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turned the Zealots against Menahem, who lied to
Ophla, but was captured and executed. He was
succeeded by his brother Eleazar.

Bibliography : Gratz, Gesch. 4th ed., lil. 433, 457 et seq.: Jo-
seplius, B. J. ii. 17, §§ 8-10.
J) 8. J. L.

MENAHEM B. JOSEPH B. IIIYYA : Gaon
of Pumbedita 858-860. He was probably elected to
the office of gaon rather on account of his father
than for his own merit. He had a rival in the gaon
Mar Mattithiah b. Rabbi, his superior in Talmudic
lore, between whom and Menahem dissensions con-
tinued until the death of the latter.

Bibliography: Sherira Gaon, Rexijonsa, ed. Neubauer, p. 38;
Gratz, Gef<ch. 3d ed., v. 231; Weiss. Dor, iv. 131; Heilprin,
Seder ha-Dnrnt, ed. Maskileison, 1. 181.
s. s. A. S. W.

MENAHEM BEN JOSEPH OF TROYES :

Liturgical compiler; lived at Troyes in the thir-
teenth century, succeeding his father, Joseph Haz-
ZAN BEN JuDAH, as liazzan. The Jewish liturgy is
indebted to him for collecting the order of prayers
which was used in the community of Troyes and
which is often quoted under the title "Siddur
Troyes" (Neubauer, "Cat. Rodl. Hebr. MSS." No.
1118; De Rossi, Parma MS. No. 403). His collec-
tion was arranged by his pupil Judah ben Eleazar,
perhaps identical with the author of the commentary
"Minhat Yehudah " (written about 1313), which con-
tains a quotation from Menahem's work.

Biblio(;raphy: Gross. Gnllin Jndaica, \i.240 ; Stoinschneider,
Jnrislt TAtrratvrc, p. 344. note 40ji ; S. D. I.nzzatto, in (i. 1.
PollJik. Ifnlihni Krdem, p. .50, Amsterdam. 1H47 ; Zunz, Rihts,
pp. 28, 134 ; Idem', Literaturgench. pp. 221 et seq.
E. c. M. Sc.

MENAHEM B. JXTDAH : Roman halakist of
the twellth century. There are few data regarding
his life, neither the year of his birth nor that, of his
death b(ing determined. It is known, however,
that he was descended from a family of scholars.
He is mentioned by Benjamin of Tudola : and he
was personally acquainted with Joseph ibn Plat. The



only known date in his history is 1166, in which year
he was director of the Talmudic academy at Rome.
Menahem's father, Judah b. Menahem, a younger
contemporary of Nathan, was a prolific liturgical
poet, whose work is, for the most part, included in
the Roman Mahzor. Menahem Judah himself did
not write, his studies being confined to the Halakah.
The names of two of his contemporaries are known,
Solomon b. Abraham and Abraham, called "Ezra b.
Mattathias," who were his colleagues on the rab-
binical board.

Menahem's responsum referring to the benedic-
tions at circumcision and delivered on the occasion
of the visit of Joseph ibn Plat of southern France,
is the only one of his that has been preserved. It is
possible that he answered the question addressed
by the mishnaic commentator Isaac b. Melchizedek
of Siponto to the " wise men of Rome " ; in any case,
the answer was delivered during his rabbinate.
Thus he may also be identical with the Menahem
celebrated by Abraham ibn Ezra in the poem "Ha-
dashim Ma'ase El" (ed. Rosin, "Reime und Ge-
dichle," i. 124 et seq.). He was the father of a sin-
gleson, Moses. Thereisground for the assumption
that this Moses was identical with the author of the
Roman "zulat" "Im Tekayyeniu Mizwotai," which
he dedicated to his son Menahem in an acrostic.

BiBLiociRAPHY: Zunz, Liter aturgescli. pp. 140, 173; Berliner,
Grsch. der Jxiden in Rom, ii. 28 ; (Jross, Gallia Judaica^.
508 ; Vogelstein and Rieger, Ge.ic.h. der Juden in Rom, 1. 220,
227, 368. „ ^ ,„

s. H. B.— G. We.

