo Meyerbeer, composer, born, 1791.



Mezaorial Dates
Memphis



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



463



16. Grace Aguilar, English novelist and writer on Jewish his-
tory, died, J847.

1". Decree ordering Jews to leave France issued, 1394. Pedro
Arbues, inquisitor, "tlie darling of Torquemada," died,
1483.

18. Jonathan Eybeschiitz, rabbi and author, died, 1764. Sultan

of Morocco grants religious liberty to Jews and Christians,
1880.

19. Mayer Rothschild, founder of the Frankfort banking-house,

died, 1812. Capt. Alfred Dreyfus "pardoned," 1899.

20. Gedaliah Yahya, writer on history, died, 1487. Ghetto at

Rome abolished, 1870.
22. Dedication of the Mayence synagogue, 1104.
24. Moses Sofer, rabbinical author, born, 1762.

27. Emancipation of the Jews of France, 1791.

28. First congregation founded at Stockholm, 1775.

29. Jews of Krems massacred, 1349. Fanny von Arnstein, soci-

ety leader at Vienna, born, 1757. Samuel David Luzzattu,
Italian Jewish scholar, died, 1865.

30. Zachnrias Frankel. Jewish scholar and theologian, bom.

1801.

October.

1. About 7,000 Jews expelled from the government of Kiev,

Russia, 1898.

2. Thousands of Jews killed at Lublin by Cossacks, 1656.

3. Blood-accusation riot at Galatz; ninety Jews injured and

four synagogues destroyed, 1868. Moses Sohreiber (Sofer),
Orthodo.x leader and rabbi, died, 1839.

4. Emancipation of the Jews of Raden, 18G2.

5. Jacques Offenbach, French composer, died, 1880.

6. Abraham Firkovich, Karaite scholar, born, 1787.

7. Eleazar of Brody, rabbi at Amsterdam, died, 1741.

8. Jacob Eduard Polack, physician to the Shah of Persia, died,

1891.

9. Casimir 111., the Great, of Poland, grants Jews " I'rivilegium

lYedenrianum,''' 1333. Adolf Franck, French philosopher,
born, It^OO. Abraham Mapu, Russian Hebrew writer, died,
1867.

10. Elijah ben Solomon of Wilna, the '* Gaon," died, 1797.

11. Ninety Jews massacred at Munich, 128').

12. Akiba Eper, rabbi and Taliuudic author, died, 1837.

13. Victor Emanuel emancipates the Jews of Rome, 1870. Leo-

pold Low, rabbi and critic, died, 1875.

14. Eduard LasUer, German politician, born, 1829.

15. Moritz Hartmann, Austrian poet, born, 1821.

16. Joseph Solomon del Medigo, physician and scientist, died,

1658. Jewish quarter of Kossow. Galicia, attacked; ten
Jewskillfd. 1898.

17. Bull appointing Tomaso Torquemada inquisitor-general of

Aragon, Valencia, and Cataloida, 1483. Senatorial decree
grants privileges to baptized Jews in Russia, 1776.

18. Lazarus Bendavid, German philosopher and reformer, born,

1762.

19. James Darmesteter, French philologist, died, 1894. Giulio

IJartolocci, Italian Christian student of Jewish literature,
died, 1()S7.

20. Emin Piisha (Ed. Schnitzer), African traveler, killed, 1892.

21. Israelitisclie Theologische Leliranstalt of Vienna founded,

1893.

22. Roman Curia decides that a Jewish child once baptized

must be brought up under Christian influences, 1587.
Henriette Herz, leader of the Berlin salon, died, 1847.

23. Abraham (ieiger, Jewish scholar and religious reformer,

died, 1874. Inquisition at Rome refuses permission to

Jews to put gravestones or inscriptions over their dead.

1625.
34. Mo.ses Monteflore, philanthropist, born, 1781. Decree of

Cri'mii'UX naturalizes the Jews of Algeria, 1870.
2,5. Asher ben Jehiel (Rosh), died, 1327.
26. Anti-Jewish riots at Cracow, 1407.

