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patriarch or prophet (Gen. xv. 1; Num. xii. 6, xxiii.
5; I Sam. iii. 21; Amos v. 1-8); but frequently it
denotes also the creative word : " By the word of the
Lord were the heavens made" (Ps. xxxiii. 6; conip.
" For He spake, and it was done " ; " He sendeth his
word, and melteth them [the ice] "; "Fire and hail;
snow, and vapors ; stormy wind fulfilling his word " ;
Ps. xxxiii. 9, cxlvii. 18, cxlviii. 8). In this sense
it is said, "For ever, O Lord, thy word is settled in
heaven" (Ps. cxix. 89). "The Word," heard and
announced by the prophet, often became, in the
conception of the seer, an efficacious power apart
from God, as was the angel or mes.seuger of God :
"The Lord sent a word into Jacob, and it hath
lighted upon Israel" (Isa. ix. 7 [A. V. 8], Iv. 11);
" He sent his word, and healed them " (Ps. cvii. 20) ;
and comp. "his word runneth very swiftly" (Ps.
cxlvii. 15).

In Apocryphal and Rabbinical Litera-
ture : While in the Book of Jubilees, xii. 22, the
word of God is sent through the angel to Abraham,
in other cases it becomes more and more a personi-
fied agency: "By the word of God exist His works"
(Ecclus. [Sirach] xlii. 15); "The Holy One, blessed
be He, created the world by the ' Ma'amar ' " (Mek.,
Beshallah, 10, with reference to Ps. xxxiii. 6).
Quite frequent is the expression, especially in the
liturgy, "Thou who hast made the universe with
Thy word and ordained man through Thy wisdom
to rule over the creatures made by Thee " (Wisdom
ix. 1; comp. "Who by Thy words causest the eve-
nings to bring darkness, who openest the gates of
the sky by Thy wisdom"; . . . " who by His speech
created the heavens, and b_v the breath of His mouth
all their hosts"; through whose "words all things
were created"; see Singer's " Daily Prayer-Book,"
pp. 96, 290, 292). So also in IV E.?dras vi. 38
("Lord, Thou spakest on the first day of Creation:
' Let there be heaven and earth,' and Th}' word hath
accomplished the work"). "Thy word, O Lord,
healeth all things" (Wi.sdom xvi. 12); "Thy word
preserveth them that put their trust in Thee " (^.^.
xvi. 26). Especially strong is the personification of
the word in Wisdoni xviii. 15: "Thine Almighty
Word leaped down from heaven out of Thy royal
throne as a fierce man of war." The Mishnah, with

reference to the ten passages in Gene-

Personifi- sis (cli. i.) beginning with "And God

cation of said," speaks of the ten "ma'amarot"

the Word, (rr "speeches") by which the world

was created (Abot v. 1 ; comp. Gen.
R. iv. 2: "The upper heavens are held in suspense
by the creative Ma'amar"). Out of every speech
["dibbur"] which emanated from God un angel was
created (Hag. 14a). "The Word ["dibbur"] called
none but Moses" (Lev. R. i. 4,5). "The Word
["dibbur"] went forth from the right hand of God
and made a circuit around the camp of Israel"
((^ant. R. i. 13).

In the Targum : In the Targum the Memra

figures constantly as the manifestation of the divine



465



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Memphis
Slenahem



power, or as God's messenger in place of God Him-
self, wherever the predicate is not in conformity
with the dignity or the spirituality of the Deity.