MENAHEM BEN MACHIR : German litur-
gist of the eleventh century; a native of Ratisbon.
His grandfather, also called Menahem b. Machir,
was a nephew of Gershom b. Judah, and he himself
was a cousin of Isaac b. Judah, Rashi's teacher.
He is quoted in Rashi's "Pardes" (21d, 83c) and in
the "Likkute Pardes" (19b; comp. "Piske Reka-
nati," No. 589). Menahem witnessed the Jewish
massacres of 1096 in Germany and commemorated
them in a number of selihot. His piyyutim include:
" Adam be-kum," for the Esther fast (quoted in Tos.
to Hag. 11a); "Ahalleh et pene Adonai." for Yom
Kippur minhah; "Amarer ba-beki," for the 17th of
Tammuz; "Lammah Adonai ta'amod" (in ten stro-
phes) ; a "kinah" forthe9thofAb, beginning "Ebel
a'orer"; five "yozerot," including one for the "Na-
hamu " Sabbath and (me for the " Shubah " Sabbath ;
three "ofaunim"; three "zulatot"; " Kehosha'ta
ellm,"a"hosha'na" for the Sabbath of Tabernacles;
" Ma'arib, " for the Feast of Tabernacles ; " Nishmat, "
to be recited on Sinihat Torah ; and a "rcshut" for
Hatan Torah, to be recited on the same day. Most
of his piyyutim are alphabetically arranged, but all
of them bear the author's signature.

BIBLIOGRAPHY : Landsliuth. 'Ammude ha-'Abodah, pp. 191-
192 ; Zunz, Literaturgesch. pp. 158, 250.
A M. Sel.

MENAHEM MANN BEN SOLOMON HA-
I.EVI. See A.melanoer, Menahe.m Mann ben
Solomon iia-Lrvi.

MENAHEM MANUELE B. BARXJOH
HA-LEVI: Polish rabbi and author; died in Lem-
bcM,r 1742. Ho was a descendant of R. Joseph Coiien
of Cracow (author of "She'erit Yosef "), of R. Isaac
Shrenzel. and of R. Saul Wahl. He occupied the



469



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Menahem ben Jair
HCeuabem ben Mosea



office of dayyan in Lemberg under the presidency
of R. Hayyim Rapoport.

Menahem was the author of "Zera' Baruk"
(Wandsbeck, 1730), novelise on some tractates of the
Talmud. Another work of his was "'Emek Hala-
kah we-Ta'am Man " (Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1745),
consisting of two parts: (1). discourses on tlie Hala-
kah ; (2) explanations of the Haggadah. It contains
also an approbation by R. Moses b. Aaron of Lem-
berg (given in 1735) and novellae by Naphtali Herz
Ashkenaziand Moses Harif, both rabbis of Lemberg.
According to a statement of the author in his preface
to the " ' Emek Halakah," he wrote also a book en-
titled " 'Abodat ha-Lewi " on the order Kodashim.

Menahem's signature as dayyan is found in docu-
ments and deeds inserted in the Lemberg memor-
book.



Bibliography: Ruber, Anshe SJtem, p. U2.
H. K.



N. T. L.



MENAHEM MENDEL BEN BARUCH
BENDET : Lithuanian Talmudist of the eight-
eenth century ; born at Shklov ; died in Palestine.
He was a pupil of Elijah of Wilna, whose works he
later helped to edit and publish. Elijah Gaon's
commentaries on Proverbs, on the Shulhan 'Aruk
(Orah Hayyim and Yoreh De'ah), on Abot, on the
Sefer Yezirah, and on the Pesah Haggadah, and his
notes to the minor treatises, were published by
him. After Elijah's death Mehahem Mendel went
to Palestine and settled at Safed, where he became
lecturer in Talmud in the bet ha-midrash established
there in memory of Elijah of Wilna. He was the
author of ten works, mystical in character, as yet
unpublished (comp. Israel b. Samuel, "Pe'at ha-
Shulhan," Preface, Safed, 1836).

