Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

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formed a close friendshii) with the brother-in-law of
Elise Reimarus in Hamburg, Mendelssohn's best

Tombstone of Moses Mendelssohn.

(Frciiii Ihe drawing by Daniel Chodowiecki. )

His '<Mor


woman friend. This was the young August von
Hennings, who lived for a few years in Berlin as
secretary of the legation and who visited Mendels-
sohn almost daily, afterward carrying on &n active
correspondence with him (for his letters see Kay-
serling, "Moses Mendelssohn," Isted., pp. 519etseq.,
and "Zeitsclirift fur die Geschichte der Juden in
Deutschland," i. Ill et fteg.). Fora short time Men-
delssohn was intimate witli Herder, to whom he first
disclosed his intention of writing a biography of
Lessing. He afterward learned tiaough Elise Rei-
marus that the philosopher F. H. Jacobi, an ad-
mirer of Bormet and a friend of Lavater, had re-
vealed this plan to her, and told her that Lessing in
his later years had been an ardent disciple of Spi-
noza. A new struggle with another opponent con-
fronted him, but before entering upon a contest

with Jacobi,
now weak and
sickly, wished to
set forth his own
f u n d a m e n t a 1
metaphysical be-
liefs and to re-
fute pantheism.
He did this in
the lectures
which he deliv-
er e d for his
children, for the
two Humboldts,
and for others,
and which ap-
peared under the
title " Morgcn-
stunden oder
Vorlesu n gen
liber das Dasein
Gottes" (Berlin,
1785; second en-
larged edition,
lb. 1786; tran.s-
lated into Ital-
ian, Triest,
1843; into Hebrew, Konigsberg, 1845). Before Ja-
cobi had received tliis work, he had already pub-
lished his "Ueber die Lehren des
Spino/a, in Briefen an Herrn Moses
Mendelssohn," in Avhicli lie recklessly
attacked Mendelssolm. Despite his
dislike for jjcrsonal quarrels, the lat-
ter could not leave this challenge unanswered, and
he replied in an article, "An die Freunde Lessings,"
in wiiich he once more defended liis friend. On tluf
very day on wliich he took the manuscript to his
jniblislier he caught cold, and a stroke of apoplexy
brought his life to a close.

The celebration of the hundredth anniversary of
his birtli, like that of Ids death, was general. Tlie
city of Dessau erected a monument to him. and one
of his great-grandsons donated in his memory a
scholarship-fund of 150,000 marks to the University
of Berlin.

An incomplete collection of his works was pub-
lished at Ofen 1819-21, and, in one volume, at Vi-




enna 1838 ; the first complete edition, with a biog-
raphy by Joseph Mendelssohn, which contains also
many of Moses' letters, was publishe<l in conformity
with tiie wishes of the family (Lcipsic-, 1843-45).
A collection of his works on piiilosophy, esthetics,
and apologetics was pul)lished by M. Brasch (Leip-
sic, 1880). There are several portraits of him by
Graff, Frisch, Rode, and Chodowiecki.

Moses Mendelssohn left three sons, Joseph, Abra-
ham, and Nathan, and three daughters, Dorothea,
Recha, and Henriette, whose biographies, together
witli those of some of their children, are given here.

Bibliography : Eudiel, Toledat IlainliennCfi, Berlin, 1786 due
first biography of Mendelssohn); Kayserling, M<>!<es Mendd.s-
.w/iH, Sein Lclirn iDid Seine H'crfre, Leipsic, 1862 (2(1 eii.
188H); lUein, Moses y[€n(iels!«)}nt, Unnedrucktes und Vii-
hehaiintcx rod Ihiii umlilher Hui, ib. 188:3.

Nathan Mendelssohn : Youngest son of Moses
Mendelssoliii ; born at Berlin Dec. 9, 1782; died
there Jan. 9, 1852 ; married Henriette Itzig, young-
est daughter of Daniel Itzig. He devoted himself
to mechanics, and was the first German to pursue
studies in this subject in England and France. He
occupied a number of positions during his lifetime.
From 1808 to 1813 he was a meclianician in Berlin;
from 1813 to 1821, an officer in the militia; and fiom
1821 until 1825, a manufacturer in Silesia. He then
became ta.\-collector in Glatz and Liegnitz, and in
1836 was appointed inspector of the chief mint in
Berlin. Mendelssohn manufactured various instru-
ments, some of which were of his own invention, and
which much impressed Alexander von Humboldt by
their excellence. At the instance of Humboldt he
received a state subsidy for the construction of a
dividing-machine which he completed in 1810.

