Isidore Singer.

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VICH : Polish physiologist and physician ; born at
Warsaw 1855. He studied medicine at the Univer-
sity of Warsaw, and received his doctor's degree
from the University of Kharkov in 1884. From
1876 to 1887 he worked in various laboratories and
clinics in Europe: at Berlin under Dubois-Reymond ;
at Erlangen under Rosenthal; and at Paris under
Charcot and Mars of the College de France, where
he was for some time assistant also. Since 1890 he
has been privat-docent in physiology in the Uni-
versity of St. Petersburg.

Among the medical works of Mendelson tlie fol-
lowing maybe mentioned: "Etude sur le Temps
Perdu des Muscles," in "Publ. du College de
France," 1879; "RecherchesCliniques sur la Periode
d'Excitatiou Latente, "in "Archives de Physiologic
Normale," 1880; "Action de la Veratrine sur le
Muscle," ib. 1883; "Excitabilite et Travail Meca-
iiique du Muscle," in "Publ. de I'Academie des
Sciences," Paris, 1883.

Bibliography : Entziklopedichevki Slovar, xix. 82.

H. R. A. S. W.

MENDELSON, MOSES (called also Moses
ben Mendel Frankfort) : German Hebraist and




writer of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries;
born in Hamburg; died there at an advanced age in
1861 ; a relative of Samson Raphael Hirsch.

Mendelson lived in his native city as a private
scholar. He translated into Hebrew the first book
"Mezi'at ha-Arez ha-Hadashah" (Altona, 1807), and
wrote a poem in honor of Hakam Isaac Bernays on the
occasion of his installation at Hamburg {ib. 1828).
His "Bakkashat ha-Lammedin," printed by Meir
Hesse, appeared anonymously {ib. 1829). He also
published: "Shushan 'Edut, d. i. die Erklilrung der
Funf Biicher Moshe's" (Stuttgart, 1840-42), two
parts, containing the Book of Genesis and repre-
senting, according to his own statement, the fruit of
thirty years' labor. The Hebrew introduction to
the second section (pp. iii.-lxx.) consists of two
treatises, " 'Awon ha-Doresh ha-Yashan " and
"'Awon ha-Doresh he-Hadash," in which in divert-
ing fashion he scourges the old "darshanim" and
the modern preachers. Mendelson wrote also " Die
Synagoge zu Hamburg, Wie Sie War und Wie Sie
Sein Soil" (Copenhagen, 1842), dedicated to the
president of the German Jewish congregation of

Bibliography: Roest, Cat. Rosenthal. Tiihl. p. WZ; Furst,
BihL Jud. il. 359.

s. M. K.

MENDELSSOHN : German family rendered
illustrious by the philosopher and the musician. It
can not verify its ancestry further back than the
father of the philosopher, thougli there is a family
tradition that it is descended from Moses Isserles.

to Hamburg and went into partnership with his
brother Joseph. At the same time he married Leah
Salomon, a granddaugliter of Daniel Itzig, and was.
persuaded hj" his brotlier-in-law, who at baptism
had adopted tlie name of Bartholdy, to call himself
"Mendelssohn-Bartholdy." During the siege of
Hamburg by tlie French, Abraham and bis brother
were obliged to leave the city on a foggy night se-
cretly and in disguise. They went to Berlin and
founded there the banking firm of Mendelssohn &
Co. , from which Abraham later retired. In the year
1813 he equipped several volunteers at his own ex-
pense, and in recognition of hiseiforts for the public
welfare he was elected to the municipal council of

Dorothea (Brendel) Mendelssohn : Eldest
daughter of Moses Mendelssohn; born at Berlin
on Dec. 24, 1764; died at Frankfort-on-the-Main
on Aug. 3, 1839. On account of her superior in-
telligence and her somewhat masculine nature she
was even in lier youth the leader in the circle of her
friends. Early in April, 1783, she married a Berlin
banker named Vcit, an honest, worthy man, but of
limited education and not prepossessing in appear-
ance. After fifteen years of a married life far from
happy, Dorothea became acc^uainted with Friedrich
von Scldegel, at the liouse of Henriette Hp:hz, a
friend of her youth, wlio liad advised her a few years
after her marriage to Veit to separate from him.
Schlegel, at that time young, handsome, and already
famous, Avas captivated by the brilliant intellect of
Dorothea, seven years his senior, despite her lack of
hcuutv. She deserted Veit for Schlegel, being dis-