Instead of the Scriptural "You have not believed in the
Lord," Targ. Deut. i. 32 has " You have not believed in the
word" of the Lord " ; instead of "I shall require it [vengeance]
from him," Targ. Deut. xviii. 19 has " My word shall require it."
"The Memra," instead of "the Lord," is "the consuming Are"
(Targ. Deut. ix. 3; comp. Targ. Isa. xxx. 27). The Memra
"plagued the people" (Targ. Yer. to Ex. xxxii. a5). "The
Memra smote him " (II Sam. vi. 7 ; comp. Targ. I Kings xviil.
24; llos. xiii. H; eta!.). Not " God," but " the Memra," is met
with in Targ. Ex. xix. 17 (Targ. Yer. "the Shekinah" : comp.
Targ. Ex. xxv. 2'3: " I will order My Memra to be there"). "I
will cover thee with My Memra," instead of " My hand " (Targ.
Ex. xxxiii. 22) . Instead of " My soul," " My Memra shall reject
you " (Targ. Lev. xxvi. 30 ; comp. Isa. i. U, xlii. 1 ; Jer. vi. 8 ;
Ezek. xxiii. 18). " The voice of the Memra," instead of " God,"
Is heard (Geu. iii. 8 ; Deut. iv. 33, 3C ; v. 21 ; Isa. vi. 8; el al.).
Where Moses says, " I stood between the Lord and you " (Deut.
V. 5), the Targum has, "between the Memra of the Lord and
you "; and the " sign between Me and you " becomes a " sign
between My Memra and you" (Ex. xxxL 13, 17; comp. Lev.
xxvi. 40 ; Gen. ix. 13 ; xvii. 2, 7, 10 ; Ezek. xx. 12). Instead of
God, the Memra comes to Abimelek (Gen. xx. 3), and to
Balaam (Num. xxiii. 4). His Memra aids and accompanies
Israel, performing wonders for them (Targ. Num. xxiii. 21 ;
Deut. 1.30, xxxiii. 3; Targ. Isa. Ixiii. 14; Jer. xxxi. 1; Hos.
ix. 10 [comp. xl. 3, "the messenger-angel"]). The Memra
goes before Cyrus (Isa. xlv. 12). The Lord swears by His
Memra (Gen. xxi. 23, xxii. 16, xxiv. 3; Ex. xxxii. 13:
Num. xiv. 30; Isa. xlv. 23; Ezek. xx. 5; et at). It is His
Memra that repents (Targ. Gen. vi. 6, viii. 21 ; I Sam. xv. 11,
a5). Not His " hand." but His " Memra has laid the foundation
of the earth" (Targ. Isa. xlviii. 13); for His Memra's or Name's
sake does He act ((.c. xlviii. 11 ; II Kings xix. 34). Through
the Memra God turns to His people (Targ. Lev. xxvi. 90 ; II
Kings xiii. 23), becomes the shield of Abraham (Gen. xv. 1),
and Is with Moses (Ex. iii. 12 ; iv. 13, 15) and with Israel (Targ.
Yer. to Num. x. 33,36; Isa. Ixiil. 14). It is the Memra, not
God Himself, against whom man offends (Ex. xvi. 8; Num.
xi?. 5 ; I Kings viii. 50; II Kings xix. 28 ; Isa. 1. 2, 16 ; xlv. 3, 20 ;
Hos. V. 7, vi. 7; Targ. Yer. to Lev. v. 21, vl. 2; Deut. v. 11) ;
through His Memra Israel shall be justified (Targ. Isa. xlv. 25);
with the Memra Israel stands in communion (Targ. Josh. xxli.
24, 27) ; in the Memra man puts his trust (Targ. Gen. xv. 6 ;
Targ. Yer. to Ex. xiv. 31; Jer. xxxlx. 18, xlix. 11).