Bibliography: Fuenn, Kirmh Ne'cmanalu P- 162; Joshua
Heshel Levin and Nahman of (irodno, "Alimiot Eliyahu, pp.
59, 67, Wilna, 1889.
E. c. M. Sel.

MENAHEM OF MEB,SEBURG (pin-'no) :
German author; lived between 1420 and 1450. Of
his life few details are known. Jacob Weil <Re-
sponsa. No. 183) speaks of him as a great and prom-
inent scholar; and he is mentioned also by Judah
Minz, and by Solomon Luria in his commentary on
the Talmud.' Both of them identify him with Men-
ahem Mei'l Zedek, while Azulai distinguishes be-
tween the two Menahems. According to Jacob
Weil's allusions, Menahem must have lived in the
first half of the fifteenth century.

Menahem wrote a collection of halakic notes
("ninuikim"), which forms au appendix to Weil's
respoiLsa. This work, which was regarded as au-
thoritative in all the communities in Saxony, deals
with the rabbinical marriage laws, the civil code,
and the taxation of the communities. In contrast
to the meager scientific contributions of the German
Jews of the period, who discussed little besides
petty liturgical questions, Menahem's book shows
his lively interest in all matters that concern Juda
ism. Of great practical importance was his ruling
in reference to the "mi'un," or the decision that if
a girl has been married during minority at the in-
stance of her mother or brothers but not at the com-
mand of her father, she has the right, when she at-
tains her majority, to dissolve the union without a



bill of divorce. Menahem, considering this immoral,
repealed the law by virtue of his authority; but in
the following century his ruling was set aside, and
the Talmudic law again went into force.

Bibliography: Gratz, Gesch. vlli. 137.
s. G. We.

MENAHEM B. MICHAEL B. JOSEPH
HA-KARA'I (called also Menahem Girni ha-
Goleh) : Karaite philosopher and poet: born in
Babylon ; a contemporary of Saadia. He corre-
sponded with David al-Mukammas, whom he had
met in Babylon, on philosophical subjects, and per-
haps also regarding the Karaite "shehitah." Sub-
sequently he went to Alexandria, whence he wrote
to the Karaite community at Cairo asking aid. In
his letter he touched al.so on philosophical topics,
and quoted the Karaite philosopher Joseph al-Basir.
Leaving Alexandria for Cairo, Menahem continued
his correspondence with David al-Mukannnas; for,
although the latter was living in tlie same city,
Menahem was restrained by poverty from approach-
ing a man of such prominence. In one letter, writ-
ten at Cairo, Menahem explained to David, in an-
swer to the latter's reproach, that he believed both
in the creation of the world and in the heavenly
bodies.

Aside from the rules for slaughtering, written in
verse, three of Menahem's piyyutim have been pre-
served in the Karaite siddur. Menahem is quoted
as a grammarian in the "'Sefer ha-Mibhar " of Aaron
b. Elijah the Elder, and probably also in the " 'Ez
ha-Hayyim " of Aaron b. Elijah the Younger. This
Menahem must not be confounded with another
who was likewise a contemporary of Saadia and who
corresponded with the last-named in Arabic.

Bibliography: Pinsker, LiWute ^admimiijyot, p. 168; Ap-
pendix, pp. 45 et seq.; Steinschneider, Cat. Leydrn. p. 186;
Jratz, Gexch. 3d ed., v. 284 : Mordecai b. Nisan, ed. Wolf, p.
30 (ed. Vienna, p. 13); Wolf, Bibl. Hebr. 1. 762. iii. 684.