Of a mechanical journal i)ul)lishedl)y 3Iendelssohn,
only a few numbers appeared. Until tlie end of his
life he maintained an active interest in the promo-
tion of industries and manufactures, as well as of
art and science. He gave the first impulse to the
foundation of the Polytechnic Society of Berlin,
before which he lectured on photography, galvano-
plastic art, electromagnetism, telegraphy, and kin-
dred subjects.

BiBUOr.RAPHY : J. Ltiwenberg, in Voxxiche Zeitimy (Berlin),
Oct. 7, 1883.

Bebecka Mendelssohn : Daughter of Abraham
Mendelssohn; born at Hamburg April 11, 1811.
She was distinguished for her keenness of intellect
and her brilliant wit. She was a gifted linguist and
acquired such an exact knowledge of Greek that
even in her later years she could read Homer and
Plato without difticulty. In May, 1833, she mar-
ried Lejeune-Dirichlet, professor of mathematics at
the University of Berlin, who had been introduced
into Mendelssohn's house by Humboldt (Hensel, I.e.
vols, i.-iii.).

Recha (Reikel) Mendelssohn: Second daugh-
ter of Moses Mendelssohn; born at Berlin 1766; mar
ried Mendel Meyer, the son of her father's intimate
friend, the court-banker Nathan Meyer, in Mecklen-
burg-Strelitz. The marriage was nf)t a happy one
and was soon dissolved. Recha, a bright and clever
but sickly woman, then established a boarding-
school for girls in Altona, and later lived at Berlin

in close association witli her brother Abraham
(Hensel, I.e. i. 55).

BiBLiOfiRAPHY : Kavserling. Mosets Meiidelnsnhn, p. 538.
D. M. K.

MENDES (MENDEZ) : Netherlandish family ;
one of the thirty prominent Jewish families which
emigrated from Spain to Portugal under the leader-
ship of the aged rabbi Isaac Aboab, and to which
King John II. assigned the city of Oporto as a
residence. Persecuted by the Inquisition, the Men-
deses left Oporto and settled in Holland and Eng-
land, emigrating later to America.

Gideon Mendes : Consul of the Netherlands in
1703 in the republic of Zale, Barbary, which had
entered into a treaty with the Netherlands in 1651
(Koenen, "Geseiiiedenis," p. 210).

Isaac (Francisco) Mendes : A learned Jew
who, witli his parents and his brother Mordecai
(Christoval) Mendes, went from Oporto to Am-
sterdam in 1598. Isaac was highly respected by
the Senate of Amsterdam. Through his efforts, it
is said, the second synagogue of Amsterdam, Neweh
Shalom, was erected, and that without occasioning
dissension in the community, despite Gratz's asser-
tion to the contrary (" Gesch." ix. 518 ; Barrios," Casa
de Jacob," pp. 6 et seq.).

Isaac Mendes : Poet and musician ; lived at
Amsterdam about 1665; a friend of Daniel Levi de
Barrios. About 100 years later another Isaac
Mendes lived there, who copied " Danielillo 6 Re-
spuestas a los Christianos."

Joseph Israel Mendes : Physician ; brother of
Abraham Israel Mendes ; died at Amsterdam
Jan. 7, 1619.

Joseph Mendes Bravo : Physician ; practised
in London in 1663.

Moses (Fernando) Mendes : Physician ; son of
Maranos in Portugal; professor in the faculty of
medicine at Coimbra, and physician to King John
IV. of Portugal ; died, according to some sources, in
1725, or, according to others, Nov. 26, 1724. When
the king's daughter Catherine, wife of King Charles
II. of England, became seriously ill in Castile on her
way to London, Fernando was sent to her, and at
her request he accompanied her to Loudon and re-
mained there as her physician. His brothers An-
dreas and Antonio went there with him. In Lon
don Fernando and his wife openly confessed Ju-
daism, he taking the name of Moses. A daughter
was born to him in the royal palace, to whom the
queen was godmother, and who was named Cath-
erine (Rachel) after her. In 1698 this daughter
married Moses (Antonio) da Costa. In 1687 IVIendes
was elected a member of the Royal College of Phy-
sicians and Surgeons. See Cost.\, Andrea Mkn-


Bibliography: Lindo, HixtDry nf the Jews in Spani, p. 350;
Kavserling, Gesch. der Jndenin Pnrtuaahp. 324; idem.Se-
phardim, p. 168: idem, Bihl. Ksp.-Port.-Jud. p. 70; Gaster,
Historu of Bevis Marks, pp. 12, 97 (with portrait), et seq.
D. M. K.