Like the Shekinah (comp. Targ. Num. xxiii. 21),
the Memra is accordingly the manifestation of God.
"The Memra brings Israel nigh unto God and sits
on His throne receiving the prayers of Israel"
(Targ. Yer. to Deut. iv. 7). It shielded Noah from
the flood (Targ. Y^er. to Gen. vii. 16) and brought
about the dispersion of the seventy
Mediator- nations {I.e. xi. 8); it is the guardian
ship. of Jacob (Gen. xxviii. 20-21, xxxv.
3) aiid of Israel (Targ. Y^er. to Ex. xii.
•23, 29) ; it works all the wonders in Egypt {I.e. xiii.
8, xiv. 2o); hardens the heart of Pharaoh {I.e. xiii.
15) ; goes before Israel in the wilderness (Targ. Yer.
to Ex. XX. 1); blesses Israel (Targ. Yer. to Num.
xxiii. 8); battles for the people (Targ. Josh. iii. 7,
X. 14, xxiii. 3). As in ruling over the destiny of
man the Memra is the agent of God (Targ. Yer.
to Num. xxvii. 16), so also is it in the creation of tlie
earth (Isa. xlv. 12) and in the execution of justice
(Targ. Yer. to Num. xxxiii. 4). So, in the future,
shall the Memra be the comforter (Targ. Isa. Ixvi.
13): "My ?>hekinah shall put among you. My
Memra shall be unto you for a redeeming deity,
and you shall be unto My Name a holy people"
(Targ. Yer. to Lev. xxii. 12). "My Memra shall
be unto you like a good plowman wlio takes off the
yoke from the shoulder of the oxen " ; "the Memra
will roar to gather the exiled " (Targ. Hos. xi. 5.
VIII.— 30



10). The Memra is " the witness " (Targ. Yer. xxlx.
23); it will be to Israel like a father {I.e. xxxi. 9)
and '■ will rejoice over them to do them good " {I.e.
xxxii. 41). "In the Memra the redemption will be
found " (Targ. Zech. xii. 5). " The holy Word " was
the subject of the hymns of Job (Test, of Job, xii.
3, ed. kohler).

It is difficult to say how far the rabbinical con-
cept of the Memra, which is used now as a parallel
to the divine Wisdom and again as a
The Logos, parallel to the Shekinah, had come
under the influence of the Greek term
"Logos," which denotes both word and reason, and,
perhaps owing to Egyptian mythological notions,
assumed in the philosophical system of Heraclitos,
of Plato, aad of the Stoa the metaphysical moaning
of world-constructive and world-permeating intelli-
gence (see Reizenstein, "Zwei Religionsgeschicht-
i'iche Frageu," 1901, pp. 83-111; comp. Aall, " Der
Logos," and the Logos literature given by Schiirer,
"Gesch." i. 3, 542-544). The Memra as a cosmic
power furnished Philo the corner-stone upon which
he built his peculiar semi-Jewish philosophy.
Philo's "divine thought," "the image" and "first-
born son" of God, "the archpriest," "intercessor,"
and "paraclete" of humanity, the "arch type of
man " (see Philo), paved the way for the Christian
conceptions of the Incarnation ("the Word become
flesh") and the Trinity. The Word which "the
unoriginated Father created in His own likeness as
a manifestation of His own power" appears in the
Gnostic system of Marcus (Irenseus, "Adversus
Hcereses," i. 14). In the ancient Church liturgy,
adopted from the Synagogue, it is especially inter-
esting to notice how often the term "Logos," in the
sense of " the Word by which God made the world,
or made His Law or Himself known to man," was
changed into "Christ" (see "Apostolic Constitu-
tions?' vii. 25-26, 34-38, et al. ). Possibly on account
of the Christian dogma, rabbinic theology, outside
of the Targum literature, made little use of the
term "Memra." See Logos.

Bibliography: Bousset, Die Rehqion des Judenthnms im
Neutestamentlichen Zeitalter, 1903, p. 341 ; Weber, JildUche
Theologie, 1897, pp. 180-184. j^

MEN AHEM : King of Israel 748-738 B.C. ; son
of Gadi. Zachariah, the son of Jeroboam II., had
at the end of six months' reign been slain by Shal-
lum, a usurper. Menahem went from Tirzah, one
of the government fortresses, to Samaria, cut down
the usurper, and occupied the throne (II Kings
XV. 8-14). Immediately thereafter he smote Tiph-
sah because it refused to yield to him, and in-
flicted the most barbarous punishment upon the
women of the city and its borders {ib. verse 16).
This Tiphsah has been identified, by a slight change
of letters, with En Tappuah (Josh. xvii. 7), a city
on the borders of Ephraim and Manasseh.