A. B.

MENAHEM B. MOSES TAMAR : Poet and
commentator; probably a pupil of Mordecai Com -
TING of Constantinople ; flourished in the fifteenth
and sixteenth centuries at Adrianople or Philip-
popolis. He wrote commentaries to the books of
Proverbs, Ruth, and Esther, a supercommentary to
Abraham ibn Ezra's commentary to the Pentateuch,
and a Hebrew grammar entitled " Uashe Besamim."
He furnished a noteworthy contribution to Hebrew
poetry in his "Azharot" (comp. Jkw. Encyo. ii.
370-371), to which he wrote a commentary entitled
" Tanhuinot El." He composed also other litiiigieal
poems, including au imitation of Judah ha-Levi's
"Zioniad," and a hynui for the commencement of
Puriin. It has not been proved— although the at-
tempt has been made— that he is identical with Men-
ahem b. Moses, the author of some liturgical poems
found in the Roman Mahzor, in tlie Mahzor of Avi-
<'-non, and in a manuscrii)t of Abraham Beilersi's
"Diwan." now in the British Museum.

Bibliography: Steinschneider. <^at. heyUn. pp. 120 cf sf 9-
(coinp. Zunz in Zeit.filr. Hehr. Bihl. ix. i:«) and pp. 139 et
xeq: idem. Hchr. Uchers. p. 593; Zunz. Literattirgesch. p.
.526; Landshuth, 'Ammudc ha-"Ab(iclah. pp. 194 et seq.:
Nepi-Ghirondi, Toledot Oedole YUsrael, p. 236; Luzzatto,
Nahlat, pp. 21, 51.
D. H. B.



130

K.



Menahem Obel
MonaHem Vardimas



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



470



MENAHEM OBEL. Sec Mourning.
MENAHEM BEN PEREZ OF JOIGNY :

French tosalist and Biblical commentator of the
twelfth centm-y. Zadoc Kahn ("R. E. J." iii. 7)
identifies him with Menahem the Saint mentioned in
Tos. Hul. lib; and he conjectures that Menahem
was killed at Bray-sur-Seine in the massacre of 1190.
Gross, however, thinks this assertion doubtful, and
concludes that Menahem died about 1180. Mena-
hem ben Perez took an active part in the synod
which was assembled at Troyes imdcr the direction
of the two brothers R. Samuel b. Meir and R. Jacob
Tam.

As a tosafist, Menahem ben Perez is quoted in
Tos. Ber. 39b, 40a; 'Er. 68a; B. M. 60a; Yoma 6a;
Pes. 116a, and by later authorities. Asher b. Jehiel
had before him Menahem's tosafot (Asheri, Yeb.
3a). Asa Biblical commentator, he is quoted in the
"Da'at Zekeuim," p. 29a, and in the "Minhat Yeliu-
dah," p. 33b. Menahem was the author of a work
entitled "Massorah Gedolah " or "The Great Maso-
rah " (still unpublished), in which he completed the
work bearing the same title by R. Gershom Meor
ha-Golah. Joseph the Zealous mentions Menahem's
controversy with a priest ("R. E. J." I.e.).

BiBLiofiRAPHY : Gratz, in Monotsfichrift, xxxvi. 19; Gross,
Qallia Judaica, pp. 251-252.
s. s. M. Sel.

MENAHEM PORTO. See Pokto.

MENAHEM OF REGAN ATI. See Recanati.

MENAHEM BEN SARUK (MENAHEM
B. JACOB IBN SARUK) : Spanish philologist
of the tenth century. He was a native of Tortosa,
and went, apparently at an earlj^ age, to Cordova,
where he found a patron in Lsaac, the father of the
subsequent statesman Hasdai ibu Sliaprut. At
Isaac's death Menahem eulogized his protector's
virtues in an inscription placed in the synagogue
which had been built bj- Isaac at Cordova. He
wrote also elegies on him, which were universally
recited during the period of mourning. Menaliem
then returned to Ins native cit}', where he engaged
in business.