28. 'Abd al-Majid receives Moses Monteflore in regard to the

Daniiuscus AlTair, 1840. Moses Nahmanides, philosopher
and commentator, died, 1270. Emanuel Deutsch, English
Jewish Talmudic scholar, born, 1829.

29. Jews of Kur-IIessen granted full emancipation (first in Ger-

many), 18.33. Conference of Jewish notables of western
Europe at Brussels, to discuss Rumanian question, 1872.

31. Jews expelled from Portugal, 1497. Heinrich Graetz, Jew-

ish historian, born, 1817.

NOVF.MBKR.

L Jews of England Imprisoned by King John, 1210. Jews ban-
ished from Kngland, 12^)0. Isidore Loeb, French Jewish
scholar, born, 1839.



1760.



Rus-
Jost,



2. William II. of Germany receives a Zionist deputation headed

by Dr. Thendor Herzl, at Jerusalem, 1898.

3. Third and final expulsion of the Jews from France, 1394.

Ludwig Chronegk, German actor, born, 1837.

4. Auto da fe held at Seville, 1481. Felix Mendelss(jhn-Bar-

thokly. Composer, died, 1847.

5. David Sassoon, Indian financier, died, 1864.

6. Finnan issued by Sultan 'Abd al-Majid against blood accu-

sation, 1840. Abraham Azulai, cabalistic author, died,
1643.

8. Rabbinical synod of Mayence regulates the payment of Jew-

ish taxes, 1223. Peter Beer, ('(incational writer, died, 1838.

10. David Einhorn, American Rrforiii rabbi, born, 18li9.

11. Sabbato Morals, Aineiican oitliodox rabbi, died, 1897.

12. Law regulating the adoption of family names by Jews In

Austria, 1787.

13. Talnuid burned at Kanienetz-Podolsk by the Frankists,

1757. Benjamin I'eixotto, American diplomat, born, 1S34.
15. Act passed by General Assembly of New York permitting

Jews to omit "upon the faith of a Christian" from the

oath of abjuration, K27.
10. Riot at Paris ; many Jews plundered, several killed, and the

rest forc<"(l to flee, ]3sn. Jews execiUed for imaginary

crime at La (Juardia, 1-191.

17. Simhah Pinsl;er, Hebrew author, died, 1864.

18. First meeting of English Jewish Board of Deputies,

" Lehrerseuiinar " founded at Berlin, 1S40.

19. Emma Lazarus, American poetess, died, ls87.

20. Manasseh ben Israel, died, 1657. Anton Rubinstein,

sian composer and pianist, died, ISill. Isaac .M.
Jewish historian, died. lSi;0.
23. Solomon Maiinon, (iennan philosopher, <lied, ISOO.

23. Leopold Kompert, ghetto poet and novelist, died. 188().

24. Benedict Spinoza, philosopher, boni, 1632.

27. Abraham ben David of Poscpiieres (RaBal) III.), French
Talmudic commentator, died, 1198. Sir Julius Benedict,
English composer, born, 1804.

29. Jews of .\ngsburg massacred. 1349.

30. Bull of Honorius IV. to ai-chbishops of York and Cantei bury,

against the Talmud, 1286. Atiton Rubinstein, Ru.ssian
composer and pianist, born, ISW.

DiX'KMliKrt.

1. Manuel Fernando de Villa Real, Portuguese Jewish states-

man, executed by the Iu(|uisiMon at Lisbon, 1652.

2. Ukase of Elizabeth exi)elling Jews from (ireat Russia, 1742.

3. Eduard Bendemann, (ierman painter, born, 1811.

4. Opening of the Whitehall conference of English notables on

the question of the readmission of Jews into Fngland,
1586.
6. David Friedliinder, religious reformer and scholar, born,
1750. Anselm Mayer von Rothschild, flnanci(>r, died,
1855.

9. Jews expelled from Breslau, 1738. Nathan (ihazzati, warm

adherent of Shabbethai Zebi, excommunicated, 166('>.
Baron Maurice de Hir.sch, philanthropist, iiorn, 1831.

10. (Juildhall meeting protests against the persecution of Rus-

sian Jews by the "May Laws," 1890. Auto da f6 held at
Toledo; nine hundred Jews "reconciled," 1486.