It was in the reign of Menahem that the great
Tiglath-pileser III. appeared on Israel's horizon:
" There came against the land Pul, the King of As-
syria ; and Menahem gave Pul a thousand talents of
silver, that his hand might be with him to confirm
the kingdom in his hand. And Menahem exacted
the money of Israel, even of all the mighty men of
wealth, of each roan fifty shekels of silver, to give



Meuahem b. Aaron
Meuahem ben Jacob



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



466



to the king of Assyria. So the king of Assyria
turned back, and stayed not tlierc in the land " (ih.
verses 19-20, R. V.). The identification of Pul with
Tiglath-pileser III. is beyond dispute. Israel at
this time liad 60,000 men of wealtli, and was too
powerful a kingdom to yield to Assyria without a
struggle.

Among the tributaries of Tiglath-pileser. as de-
scribed in his own inscriptions, are found the fol-
lowing: Kushtashpi of the city of Kummukh ;
Rasunnu of Gar-imeri (that is, Rezin of Aram-Da-
mascus); Mi-ni-hi-im-mi of the city of Sa-mi-ri-na-
ai (that is, Menahem of Samaria); and Hirumof the
city of Sur (Tyre). From this reference it is possi-
ble to assign Menahem to a date about 748-738 b.c.
His complete subjection to the King of Assyria
seems to have occurred about the close of his reign,
so that his son and successor was obliged to carry
the burden of Assyria's tribute.

Menahem was the only king in this anarchic period
of the Northern Kingdom who died a natural death.

E. G. H. I. M. P.

MENAHEM B. AARON IBN ZERAH :

Spanish coditier; born in Navarre, probably at Es-
tella, in tlie first third of the fourteenth century ;
died at Toledo July, 1385. His father, forced to
leave France in 1306 through the expulsion of the
Jews, went to Spain and settled in Estella, wliere
^lenahem passed his youth. In the mas.sacre whicli
took place in Estella in 1328, ]\Ienahem's parents
and his four younger brothers were slain. 3Iena-
hem himself was stricken to the ground, and lay all
but dead from his wounds, when he was saved
through the compassion of a knight, a friend of his
father's. He then studied two years under Joshua
ibn Shu'aib, after which he went to Alcala to join
Joseph ibn al-'Aish, with whom he studii-d the Tal-
mud and Tosafot. His chief teacher was Judah b.
Asher, who went through the whole of the Talmud
with him, with the exception of the third and fourth
orders. In 1361 Menahem succeeded Joseph ibn al-
'Aish as rabbi in Alcala, and held office for eight
years, during which time he also taught the Talmud.

In consequence of the civil war which broke out
in 1368, Menahem lost all his property, and he then
went to Toledo, where Don Samuel Abravanel took
him under his protection, and enabled him to con-
tinue his studies during the rest of his life. In honor
and for the benefit of this protector Menahem wrote
"Zedah la-Derek" (Ferrara, 1554). This work oc-
cupies a peculiar position among codes, and is in a
certain sense unique. As the author states in the
introduction (ed. Sabbionetta, p. 166), it is intended
mainly for rich Jews who associate with princes and
who, on account of their high station and their in-
tercourse with the non-Jewish world, are not over-
ligorous in regard to Jewish regulations. For such
a cla.ss of readers a law-codex must not be too
voluminous, but must contain the most es.sential
laws, especially those that the higher classes would
be inclined to overstep.