MENDES : One of the oldest Sephardic families.
It continued in Spain and in Spanish possessions
long after 1492, the year of tlie general expulsion.
Many members of the family and its connections un-
doubtedly succeeded that year in joining the Jews of




Aquitaine. Others drifted to Holland, Italy, Tur-
key, etc. The French or Aquitaine branch settled
chiefly in Bordeaux, Bayonne, and Came. It inter-
married with such old families as Pereira, Da Costa,
Gomez, Vaez, Osorio, Sola, Sespedes, Capote, Quiros,
Henriques, Scares, Casado, Morro, Bonito, Fonse-
qua, Nunes, Corcho, Netto, etc. Among Bayonne
notables of this family may be mentioned Edouard
Mendes (member of the municipal council, presi-
dent of the tribunal of commerce, chevalier of the
Legion of Honor), Auguste :\Iendes (" inspecteur des
postes "), and Elysee Mendes (member of tlie tribunal
of commerce and of municipal council). The ear-
liest Mendes tombstone now in existence in Bayonne
is that of Rodrigues Mendes (1637).

The Holland branch produced some notable wri-
ters, such as David, son of Atalyah Franco Men-
des (author of "Gemul 'Atalyah," "Hanukkat ha-
Bayit," "Peri 'Ez Hayyim." "Teshu'ot Yisrael "),
Samuel Rodrigues Mendes, and Samuel da Silva
Mendes (authors or editors of editions of the Se-
phardic ritual on which the modern editions of
David Levi, Meldola de Sohi, Leeser, and Caster are

The West-Indian or American branch springs
from David Pereira IVIendes, who fled from Spain to
Bayonne and who arrived in Jamaica in 1786. He
died the same year, leaving one son, Samuel. This
son had twelve children, from one of whom, Isaac,
were descended Joseph and Abraham. Joseph was
the father of Isaac Philipe and four daughters.
Abraham was the father of Frederick de Sola Mendes
and Henry Pereira Mendes.

Abraham Pereira Mendes : English rabbi and
educationist; born in Kingston, Jamaica, Feb. 9,
1825 ; died in New York April 18, 1893. He was the
first master of the Beth Limud School of Kingston,
but resigned in order to prepare in London, England,
for the vocation of preacher and rabbi. He studied
under Dr. Meldola, the dayyan, and the Rev. D. A.
de Sola, " the learned hazzan " of the Sephardic com-
munity, and received his diplomas. He returned to
Jamaica and became for a short time assistant to the
Rev. Isaac Lopez, minister of the Kingston Sephar-
dic congregation, but was soon called from that
position to be the minister of the Montego Bay com-
munity. There he stayed until his wife's failing
health compelled him, in 1851, to return to her
milder native climate. Mendes was then elected
minister and preacher in the Birmingham (Eng.)
congregation, and remained there until 1858, when
he removed to London, became head of the Neveh
Zedek for six years, and established Northwick Col-
lege, a school for Jewish youtli. He continued
meanwhile his ministerial tluties and literary labors,
and on the death of Haham Artomactedas preacher
and dayyan for the Sepiianlic community of Lon-
don. He was called to the ministry in the Newport
(Rhode Island) congregation by the guardian con-
gregation Shcarith Israel of New Yoik in 1883. and
continued its minister until hisdeath ten years later.
He was the first among the Sephardim to ptiblish a
volume of sermons in English (1855). He translated
the Daily Prayer-Book of the German Jews (Valen-
tine's edition), and finished the translation of the
Festival and Holy Day Books left incomplete by the

death of Rev. D. A. de Sola. He published, besides,
"The Law of Moses," "Post-Biblical History of the
Jews" (to fall of Jerusalem), "luterlineary Transi.i-
tion of the Prayer-Book " (German), and the Hag-
gadah. He married Eliza, a daughter of Rev. D. A.
de Sola of London.