Mendel of Dessau
= Sisa

Moses Mendelssohn
= Fromet Ciiigenheim



Dorothea = (1) Veit
(2) F. von Schlegel

Henriette Meyer



= Leah




'Xante .lette")

Henriette Itzig

Moses Johann Abraham Philip Georg Benjamin .\le.\iui(l»T

Arnold Ottille Wilhelm

Fanny Ciicilie
= W. Hensel

Leo Hensp(





= C^cile


- Dirichlt't, Jr.













Mendki-ssohn Fa.mily Tkek.

Bibliography: S. Hensel, Die Fainilic MendfA.'i.'<i>li)i, Berlin,
1879; Freudenthal, Aus dem Heimat Mendel suiohn, Berlin,

.1. I. G. D.

Abraham Mendelssohn : Second son of Moses
Mendelssohn; born at Berlin Dec. 10. 1776; died
there Nov. 19, 1835; father of Felix Mendelssohn-
Bartholdy. In 1803 he became cashier in Foulds'
banking-house at Paris; but a year later he returned

owned by lier family. In 1799 Schlegel took her to
Jena, whert! he was unsuccessful. She shared his
troubles and endured liis moods, and in 1802 traveled
with him to Paris, where she became a Protestant and
married him. Six years later, on the return jour-
ney, she, with her husband and her son Philip, went
over to Catiiolicism at Cologne.

Dorotliea i)aid a .severe penalty lor her relations




Avitli Schlegel, and was often obliged to struggle
against abject povcrtj'. For several years she lived
on the scanty income from her literary labors and
from what her deserted husband sent her anony-
mously from time to time. In 181 H and 1819 she
lived at Rome with her sons Johann and Philij) Veil,
who had become artists. The rest of her eventful,
unhappy life was passed at Frankfort-on-tlie-.Main,
where Schlegel was councilor at the Austrian lega-
tion, and where, after his death (1829). she lived witii
her son Philip on a small pension.

While still Schlcgel's mistress she had made a lit-
erary venture in the novel "Fiortntine," which was
published by him anonymously (Liibeek and Leip-
sic, 1801), and which was considered the best pro-
duction of the romanticists in the domain of fiction.
Under Schlcgel's name appeared her version of the
old German metrical romance " Lother und Mailer "
<Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1805) and the translation of
Madame de Stall's " Corinnc " (Berlin, 1807). From
Old French she translated
the " Gesch. des Zauber-
ers Merlin " in Schlcgel's
" SammlungRomantischer
Dichtungen" (Leipsic,
1804), and she furnished
several articles, signed
*'D," for the magazine
"Europa," which Schlegel
edited. Later she ex-
changed the pen for the
needle. "There are," she
said, " too many books in
the world; but I have
never heard that there are
too many shirts."

Bibliography: Reichlin-Mel-
degff. PmiluK und Seine Zeit,
Stuttgart, 18.53, vol. ii., and
the autobiograpliy of Sulpice
Boisseree, ib. 1862, containing
many of Dorothea's letters ;
Kayserling, Die Jlidif>chcn
Frauen, p. 183 ; idem, Doro-
thea von Schlegel, in R.
Prutz, Deutsches Mnseuni,
1860, Nos. 49ft.seQ.; S. Hensel,
Die Familie Mcndclxsoltn, i.
45 et seq., Berlin, 1ST9.

Fanny Mendelssohn :

Eldest daughter of Abra-
ham Mendelssohn ; born
at Hamburg Nov. 15, 1805 ;

died there May 17, 1847. When very young she
manifested an exceptional memory and talent for
music. She, together with her brother Felix, re-
ceived her musical training from Ludwig Berger and
Zelier, while her education in other subjects was
conducted by the philologist Karl Heyse, who was
tutor in the Mendelssohn house. In the year 1829
she married the painter W. Ilcnsel in Berlin. She
was herself a composer, and many of her brother
Felix's "Songs Without Words" are believed to be
lier work (Hensel, l.r. vols, i.-iii.).
]>. M. K.