The "Zedah li-Derek " is divided into five parts
(comprising altogether 372 sections), which may be
summarized as follows: Parti.: The ritual and all
that is related to it, as, for example, the regulations



concerning phylacteries, zizit, etc. Part ii. : Laws
concerning forbidden foods. Part iii. : IMarriage
laws. Part iv. : Sabbath and feast-days. Part v. :
Fast-days and laws for mourning. As a supplement
to the last part is a treatise on the ilcssiah and on
the resurrection of the dead. Menahem sought to
emphasize the ethical side of the Law in his woik.
He was not satisfied with merely stating the regula-
tions like other religious codifiers: he tried also to
give a reason for them. Deficient as the " Zedah
la-Derek " is as a code, its author has succeeded re-
markably well in bringing to light the religious
element in the Jewish ceremonial. At the same
time he is far removed from mysticism (comp. th.
ed. Sabbionetta, iv. 4, 1, p. 187), possessing an unusu-
ally wide mental horizon. Although liis parents and
brothers fell victims to religious hatred, ho still main-
tained that the superiority of Israel as the " chosen
people " is based upon their fulfilling God's word,
and "that a non-Jew who lives in accordance with
God's will is more worthy than a Jew who does not
perform it" {ih. i. 1, 33, p. 39). In dogmatical ques-
tions Meuahem was more inclined to a strictly Or-
thodox point of view than to a philosophical one,
although he believed that the Biblical stories of the
Creation and the Bible's teaching about the resurrec-
tion contained mysteries, which lit did not venture to
solve. In a Turin manuscript (A. iv. 37) are given
laws by him on shehitah and bedikah, perhaps ex-
cerpted from his larger work.

Bibliography : Kayserling, Gesch. derJuden in Spnnien und
FiirtugaU i. 84; Zedah la-Derek, p. 16a; Almanzi-Luzzatto,
Ahne Zihkarnn, pp. 14-16 (wtiere the date of Menahem's
death is given together with the inscription on his tomb ; the
Jewish chronographers place his death eleven years earlier);
Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. s.v.; RenAn-NeubSLuer, Ecrivains
Juifs, pp. 361 et acq.

s. s. L. G.

MENAHEM B. ABRAHAM. See Bonafos,
Mexahe.m ijen Abkaiia.m.

MENAHEM BEN ELIAKIM : German schol-
ar of the fourteenth centuiy; a native of Bingen.
He was the author of " 'Aruk Goren," a dictionary
of the Talmud, with German translations of all the
difiicult words, particularly those taken from Arabic
and Greek. The basis of this work is the "'Aruk"
of Nathan ben Jehiel, from which Menahem made
many extracts and to which he added new matter.
The meaning of the title probably is "a condensed
'Aruk," but Wolf ("Bibl. Hebr." iv.. No. 1426b>
reads pj "["nj? = " Short 'Aruk," and the Latin
translation " Aruch Breve" is given by Emden in
"Kohelet Dawid" (No. l9od), although it does not
correspond to the Hebrew pj "JIIJ/ given by Isaac
3Ietz. Wolf concluded that, in spite of the simi-
larity of contents, the " 'Aruk Goren " is not to be
identified with the anonymous " 'Aruk ha-Kazer."

Bibliography: Steinschneider, Jewish Literature, p. 74;.
Zunz, Z. G. p. 120.
c. M. Sel.

MENAHEM ELIEZER BEN LEVI : Lithu-
anian Talmudist; bornatWilna; died at Minsk Dec,
23, 1816. After studying Talmud under Solomoa
of Vilkomir he settled at Minsk, where he became
head of the yeshibah. His " Ya'ir Kinno," a com-
mentary on Kinnim, which he wrote when still a
young man, was much appreciated by Elijah Wilna:



467



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Menahem b. Aaron
Menahem ben Jacob



"Menahem Eliezcr was aided by Heaven to find the
meaning of this difficult treatise, in which so many
commentators have failed." After the death of
Elijah Wilna his pupils requested Menahem Eliezer
to write a commentary on their teacher's notes to
the Shulhan 'Aruk, Orah Hayyim. This commen-
tary he began, but did not finish. He was the au-
thor of Avorks on the Pentateuch and on the ^lish-
uah, of novelise, and of responsa, none of which has
been published.