A. H. P. M.

Frederick de Sola Mendes : American rabbi,
author, and editor; born at Montego Bay, Jamai-
ca, West Indies, July 8, 1850; son of R. Abr.i-
ham Pereira Mendes. He was educated at North-
wick College and at University College School,
London, and at London University (B.A. 1869).
Subsequently he went to Breslau, Germany, where
he entered the university and studied rabbinics
at the Jewish Theological Seminary. Mendes re-
ceived the degree of Ph.D. from Jena University in
1871. Returning to England, he was licensed to
preach as rabbi by Haham Benjamin Artom, in Lou-
don, 1873; in the same year he was appointed
preacher of the Great St. Helen's Synagogue of that
city, but in December removed to New York, where
he had accepted a call to the rabbinate of Shaaray
TefiUah congregation (now the West End Syna-
gogue); he entered upon his duties there Jan. 1,
1874. Mendes was one of the founders of the
American Hebrew. In 1888 he took part in the
Field-Ingersoll controversy, writing for the "North
American Review" an article entitled "In Defense
of Jehovah." In 1900 IVIendes joined the staff of
The Jewish Encyclopedia as revising editor and
chief of the translation bureau, which positions he
resigned Sept., 1902. Associated with Dr. Marcus
Jastrow and Dr. Kautmann Kohler, he is one of
the revisers of the "New Bible Translation" in
course of publication by the Jewish Publication
Society. He has also translated "Jewish Family
Papers: Letters of a Missionary," by " Gustav Mein-
hardt " (Dr. William Herzberg). Of his publica-
tions the following may be mentioned: "Child's
First Bible"; "Outlines" of Bible History"; "De-
fense not Defiance." He contributed also the ar-
ticle on the "Jews" to "Johnson's Encyclopedia."
In 1903 he became for a time editor of "The Meno-
rah," a monthly magazine.

Henry (Haim) Pereira Mendes : American
rabbi; son of Abraham Pereira Mendes; born in
Birmingham, England, April 13, 1853. He was
educated at Northwick College (rabbinics), at Uni-
versity College (London), and at the Univ(H-sity of
the Cfty of New York, taking the degree of INI.D.
He became minister of the Manchester (England)
Sephardic congregation in 1874, and in 1877 was
called to the Congregation Shcarith Israel of New
York, of which he is still (1904) the minister. In
1881 he was one of the founders of the New York
Board of Ministers, and acted as its secretary from
its foundation i\p to 1901, when he became presi-
dent. He joined Dr. Morals in helping to establish
the Jewish Theological Seminary in 1886. of which
he became secretary of the advisory board and pro-
fessor of history. ' On the death of Dr. Morals he
became acting president of the faculty until the ap-
pointment of Dr. S. Schechter. In 1884, the cen-
tennial of the birth of Sir Montefiore, he
moved his congregation to convene the leading




Jews of New York to mark the event by some prac-
tical work : the outcome was the Monteliore Home
for Chronic Invalids, established in the same j'ear.
He was made vice-president of the Gild for Crippled
Children in 1896, and in 1901 established the Jewish
branch of that gild. He promoted the formation of
the Union of Orthodox Congregations of the United
States and Canada (1897) and was subsequently
elected its president. Mendes was one of the found-
ers of the Young Women's Hebrew Association of
New York (1902), of whose advisory board he is

In Zionism, Mendes stands specially for its spiri-
tual aspect; he served as vice-president of the Amer-
ican Federation of Zionists and was a member of the
Actions Committee of Vienna (1898-99). The de-
gree of D.D. was conferred upon him by the Jew-
ish Theological Seminary of America (1904).

In conjunction with his brother Frederick de
Sola Mendes, and others, he was one of the found-

drama which he has contributed during the year as
critic to the "Journal."