Hasdai ibn Shuprut, however, recalled Menahem
to Cordova and encouraged him to complete his
life-work, a dictionary of the Hebrew language.
In other waj'S also his new patron availed himself
of his protege's literary talents. Hasdai on his
mother's death requested Menahem to compose a
dirge; and when Hasdai addressed his (juestions to
the king of the Chazars, Menahem was commis-
sioned to write the letter, which has become an im-
portant historical document. Menahem, however,
carried on his work amid great privations, as Hasdai
did not prove a liberal patron.

The dictionary had scarcely been completed when
an opponent to its author arose in Dunash ben La-
brat, who had come to Spain from Fez, and who
wrote a criticism on tlie work, which he prefaced by
a eulogistic dedication to Hasdai. Tiie slanders of
personal enemies likewise seem to have aroused
Hasdai's anger against Menahem to such a ]iit(li
that the latter, at the connnand of the i)owcrful
statesman, suffered bodily violence, his liouse being
destroyed. In a touching letter to Hasdai (a valua-



ble source from which most of these statements have

been taken) Menahem, who probably died shortly

afterward, complained of the wrong

Dispute done him. He seems to have made
with some impression on his patron. Men-

Dunash. ahem himself had not replied to Du-
nash, but his pupils defended their
teacher, and in response to Dunash's criticism wrote
a detailed refutation which was marked by polem-
ical acumen and exact grammatical knowledge.
Judah b. David Hayyuj, one of these three j'oung
scholars who so effectually defended their master,
became the founder of scientitic Hebrew granunar;
another, Isaac ibn Gikatilla, was subsequently, as
one of the most learned men of Lucena, the teacher
of Abu al-Walid Merwan ibn Janah. Thus the most
flourishing period of Hebrew philology, whose chief
representatives were Hayyuj and Ibn Janah, began
with Menahem ben Saruk.

The place to be assigned to the "Mali beret," as
Menahem entitled his dictionary, has been briefly
discussed elsewhere (see Jew. Encyc. iv. 580, s.v.
Dictionaries). This was tlie first complete lexical
treatment of the Biblical vocabulary composed in
Hebrew in which the view then prevailing, that
there were both uniliteral and biliteral roots, was
definitely sj'stematized and worked out. This the-
ory was set aside later by Menahem's own pupil,
Hayyuj, who correctly assumed the triliteral char-
acter of Hebrew roots; but, because it was written
in Hebrew, IVIenahem's dictionary remained for a
long time the chief source of philological instruction
for .Jews who were unacquainted with Arabic, espe-
cially, erefore, for those in the Christian countries
of Europe. Thus Rashi in the second half of the
eleventh century refers to Menahem
Character- as a philological authority; Rashi's

istics of grandson, Jacob b. Meir Tam, com-

His Die- posed a work for the special purpose

tionary. of vindicating Menahem against the

attacks of Dunash; and (about 1140)

Menahem b. Solomon composed in Italy a dictionary

which was based for the most part on the"Mah-

beret."

Regarding the granunatical importance of Mena-
hem ben Saruk's work, it may be noted that, al-
though he had no S3'stematic knowledge .of the
forms of the language, and was unacquainted even
witli Saadia's grammatical works, yet he recognized
throughout his lexicon that there are inviolable laws
underlying* the language, and that its forms and
phenomena are sul)ject to definite rules. This in-
.sight, which appears in the terminology he employs,
bridges the apparent chasm between him and his
pupil Hayyuj. As Menahem composed his work in
Hebrew, he could not use the terminology of the
Arabic grammarians; yet he tacitly adopted some of
their terms, translating tiicm into Hebrew, and ex-
plained some words, altliough without acknowledg-
ing it, on the analogy of kindred Arabic exju-essions.
He avoids, however, anj' open comparison of the
language of tlie Bible with that of the Koran, not-
witiistanding tlie precedent furnished him lij'Saadia
anil ll>ii Kuraish, autiiors whom he quotes in ins
dictionary. He doubtless refrained from such com-
parison because of the narrow-minded religious



471



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Menabem Obel
Menatiezn Vardimas



prejudice which then prevented the Spanish Jews
from engaging in such linguistic comparisons.