Bibliography: Benzion Eisenstadt, Rabbnnc Minsk^ p. 41;
Fuenn, Kin/nh Ne'emannh, PP. 2a5-206; Walden, Shem ha-
GedoUm ))c-Hadash, p. 93.
H. R. M. Sel.

MENAHEM BEN ELIJAH : Turkish litur-
gist of the fifteenth century; a native of Kastoria.
He composed the following piyyutim: (1) "Mah
yakeru re'im be-kum ashmoret,"a "petihah"; (2)
"Me'ou ehyeh asher ehyeh," a " tokahah " ; both
giving in acrostic the names of himself, his father,
and his native town; (3) "Hemiddot kol hodot le-
baddeka milleta," a hymn consisting of twelve
strophes, each beginning and ending with the letter
"he"; (4) a "tefillah" entitled "Shirat ha-Yad ha-
Hazakah " or "]Malkiel." This piyyut is peculiar in
that, in addition to a short introduction, it consists
of 140 lines of five words each. Every word in the
first ten lines begins with C; in the next ten lines,
with J ; and so on to the end of the piyyut, which
therefore gives the full name ^ T iT'^N "I "3 p DHJO
fifty times over.

Among the Egyptian fragments published by
Neubauer in "J. Q. R."' ix. 26-28 is a letter from a
certain Menahem b. Elijah which refers to the Cru-
sades. At the end of the letter the writer says that
he had intended to go to Syria, but was detained
through fear of the German army. As he speaks so
often of Salonica, in the district of which Kastoria
is situated, one might be tempted to identify him
with the subject of this article; but Zunz concluded
that the liturgist lived in the second half of the fif-
teenth century.

Bibliography: Zunz, Literaturgeitch. p. 386; Supplement,
p. 28.
G. M. Sel.

MENAHEM THE ESSENE : Prominent
teacher of the Essene faction in the time of King
Herod, about the middle of the first pre-Christian
century. He was renowned for his prophetic powers.
According to Josephus ("Ant." xv. 10, § 5), he was
distinguished also for the saintliness of his life as
well as for possessing knowledge of the future.
Legend has it that when he saw young Herod going
to school he clapped him on the back and addressed
him as king, announcing to him that he would reign
successfully, but without displaying the love and
justice he ought toward men or the piety due to
God, and that therefore his end would be one befit-
ting his crimes. When afterward in the zenith of
his power Herod recalled this strange prediction, he
sent for Menahem and asked him how long his reign
would be. As Menahem did not immediately an-
swer, Herod urged him, asking whether his reign
would last ten j'ears; whereupon Menahem replied:
"Yes, twenty; nay, thirty years." Pleased with
this answer, Herod dismissed him with a clasp of



the hand and thenceforth bestowed special honors
upon the Essenes. This Menahem has been cor-
rectly identified with the one mentioned in the Mish-
nah as ab bet din and head of a school in association
with Hillel ha-Xasi and as Shammai's predecessor;
but the duumvirate of ab bet din and nasi is prob-
ably due to a misconstruction of history when the
real issues between the Hasidoean or Pharisean and
the Sadduceanor Boethusian factions were no longer
understood. A dim reminiscence of the relation of
Menahem to Herod, hoAvever, has been preserved
in a baraita, quoted in Hag. 16b, which states that
"Menahem went out to join those serving the king,
and eighty pairs of disciples attired in silk robes
went with him." Another tradition is that he be-
came an apostate (Yer. Hag. ii. 77d). The two tra-
ditions have been confounded and appear in two
other forms also: according to one, Menahem was
forced to leave the Pharisaic school, and when seen
with his eighty pairs of disciples was told that they
no longer had a share in the God of Israel ; accord-
ing to the other, he went from one degree ("mid-
dah ") to another until he became a Gnostic (here-
tic ?). See, however, Griltz, "Gesch." iii. 213.