Mendes is the author of a large number of works
both in prose and in verse. A perfect stylist, he is
nevertheless inclined to the sensual ; his " Le
Roman d'une Nuit," which appeared in the "Revue
Fantaisiste " (1867), was condemneil as an immoral
novel, and Mendes was sentenced to a month's im-
prisonment and a fine of 500 francs for publishing
it. Of his works may be cited : In verse : " Philo-
mene," 1863; " Odelettes Guerri^res," 1871; "La
Colere d'un Franc-Tireur," 1872; "Le Soleil de
Minuit," 1876; "Nouveaux Contes Epiques," 1885;
"Les Vains Amours," 1896. Novels: "Histoires
d' Amour," 1868; "Les73 Journeesde la Commune,"
1871; "Les Folies Amoureuses," 1877; "Le Roi
Vierge," 1881; "Les Monstres Parisiens," 1882-85;
"Grand Magnet," 1888; "Rue des Filles-Dieu,"
1893; "Le Chercheur de Tares," 1897. Most of
these works have passed through several editions.

David Pereira Mendes (b. 1740 : d. 1786)
Left Bayonne for Jamaica 1786

Samuel Pereira
(b. 1775: d. 1838)


Grace Is

1 1 1 1 1 1
aac Abraham Abigail Samuel Esther Josef

1 1
)h David Daniel

d. 1893)

3 others




A bra
(b. 1835

4 daughters Isaac

(b. 1851 ; d. 19C



4 daughters Joseph

1 II 1 1 1 1 1 1
David Frederick Henry Stella = A. Tucker Rosetta Isaac David Leonard Maria Rica
(d. 1849) (6 children) (2 children) (3 children) (4 children) (4 children)


1 1
Edith Frank

H. P. M.

Mendes Pedigree. — American Branch.

ers of "The American Hebrew" (1879), to whose
columns, as to those of the general press, he is a
frequent contributor. He is the author of "Union
Primer and Reading Book " (1882); "Jewish History
Ethically Presented" (1895); "Looking Ahead," a
plea for justice to the Jew (1900); "The Jewish
Religion Ethically Presented " (1904). Among his
other writings are: "In Old Egypt," stories about,
but not from, the Bible; "Esther"; "Judas Macca-
beus " ; and many essays in periodical publications.
J. F. H. V.

MENDIiS, CATULLE : French poet, drama-
tist, and art critic; born at Bordeaux i\Iay 22, 1841.
Educated in his native city, he went in 1859 to
Paris, where he has since resided. In 1861 he founded
the "Revue Fantaisiste" and in 1864 the "Parnasse."
later "La Republique des Lettres." Since 1893 he
has published an anniial, under the title "L'Artau
Theatre," containing the articles on music and the

Dramas: "La Part du Roi," 1872; "Justice," 1877;
"Gwendoline," 1886; "Isoline," 1888; "Fiammette,"
1889; "Medee," 1898. All his pieces have been pro-
duced at the theaters of Paris, and have been well

In 1894 Mendes received the cross of the Legion
of Honor.

Bibliography: Curinier, Diet. Nat.; La Grande Encyclo-
pedic; Nnuvelle Larouase lUustre; Metiers Konversa-
s. F. T. H.


MENDES, FRANCISCO : Portuguese Marauo;
physician to Don Alfonso, brother of the cardinal in-
fante; lived in Lisbon in the sixteenth century. The
shoemaker Luis Diaz, who proclaimed himself to be
the Messiah, induced Mendes to undergo circum-
cision at the age of thirty-seven and to confess Ju-
daism (c. 1541) together with other converts. Diaz




was burned at the first auto da fe held at Evora
toward the end of 1542, Francisco Mendes escaping
the same fate by flight.

Bibliography : Infarmatione Sommona, reprinted in Gratz,
Gexch. 3d ed., Ix. 551 ; HMoria da Inqutsi^do, p. 9, Lisbon,

T M. K.

COSTA: Dutch pliilologist ; born at Amsterdam May
16. 1851 ; entered tlie Athenanim (now the Uni-
versity) there in 1867 and studied classic philology.
An accident at gymnastics aggravated for two
years the deafness from wliich he had suffered since
his boyhood and caused him to give up his regular
studies. Mendes established himself as a private
master of classical languages and soon became
known for his pedagogical capacity. Since 1891 he
has been curator of manuscripts in the University