Felix Mendelssohn (full name, Jakob Lud-
wig Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy) : German
composer; born at Hamburg Feb. -l 1809; died
at Leipsic Nov. 4, 1847. He was a giaiidson of

Felix Mendelssolin.

Moses Mentlelssohn antl a sou of the banker Abra-
ham Mendelssohn, who removed to Berlin in 1811.
Felix received his early musical education from Lud-
wig Berger (piano), Zelter (thorough-bass and com-
position), and Helming (violin). At the age of ten
he entered the Singakademie at Berlin as an alto,
and in the following year composed the cantata "In
Kiihrend Feierlichen Toncu " as well as several in-
strumental pieces.

The encouraging words of Cherubini, before whom
Mendelssohn played while on a visit to Paris with
his father in 1825, animated the young compo-
ser; on Aug. 6, 1826, he finished his overture to
"Ein Sonunernachtstraum " (A Midsummer Night's
Dream, op. 21), which composition was publicly
performed at Stettin in Feb., 1827. During this sea-
son Mendelssohn's opera "Die Hochzeit des Cama-
cho " was produced at the Berlin Theater, but was
soon withdrawn by Spontini, who at that time en-
joyed almost imlimited authority as director of the

opera, and is said to have
had a personal antipathy
to the young tnusician.
During the following win-
ter Mendelssohn began a
propaganda in behalf of
Bach's music, which cul-
minated in the formation
of a Bach Society and the
l)ublication of the masses
of Bach as well as of all
the church cantatas and
other works of the great
German composer.

On April 10, 1829, Men-
delssohn left Berlin for
London, where, in the fol-
lowing month, he made his
debut with much success
at a concert of the Phil-
harmonic Society. It was
tiierefore from an English
audience that he first re-
ceived an acknow-ledg-
ment of his genius. He
gave five concerts in Lon-
don, whence, in July, 1831,
he set out upon a journey
through Scotland, as a re-
sult of which he wrote one of his most beautiful
overtures, "Die Hebriden " (The Hebrides, op. 26).

Always somewhat tuipopular in Berlin, he, on his
return to that city in 1833, failed in competition with
Hungenhagen to obtain the conductorship of the
Singakademie. In ISIay of the same year, however,
he was invited to conduct the Lower Rhine Musical
Festival at Dlisseldorf, in which city lie remained
as musical director until 1835, when he
accepted the conductorship of the Ge-
wandhaus orchestra in Leipsic, a body
with which his name was thenceforth
inseparably a.ssociatcd. The concerts
given l)y lliis famous orchestra under
]\Ien<lelss()hn's leadership, and Avith
the assistance of the eminent concert-master Ferdi-
nand David, soon enjoyed a world-wide celebrity


of Gewand-

haus Or-






and contributed to make Leipsic the miisical center
of Germany. Mendelssohn's oratorio " Paulus " (St.
Pau-l) was performed at the Lower Rhine festival
held at Dtisseldorf May 22-24, 1836.

On March 28, 1837, Mendelssohn married Cecile
Charlotte Sophie Jeanrenaud. A few months later
he left for England to conduct "Paulus" at the
Birmingham festival. On his return he devoted all
his energies to the Gewandhaus concerts. At the
request of Frederick William IV. of Prussia, to
whom several of his compositions were dedicated,
Mendelssohn in 1841 went to Berlin to act as di-
rector of certain concerts which were to be given in
connection with an academy of arts planned by the
king. Finding, however, that the musicians and
the public were more or less hostile to him, he re-
signed, remaining only at the special request of the
king to arrange the music in the cathedral. The
body of singers selected for that occasion afterward
became famous as the "Domchor" (cathedral choir).
During this visit Mendelssohn conducted also the
music to "Antigone," which he had composed in
compliance with the king's express desire.