K.

MENAHEM BEN HELBO. See ^ara, Jo-
seph BEN Simeon.

MENAHEM BEN JACOB BEN SOLOMON
BEN SIMSON : German synagogal poet; died at
Worms April 16, 1203. He was a member of an old
family of Jewish scholars connected with that city.
His great-grandfather Simson, who was living in
Worms at the time of the First Crusade and was
surnamed "Ha-Darshan," is quoted by Rashi on
Isa. Iviii. 14 and Amosvi. 3. One of Simson 's sons,
Samuel, is also quoted by Rashi ("Ha-Pardes," p.
33a). Jacob, another son of Simson, died at Worms
during the First Crusade (1096). In his epitaph
Menahem is called "teacher of the Law," "preach-
er, " and " payyetan. " A responsum of his addressed
to the German Talmudist Eliezer ben Joel ha-Levi
is preserved among the responsa of Judah ben Asher
(p. 48a).

Menahem is known principally through his syna-
gogal poetry. Zunz credits him with thirtA'-one
poems — among them being examples of "Ma'arib,"
"Yozer," "Ofan," "Ahabah," "Sulat," "Reshut,"
"Kedushshah " — as well as with a number of "seli-
hot." Among his elegies the following deserve
mention : " jMe'one Shamayim " ( which found a place
in the German ritual for tlie 9th of Ab) ; "Alelai Ki
Ba'u Rega' " (on the martyrs of Blois, 1171, and of
Boppard, 1195; part of it has been translated into
German by Zunz, "S. P." p. 250); a selihah on the
ten niart}-rs; a selihah commemorating the victims
of a persecution in 1147 or 1190. Another selihah,
beginning "Aiiah ha-Shem ha-Nikbad," has been
translated by Zunz into German ("S. P." p. 263).
Corresponding to the condition of the Jews during
this period, a tone of gloom and despondency per-
vades his poetry.

It has been supposed that ^Menahem is identical
with the synagogal poet Menahem ben Jacob de
Lutra, quoted in De Ros.si, Parma MSS., No. 1274.
an(l with ^lenahem of Lutra (X"lOl7). who produced
a rimed compilation of the thirteen articles of faith



Uenahexn ben Jair
Henahem ben Moses



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



468



(see "Catalogus Librorum Manuscriptorum civ.

Lipsiensis," p. 295). It lias been maintained that

Menahem was born in Kaiserslautern, and that

therefore he was called Menahem de Lutra; this
suppositionj however, does not seem tenable.

Bibliography: L. Lewvsohn, In Allg. Zeit. desJiid. 1855, p.
215; idem, in MonatKSChrifU 1856, p. 420; Landsliuth, Am-
mude ha-"Ahndah, pp. 185 et .seq.; L. Lowenstein, Beitrdge
znr GcKch. der Juden in Deutschland, i. 4, Frankfort -on-the-
Main, 1895 : Zunz, Literaturgesch. pp. 294 et seq., 510.
.f. M. So.

MENAHEM BEN JAIR : Leader of the Si-
CARii. He was a grandson of Judas of Galilee, the
founder of the Zealot party, of which the Sicarii
were a branch. Menahem checked the lawlessness
of the Sicarii, who, under his leadership, in 66 c.e.,
stormed the fortress of Masada and slew the Roman
garrison. Later they entered the fortress of An-
tonia, after its garrison had been forced to retreat
by the Zealots under Eleazar ben Ananias, and ruth-
lessly murdered the maimed and helpless left behind
by the Romans. Exulting in his successes, Mena-
hem now demanded the leadership of the Zealots,
sought recognition as the Messiah, and led his men
into still more cruel acts of violence. Eleazar ben
Ananias, realizing that the Sicarii were a menace,



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