11. Napoleon issues decree dividing the whole French empire

into Jewish consistories, 1808.

12. Isaac Leeser, American Orthodox rabbi, born, 1806.

13. Moses ben Maimon (Maimonides), philosopher, died, 1204.

Kmperor Charles IV. makes an agreement with Rudolph
IV. of Austria and John of Bohemia not to receive Jews
expelled from Austria, and rice ^^crsa, 1360. Heinrich
Heine, German poet, bom, 1797.

14. Mattithiah Straschun, Talmudic scholar, died, 1885.

15. Ludwig Dessoir, (Jerman actor, bom, 1810.

17. Three hundred Jews of Bychow, near Moghilef, slaughtered,

16.59. Kalman Schulman, Russian Hebrew writer, died,
1898.

18. Jews expelled from Bohemia, 1744.

19. Poll-tax abolished in Austria. 1781.

20. Meflze Haskalah founded in Russia, 1863.

21. Benjamin Disraeli, afterward Eari of Beaconsfleld, English

premier, born, 1804. Adolf Sonnenthal, German actor,
born, 18;U. Emancipation of Jews of Austria, 1867.

22. Jacob Christian Basnage, Christian historian of the Jews,

died, 172.5.

23. Paulus (Selig) Cassel. Jewish scholar and convert to Chris-

tianity, died. 1892.

24. King Emanuel orders all Jews to leave Portugal, 1496.

Anti-Semitic riots at Warsaw, lasting three days, 1881.



463



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Memorial Dates
Memphis



25. Johannes Buxtorf I., Cliristian Jewish scholar, horn, 15fi4.
David Friedliintier, religious reformer and scholar, died,
1834. Jean de Bluch, Kiisso- Polish financier, died, 1801.

27. Judaizinj,' followers of K. Zechariah of Kiev burned at Mos-

cow, \'>()o. Eduard Uendemann, German painter, died,
1889.

28. Ludwig rtiilippson, Jewish publicist, born. 1811. Full civil

ri<rlits and piivileges granted to the Jews of Frankfort,
1811.

29. Ludwig Philippson. Jewish publicist, died, 1889. Jewish

Emancipation Act passed in Hungary, 18G7. Adolf JelU-
nek, Jewish scholar, died, 1893.

30. Jews of (iranada, among them Joseph Ibn Nagdila, massa-

cred, lOSJl. Ludwig Dessoir, German actor, died, 1874.

31. Isaac Artom. Italian senator, born, 1829. Sampson Raphael

Hirsch, Jewish theologian, died, 1888.

BiBLiOGRAPiiY: Zunz, Die MonatMofic dcs Knlcnderjahreg,
Berlin, 1872; M. Kayserling, Stcihctrujc. (tiis Alter nvd
Nciicr Zcit, Prague, 1891; (icdoikhiCittcr : Hcrvorragcnde
Jlidischc PoaiifiUchheitcn dc.-i 10. Jnhrhnndcrtx, I.eip-
sic, 1892; G. Deutsch, in Dclinrali, 19iil and 1902; idem.
Memorable Dates of Jewish History, New York, 1901.

J. I. G. D.

MEMORIAL. SERVICE : Prayer for the dead

is iiic'iitioiicd as early as the last pre-('livistian century
(sec 11 ]\Iacc. .\ii. 44), and a sacrifice for the dead,
probably given in the form of ciiarity, was known
in Talnm(iic time (Sifre, Dent. 210; Hor. (ia). Tlie
reading of tlie chapter " Ahare ]\Iot" on the Day of
Atonement suggested the idea of offering on that
day a special prayer for the memory of tlie dead
(comp. Pesik. 1741) with the interpolated sentence in

> Tan., Yelammedenii, Ha'azinu, and Kol Bo, Ixx.).
Regarding the extension of tiie prayer for the dead
to otlier holy days, see the literature in Bet Yosef,
Tur Urah Ilayyim, 621; ]M. Brlick, " Pliarisaische
Volkssitten und Ritualien''; L. Low, "Gesanimelte
Schrilten," 1. 129, v. 29; L Levi, "La Commemora-
tion des Ames dans le Judaisme," in "R.E.J."
xxix. 4;]-60; Hambtirger, " R. B. T." u.,s.r. "See-
lenfeier"; IIazkakat Neshamot (in which article
the memorial service for Orthodox congregations is
treated).