In conjunction with Falkenstein, Keil, Kistner,
Schleinitz, and Seeburg as directors, and Schumann,
Hauptmann, David, Becker, and Pohlenz as teach-
ers, Mendelssohn in 1842 organized the Conserva-
toriuni at Leipsic, which institution, under the pat-
ronage of the King of Saxony, was opened Jan. 16,
1843. During the summer of 1844
Organizes Mendelssohn revisited London, wliere

Leipsic he conducted the last five concerts
Conserva- given by the Philharmonic Society in

torium. that year. He took part also as a
pianist in various other musical events
of the season, everywhere receiving a most enthusi-
astic welcome. In 1846 he once more visited Eng-
land, upon which occasion he conducted the first
performance of his oratorio " Elias " (Elijah) at
Birmingham (Aug. 26). On April 2, 1847, lie con-
ducted "Paulus" at Leipsic, and soon afterward
again went to England, where he gave four per-
formances of "Elias" at Exeter Hall, London, be-
sides one at Manchester and another at Birmingham.

On May 9 Mendelssolin returned to Germany.
Wliile he was at Frankfort the news of the sudden
death of his sister Fanny, to wliom he had been
greatly attached, gave a serious shock to a consti-
tution already enfeebled, and after visiting various
health resorts the great composer returned in Sep-
tember to Leipsic, where about six weeks later he
died. Baptized early in life, he was interred in
Trinity Cemetery, Berlin.

Mendelssohn's best productions are the oratorios
"Paulus" and "Elias." the greatest works of their
kind since Haydn. Besides the opera " Die IIocli-
zeit des Camacho," Mendelssohn left the unlinishcd
opera "Lorelei," the operetta "Heimkehr aus dcr
Fremde " (op. 89), and .several other unpublished
operatic compositions. Among his other works are
four symphonies; the symphony-cantata " LoIj^^c-
sang"; six concert-overtures; several concertos;
chamber-music; and pianoforte and vocal compo-

Bibliography; S. Hensel, Die FamiUe Mnulel/tsnhn (1720-
18.',7) )inch Brief en laid Tnuelilicltrru, IJcriin, 1879; t'arl

Mendelssolin-Bartholdy, Goethe und Felix MenclcJssolDi-
Barthoidy (1S21-1S31), translated by M. E. von Glehn, Lon-
don, 1872; F. Hiller, Mendelssolin: Letters and Recollec-
tions, translated by M. E. von Glehn, ih. 1874 ; Grove, Diet,
of Music and Musicians, vol. ii., where a full list of Men-
delssohn's compositions is given.
s. J. So.

Georg- Benjamin Mendelssohn : German geog-
rapher; born in Berlin Nov. 16, 1794; died at Horcii-
heim, near Cobleuz, Aug. 24, 1874; son of Joseph
Mendelssohn. Asa child he went to Hamburg with
his parents, but he began his studies at Berlin in
1811, although they were interrupted by the cam-
paigns of 1813 and 1815. After 1828, being ap-
pointed privat-docent in geography and statistics
at the University of Bonn, he gradually rose to the
position of regular professor there. He edited the
"Gesammelte Schriften " of his grandfather with a
biographical sketch (Leipsic, 1843-45), and also pub-
lished "Das Germauische Europa" (Berlin, 1836) as
well as " Die Standischen InstitutioueuimMonarchi-
schen Staat " (Bonn, 1846).

Henriette (Sorel) Mendelssohn : Youngest
daughter of Moses Mendelssohn; born at Berlin
1768; died there Nov. 9, 1831. She was a woman
of broad interests, clear judgment, and exquisite
manners; she remained unmarried, being, like her
father, slightly deformed. She first devoted her-
self to teaching in her sister Recha's school in
Altona, but in 1799 entered a Jewish family in Vi-
enna as governess. After a few years, however,
probably on the invitation of her brother Abraham,
she went to Paris, where she was at the head of a
boarding-school. Her modest apartments were the
rendezvous of scholars and artists: Spoutini, j\Ia-
dame de StalU, and Benjamin Constant Avere among
her frequent visitors, while the' two Humljoldts,
Von EsKEi.ES of Vienna, and others visited her
whenever they were in Paris. In the j'ear 1812 she
became governess to the daughter of Count Sebas-
tiani and remained in the count's house until the
marriage of her pupil to the Duke of Praslin, wlio
became the murderer of his wife. Plenriette, "the
deepest and most thoughtful," as Rachel Levin
called her, was indignant at her sister Dorothea's
change of faith. Yet tlie course of action which
she could not forgive in her si.ster, she later chose for
herself, becoming not only a Catholic, but a bigot.