Menahem ben Saruk's dictionary was edited by
Filipowski (London, 1854), and addenda from the

Bern manuscript of the ''Mahbcret"
Editions, were published by D. Kaufmann in

"Z. D. M. G." xl. 367-409. The de-
fense by Menahem 's pupils was edited by S. G.
Stern in "Liber Kesponsionum " (Vienna, 1870),
wliere Menahem 's letter to Hasdai ibn Shaprut (first
edited by Luzzatto in "Bet ha-Ozar ") is reprinted
(pp. xxiii.-xxxvii.).

Bibliography: 8. Gross, Menahem h. Saruk, Berlin, 1872;
Bacher, In Winter and Wunsche, JUdische Litteratur, ii.
145-149; idem, Die AnftliiQe der Hehriiischen Grammatik,
pp. 70-95 ; Dukes, Beitrdge zur Gesch.der Aeltesten A ude-
gung und Sprac1ierkUU~ung des A. T. ii. 119 et seq.:
Gratz, Gesch. 1st ed., v. 373 et seq.; Gelger, Das Judcnthum
imd Seine Gesch. ii. 87 et seq.; Jildische Zeitschrift, ix. 65,
X. 81; Drachman, Die Stellimg und Bedeutung des Jehu-
dah Hajjng in der Gesch. der Hebrdischen Grammatik,
pp. 17-27, Breslau. 1885 ; Weiss, Dor. Iv. 228-234 ; Steinschnei-
der. Cat. Bodl. col. 1738.
T. W. B.

MENAHEM BEN SIMEON : French Biblical

commentator at the end of the twelfth century; a

native of Posquieres and a pupil of Joseph Kimhi.

The Bibliothfique Nationale, Paris (MS. No. 192,

1-2), contains Menahem 's commentary to the books

of Jeremiah and Ezekiel; the commentary to the

former was completed in 1191 ; the commentary to

the latter ends in the middle of ch. xl.

Bibliography: Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. 450.

J. M. Sel.

MENAHEM B. SOLOMON B. ISAAC : Au-
thor of the " Sekel Tob " and the " Eben Bohau " ;
flourished in the first half of the twelfth century.
The presence of twenty-five Italian glosses in his
works indicates that he lived in Italy. The " Sekel
Tob," written in 1139 at Rome, is a midrashic com-
pilation on the Pentateuch. The substance of the
old midrashim is quoted in smooth and ornate lan-
guage, from which foreign words are excluded, tlie
general method being that of Tobias b. Eliezer's
" Lekah Tob," which is frequently quoted, both
with and without acknowledgment. Menahem 's
sources, in addition to the Targumim, are the whole
of the earlier midrashic literature as well as the lit-
erature of geouic mysticism. He interprets also
halakic authors, especially Alfasi and R. Hananeel,
explaining verses as well as single words literally,
although he expressly states that the midrashic in-
terpretation is deeper and more thorough. " Sekel
Tob " is frequently quoted both for its exegesis
and for its halakic decisions. In the Middle Ages
it was still intact, but now only the portion from
Gen. XV. 1 to Ex. xi. 2 (edited by Buber, Berlin,
1900) is in existence, in two separate manuscripts in
the Bodleian Library. Fragments of his commen-
taiy to Leviticus are found in a Munich manuscript,
and, according to Steinschneider, portions of a simi-
lar commentary to the Five Megillot are contained
in a codex at Berlin.