Reform Judaism remolded the old liturgy, lay-
ing special stress on the idea of the immortality of
the son), thereby affording a source of comfort to
motirners in their grief. In the new form, the me-
morial service, which dwells mainly on the awful
solemnity of deatiiand the liopeof a future life, and
which is written to a great extent in the vernacular,
has become one of the most prominent and impressive
features of the Day of Atonement. Among those
who composed elaborate and solemn memorial serv-
ice liturgies Leopold Stein and David Einhorn
may be specially mentioned.
There is a certain uniformity in the Reform rituals

I ■with regard to the elements of which the memorial

I service consists: a recitation or intonation of the
verses Ps. cxliv. 3-4, xc. G, 3; Dent, xxxii. 29; Ps.
xlhx. 18 (A. V. 17). xxxvii. 3, xxxiv. 23 (A. V. 22),
forms the introduction to a meditation dwelling on

; the fleetingness of life; this is followed by a psalm,
like Ps. xxiii. ; selected poems from Ibn Gabirol,
Judah ha-Levi, and Bahya ben Joseph, translated
into the vernacular, lead up to the prayer for the
memory of the departed, in which, finally, mention
is made, as in the old " Ilazkarat Neshamot," of the
great martyrs of the past. In many congregations
the death-roll for the year is read, and persons dis-
tinguished in Israel who died during that period are



also remembered. The reciting of the "Kaddish"

by the entire congregation closes the service, to which

elaborate and befitting music lends great solemnity.

A. K.

MEMPHIS : City of ancient Egypt, situated
about ten miles south of modern Cairo. "Mem-
phis'" is the Greek form of the Egyptian "Menfe,"
and is used in IIos. ix. 6, A. V., and in Isa. xix. 13,
H.V., margin (comp. Judith i. 10). The Hebrew
form is "Mof," and occurs in IIos. ix. 6; in all otlier
idaces it has been corrupted to " Nof," which tlie
versions, however, render correctly by "jNIemphis."

As the capital of Egypt, Memphis seems to be
mentioned in Hos. ix. 6; Ezek. xxx. 13, 10 (wliere,
however, some critics alter the name in accordance
with the Septuagint); Cornill, by making certain
corrections, reads it also in Ezek. xxx. 15 and Isa. xix.
13. Jer. ii. 16 places it parallel with other large
Egyptian cities, especially of the Delta. According
to Jer. xliv. 1, xlvi. 14, the Jews fleeing from the
Babylonian war to Egypt had formed a colony there.

a" part of Memphis, called "the White Wall"
(later forming the citadel of the city ; see Herodotus,
iii. 91; Thucydides, i. 104), existed at a very early
period, and the residences of many Egj'ptian kings
of tlie third to the sixth dynasty were built near it.
From its temple the city always retained the sacred
name "Temple of Ptah " ("Hat-ka-ptah," whence,
probably, the name "Egypt" has been taken). The
civil name and an account of the development of
the city are derived from the funeral pyramid of
King Ppy (vocalized "Apopy" V) I. of the sixth
dynasty, called "Men-nofer " = "good resting."
Hence the later abbreviations "Menfe," " Menbe "
("Mempi" in Assyrian; Delitzsch, "Wo Lag das
Paradies ?" p. 314), etc. Otlier etymologies found
in Greek writers are unwarranted.

Memphis remained from the sixth dynasty to the
Arab conquest perhaps the first, certainly the second,
city of Egypt; and it frequently was the capital.
The Arabs, however, soon caused its depopulation
by founding new capitals a little to the north of it,
for which the stones from the ruins of ]\Iemphis
were used so exhaustively that only a few traces,
near modern Mitrahineh and the large necropoleson
the border of the de.sert (the pyramids of Gizeii, etc.),
bear witness to the former existence of tiie city.