Bibliography: Kayserlingr, Die JUdische)i Fraiien, pp. 197
et seq.\ S. Hensel, Die Familic Mendelssolin. i. .5.5 et seq.

Joseph Mendelssohn : German banker; born
at Berhn Aug. 11, 1770; died there Nov. 24, 1848;
the eldest son of Moses Mendelssolin. He was higiily
talented, and was educated in the Talmud l)y Herz
HoMREiiG and in languages and science by Fischer,
Engcl (th(! tutor of the two Ilumboldts), and others.
He attended tlie " ]\Iorgenstun<len " given l)y his
father, and the lectures on pliysics by Markus Herz
and tiiose on chemistry by Klaproth. He estaldisiied
himself at Hainl)Uig, and afterward, together with
his brotiier Abraham, founded the banking firm of
Mendelssohn & Co. at Berlin. From eaily youtii he
was an intimate friend of Alexander von Humboldt,
who came one day and said tliat his landlord had
served a notice on liini to vacate, wliicli was very
inconvenient for him liecause of his natural-liistory
collections. Joseph listened in silence. (Jn the'




afternoon of the same day Humboldt received a let-
ter saying he might live in his present house as
long as he pleased, Mendelssohn having bought
the house and become his landlord.

Even in his latter years Mendelssohn busied him-
self with literature and science. He published
"Berichte liber Rosseti's Ideen zu einer Neuen Er-
lauterung des Dante und der Dichter Seiner Zeit "
(Berlin, 1840) and " Ueber Zettelbanken " (ib. 1846).
His father's biography, published by his son G. B.
Mendelssohn, was largely Joseph's own work.

His sou Alexander (died at Berlin Oct. 25, 1871)
was the last Jewish descendant of Moses Mendels-
sohn. He was at the head of the firm after his
father's death. He
was a noble and un-
usually philanthropic
man, and was the
first Jew to receive
the title of privy
commercial councilor
(" Geheimer Commer-
zienrath ").
Bibliography : Kayser-
ling, Moses Mendels-
sohn, Sein Leben und
Wirken, 2d ed., p. 451.

Karl Mendels-
sohn-Bartholdy :

German historian ;
born Feb. 7, 1838, in
Leipsic; died Feb.
23, 1897, at Brugg,
Switzerland; son of
Felix Mendelssohn-
Bartholdy. He was
professor of history
at Freiburg-im-Breis-

Moses Mendels-
sohn (Moses ben
Menahem-Mendel ;
abbreviated RaMBe-
MaN); German Phi-
losopher, translator of
the Bible, and com-
mentator; the "third
Moses," with whom
begins a new era in
Judaism. He was
called also, after his

, . .1 1 •n/r«__~ (From the drawing by

birthplace, Moses

Dessau, with which name he signed his Hebrew and
Judoeo-CJerman letters; born at Dessau Sept. 6, 1729;
died at Berlin Jan. 4, 1786. Mendelssohn's father
was a poorTorah scribe, whose exacting occupation
had a marked influence on the delicate sense of form
and the fine handwriting of his son. In spite of pov-
erty, the father carefully educated the child, whose
first Hebrew teacher he was, although he later en-
gaged Rabbi Hirsch, the son of a Dessau day y an, to
instruct him in the Talmud. The boy then continued
his studies under the rabbi of Dessau, David Fuan-
KEL.who introduced him to Maimonides' "Moreh Ne-
bukim." His unremitting application to his studies
brought on an illness which left liim Avith curvature
of the spine. In Oct., 1743, Mendelssohn went to