Of Menahem's other work, the "Eben Bohan,"
only fragments are extant (Munich MS. No. 5.5).
A part of it has been translated by Dukes, and it has
been analyzed in detail by Bacher. This Avork,
completed at Rome in 1143, in five months, was in-
tended to prepare the author's three young sous for



the study of the Bible. Menahem undertook to pre-
pare for the first time in Hebrew a comprehensive man-
ual of the Hebrew language and of Biblical exegesis.
The work was divided into fifty parts ; the first part,
l)y far the largest and most valuable, was a diction-
ary of the Hebrew language ; the other parts, now
known only by their chapter-headings, dealt with
grammar. The author follows chiefly Menahem b.
Saruk ; occasionally, and with diffidence, however, he
advances his own views, and the entire conception
of the form and contents of the work shows a certain
degree of independence. It was intended, according
to Bacher, to uphold Menahem b. Saruk's system
against the teachings of Hayyu j and Ibn Janah, intro-
duced about that time (1143) into Italy by Abraham
ibn Ezra.

Bibliography: Zunz, Z. G. pp. 71, 108; Bacher, Die Hebr.
Sprachwissenschaft (Winter and WUnsche, Die Jildische
Litteratur, ii. 185); idem, Bibelexegese (ib. ii. 272); idem,
Eiideitting zum Sechel Tob, pp. i., Ix., Berlin, 1900; Dukes,
Knbez 'al-Yad. part 1, Esslingen, 1846 ; Kirehlieini, in Orient,
Lit. vii. 439; Steinschneider, Hebr. Bibl. xvii. 28 ct seq., 134
et seq.; Bacher, Der PrUf stein des MeJiahem b. Salnmo, In
Grdtz Jubelschrifi, pp. 94-115.
J. A. B.

MENAHEM OF TIKTIN (MaHaRaM TIK-

TIN; MENAHEM DAVID BEN ISAAC):

Polish rabbi and author of the sixteenth century;
pupil of Moses Isserles. Menahem occupied himself
with emending and annotating various texts; his
notes on the halakot of Isaac Alfasi and Mordecai b.
Hillel have been published under the title " Hagga-
hot Maharam Tiktiu. " These " haggahot " were first
published by Menahem's son Asher (Cracow, 1597-
1598), and have since been republished in the edi-
tions of Alfasi. According to Asher b. Menahem
(preface to his edition of the "Haggahot "), Men-
aiiem wrote many other works, and particularly
notes to the Targura, to the commentaries of Rashi
and Nahmanides, to the prayers and piyyutim, to
the Zohar and other cabalistic works.
Bibliography: Fuenn, Kiri/ah Nc'emanah.it. 58; Fiirst,

Bibl. Jud. ii. 351-352 ; Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 1742.

E. c. M. Sel.

MENAHEM VARDIMAS BEN PEREZ
THE ELDER : Fi'ench tosafist and liturgist ;
died at Dreux 1224. The name "Vardimas," found
in Talmud Babli (Shab. 118b) as a bye-name of Men-
ahem bar Jose, was adopted by this tosafist prob-
ably to distinguish him from other persons bearing
the name "Menahem." According to Gross, Mena-
hem is identical with the person of the Siiine name
mentioned by Samuel of Falaise as having been his
master, the epithet "Ha-Kadosh" given by Samuel
meaning simply "the Pious" and not " the IVIartyr."

Menahem 's authority in halakic matters is invoked
by Moses of Coucy ("Semag," § 27) and by many
others. He is mentioned among those who took
part in the famous discussion on phylacteries,
which, according to Gedaliah ibn Yahya ("Shalshe-
let ha-Kabbalah," p. 52a), was held in Meualiem's
house. In a manuscript commentary on tlie Penta-
teuch (Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 270)
^Menahem is cited as a Biblical commentator. A
liturgical poem of his on the sacrifice of Isaac is
inserted in the ritual of Rosh ha-Shanah.
BIBLIOGRAPHY : Zunz, Z. G. pp. 53, laS ; idem. Literatiirgesch.

p. 328; Neubauer, in J?. E. J. xvii. 15:^; idem, in Geiger's

Jildische Zeit. ix. 218; Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. 173.

s s. I. Br.



Menahem ben Zebi
Meuauder



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



473



MENAHEM BEN ZEBI : German rabbi ; died
atP()sen(V) in 1724. He was the pupil of R. Hc-
scliel and of Aaron Samuel Kaidanover (author of



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