K. G. II. W. I\I. M.

MEMPHIS : Largest city of the state of Ten-
nessee in the United States of America. Although
the year 1845 is designated as the date of the
earliest settlement of Jews in Memphis, it appears
that a few had lived there temporarily before that
time. Among the most prominent of the earlier
settlers was Joseph J. Andrews, a former resident of
Charleston, S. C, and Philadelphia. In 1847, Avhen
his brother died, he donated several acres of land to
the Israelites of Memphis to be used as a burial-
ground. This caused his resident coreligionists to
organize in 1850 a Hebrew Benevolent Society.
Divine service was then held only on Ro.sh ha-
Shanah and Yom ha-Kippurim.

By 1853 there was a considerable increase in the
.Tewisli population, and a congregation was organ-
ized under the name "B'nai Israel," with M. Simon



Hemphis
Menahem



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



464



as president and Solomon Hess as secretary. A hall
was leased in 5a building on Front street; and Jonas
Levy, formerly of Little Rock, Ark.,
First Con- was engaged a.s hazzan and shohet.
gregation. A Hebrew school, under the '^'reo-
tion of the Rev. L. Sternheimer, was
established, and a lot was bought with $3,000 do-
nated by Judah Touro in 18~8. At the beginning
of 1858 greater interest was manifested in communal
affairs. A building, known as " The Farmers' and
Mechanics' Bank," was purchased and dedicated
(March 26, 1858) as a house of worship. At the
same time the Rev. J. J. Peres was elected hazzan.
In 1860 the Rev. Simon Tuska of Rochester, N. Y.,
was chosen as rabbi. His views were those of mod-
erate Reform; but when an organ, a mixed clioir,
and famil}' pews were introduced into the syna-
gogue a considerable number of mem-
Orthodox bers seceded and formed (1862) an Or-
Congrega- thodox congregation called "Beth-El
tion Emess." The numerical strength of

Formed. the B'nai Israel congregation was re-
duced; but the members held their
own, and when, after the close of the Civil war,
many Israelites from the West and the East settled
in Memphis, most of them affiliated with the Reform
congregation. Rabbi Tuska died suddenly on Dec.
30, 1870; and the congregation elected as his suc-
cessor the Rev. M. Samfield, formerly rabbi of the
B'nai Zion congregation, Shreveport, La. He was
installed Aug. 15, 1871, and still (1904) occupies the
rabbinate.

Some years later a consolidation of the Beth-El
Emess congregation with B'nai Israel was effected,
and in 1883 a lot on Poplar street was bought for
the site of a temple. The building was dedicated
Jan. 18, 1884. Another Orthodox congregation, es-
tablished in 1862, had no permanent place of wor-
ship until 1890, when the members bought a church
and converted it into a synagogue, giving their or-
ganization the name of " Baron Hirsch Congrega-
tion." The number of members is at present (1904)
eighty-five. Another orthodox congregation was
founded in 1904, under the name of "Anshai
S'fard," with a membership of fifty.

The number of Jews in Memphis is estimated at
2,500 in a total population of 120,000. The follow-
ing societies are in existence: Hebrew Ladies'
Benevolent Society, United Hebrew Relief Associa-
tion, Young Ladies' Aid Society, Jewish Ladies'
Aid Society (Orthodox), Young Men's Hebrew As-
sociation, Ladies' Salon Circle (literary), B'nai B'rith
Lodge, Free Sons of Israel Lodge, Kesher shel
Barzel Lodge, Zionist Society, Memphis Club
(social). The majority of Jews are merchants, but
many are engaged in various trades as tailors,
shoemakers, tinners, printers, opticians, carpenters,
barbers, engravers, watchmakers, painters, butch-
ers, and manufacturers of clothing, caps, shirts,
and mattresses. There are also a considerable num-
ber following the various professions, as lawyers,
musicians, teachers, physicians, and journalists.
A. M. S.\.

MEMRA (:= " Ma'amar " or •' Dibbur." " F.ogos") :
"The Word," in the sense of the creative or direct-
ive word or speech of God manifesting His iiower in



the world of matter or mind ; a term used especially
in the Targum as a substitute for " the Lord " when
an anthropomorphic expression is to be avoided.

Biblical Data : In [Scripture " the word of the

Lord " commonly denotes the speech addressed to



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 113 of 169)