Berlin, where Frankel had been called as rabbi a few
months earlier; but the desire for knowledge, which
was being more and more awakened.
Early could not be satisfied with the Tal-
Influences. mud. A considerable infiuonce was
exerted upon the young Mendelssohn
by a learned Pole, Israel Zamosz, who had been
persecuted at home because of his liberal views.
Zamosz instructed him in mathematics, and at the
same time a young Jewish physician from Prague,
Abraham Kiscii, was his teacher in Latin. Men-
delssohn had scarcely learned the principal rules of
grammar when with his scanty earnings he bought
a few of the Latin classics and an old Latin transla-
tion of Locke's "Es-
say Concerning the
Human Understand-
ing." This book,
which had a pro-
found iuUuence on
his future develop-
ment, he tried with
indescribable toil to
decipher with the aid
of a Latin dictionary.
He found 3'et another
teacher in Aaron Sol-
omon GUMPERZ, a
well-to-do Jewish
medical student, who
gave him lessons in
French and English.
Through him he ac-
quired a taste for sci-
ence and became
interested in the Leib-
nitz -Wolffian philos-
ophy. Gumperz,
moreover, introduced
him to several able
young gymnasium
teachers and to ]\[au-
pertuis, the president
of the Berlin Acad-
emy. After seven
years of privation a
better time came for
Mendelssohn. A rich
silk-manufacturer in
Berlin, Isaac Bern-
Daniei chodcwiecki.) jjaj-fj (Bermauu Zilz),

engaged him in 1750 as tutor to his children; four
years later he made him his bookkeeper, then his
representative, and finally his part-
Occupation ner. While conscientiously fulfill-
as Book- iug his business duties, Mendelssohn
keeper. continued unceasingly to acquire fur-
ther knowledge. Witliout systematic
schooling, almost without teachers and without guid-
ance, he had attained great proficiency in languages,
mathematics, philosophy, and poetry. " His integ-
rity and philosophical mind make me anticipate in
him a second Spinoza, lacking only his errors to be
his equal," ran a letter of Oct. 16, 1754, written by
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, to whom Gumperz had
introduced Mendelssohn as a good chess-player.




This acquaintance developed into a most inti-
mate friendsliip and deeply influenced Mendelssohn's
development. Lessing, only a few months his se-
nior, was the most liberal of German authors and
the most uncompromising opponent of every form
of intolerance. In 1749 he had placed a noble-minded
Jew upon the stage in his comedy "Die Juden,"
which may be regarded as the forerunner of "Na-
than der Weise." The claim which had been ad-
vanced by certain an ti- Jewish critics, that a Jew
could not possibly be worthy of respect, drove
Mendelssohn to defend the honor of his race in his
first literary attempt in German, a let-
FriendsMp ter to Gumperz, which brought him
■with before the public. He was then in-
rjessing. troduced into the world of letters by
Lessing, who, without Mendelssohn's
knowledge, published a small book which the latter
had given him to read. This work, which appeared
anonymously in 1755, was the " Philosophische Ge-
sprache," wherein Mendelssohn declared himself a
disciple of the school of Leibnitz and, despite his
antipathy for pantheism, took sides with Spinoza.
In the same year was published at Danzig the anon-
ymous satirical treatise "Pope ein Metaphysiker,"
called forth by a prize offered by the Berlin Acad-
emy', and written by Mendelssohn and Lessing, both
of whom eagerly defended the teachings of Leib-
nitz. The names of the authors did not long re-
main hidden. Several academicians, with whom
Mendelssohn was acquainted, greeted him with
marked respect; and even the court was eager
to know "the young Hebrew who wrote in Ger-
man." Almost contemporaneously with the "Phi-
losophische Gespradie " he wrote the "Briefe uber
die Empfindungen " (Berlin, 1755 ; translated into
French by Thomas Abbt, Geneva, 1764), which
contains a philosophy of the beautiful, and which
forms the basis of all philosophic-esthetic criticism
in Germany. On the advice of Lessing he then
made a German version of the "Discours sur I'lne-
gaiite Parmi les Hommes," a prize essay by Rous-
seau, whom he greatly admired. This translation,
with explanatory notes and a dedicatory letter to
"Magister" Lessing, appeared at Berlin in 1756.

Through Lessing, MendeLssohn in 1755 made the
acquaintance of the book-dealer Friedrich Nicolai,
who in the course of a few months became his inti-
mate friend, helping him in his study
Friendship of modern languages and encouraging

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