Mendes has applied himself to the study of Greek,
especially of Homer. In collaboration with his
friend Dr. van Leeuwen (since 1884 professor at Ley-
den) he pu])lished the so-called " Editio Batavorum "
of Homer ("Ilias," 2 vols., Leyden, 1887-89; 2d ed.
1895-96; "Odyssea," 2 vols., 1890-92; 2d ed. 1897-
1898). In this edition not only has the letter "di-
gamma" been restored at the beginning of words in
which the study of comparative grammar proves it
to have been originally pronounced, but even the
greater part of the results of the latest researches
in Homeric grammar have been applied in recon-
structing the text. For the use of Dutch schools the
same collaborators published : " Attische Vormleer "
(ih. 1877; 6th ed. 1901), an Attic grammar, and
" Taaleigen der Homerische Gedichten " {ib. 1883 ;
4th ed. 1898; translated into German 1886, and into
French 1887), a grammar of the Homeric idiom.
Mendes himself wrote a Latin grammar {ib. 1885;
4th ed. 1899).

On Jan. 8, 1898, Mendes was nominated "doctor
honoris causa " of Amsterdam University in rec-
ognition of his services in classical philology. As
curator he published a catalogue of manuscripts,
"De Handscliriften der Stedelijke Bibliotheek met
de Latere Aanwinsten " {ib. 1902).

From ids youth Mendes has always had a great
admiration for tiie stage. He is the author of many
translations for the Dutch theater, and of some orig-
inal comedies and plays, e.ff. : "De Schuld " (1882);
"Gravin Sarah" (1883); "Tehuis Gebleven" (1883;
2d ed. 1892); "Zyn Model" (1888). His own remi-
niscences of tiie stage he collected in a volume en-
titled "Tooneellierinneringen " {ib. 1900), containing
important materials for tiie history of the Dutch
stage during the second part of the nineteenth cen-
tury. Witli the students of the universities of Am-
sterdam and Utrecht, Mendes prepared performances
of the following classic plays: "Antigone " (1885)
and " a':(lipus He.x " (1891) of Sophocles; "Aulula-
ria" of Plautiis (1892).

Mendes' brother Henri, born 1846, a chess-prob-
lem composer of reputation, is a deaf-mute.

Bibliography : ROssing, Zondanshlnd, Dec. 36, 1897 (with
portrait); Mnemosyne, 1898, xxvl. 20.">. 599.
s. E. Sl.

MENDES (MENDEZ), MOSES : English poet
and dramatist; born in'London; died at Olrl Buck

enham, Norfolk, Feb. 4, 1758; son of James Mendes,
a stock-broker of Mitcham, Surrey, and grandson of
Fernando Mendes. He was educated partly at St.
Mary Hall, Oxford (M.A. 1750). Subsequently he
engaged in stock-broking, and, having accumulated
a fortune, he bought an estate at Old Buckenham,
and devoted himself to literary pursuits.

His first effort was "The Double Disappoint-
ment," a ballad-opera, produced with considerable
success at Drury Lane Theatre, March 18, 1746, and
revived at Covent Garden March 22, 1759. "The
Chaplet," a musical "entertainment," the words by
Memles and the score by Boyce, scored a great suc-
cess Dec. 2, 1749, because of both its merit and the
clever acting of Mrs. Clive as Pastara. " Robin
Hood," produced at Drury Lane Dec. 13, 1750, and
"The Shepherd's Lottery," played Nov. 19, 1751,
were not successful.

Mendes' only prose work was " Henry and Blanch "
(1745), a tale taken from the French of "Gil Bias."
It was dramatized the same year by Thomson, and
was produced at Drury Lane Theatre. Other
works were: "The Seasons" (1751), written in imi-
tation of Spenser; "The Battiad " (1751), a satire
on Dr. William Battle, written in collaboration with
Paul Whitehead and Schomberg; "The Squire of
Dames," another poem in imitation of Spenser.
Mendes also translated Mapliteus' continuation of
Vergil's "^neid" (1767). His "The Blatant Beast "
was not published until 1792, when it appeared in
the "European Magazine." Mendes' verses betray
the dilettante; his humor, the mechanical fun of the
playhouse of his day.

Mendes' two sons dropped their father's name
after his death, assuming that of " Head " by royal
warrant. His grandson Francis Bond Head was
created a baronet July 14, 1838.

Bibliography : European Magazine, Oct., 1792, pp. 251 et
Keq.; Diet. National Biography, xxxvii. 248-249; Jew.
Worhl, Feb. 14, 1873.

.T. E. Ms.

one of the richest and most respected Portuguese
Marano families; died about 1536; husband of Bea-

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 119 of 169)