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plied with his sonnet "La Gola, il Sonno, e I'Oziose
Piume," was published for the first time in 1504 by
G. A. Gilio, who, however, attributed it to Orten-
sia di Guglielmo of Fabriano. It was republished
by Tommasini. who attributed it to Giustina (" Pe-
trarca Redivivus," p. 111). Subsequently it was
included in vari(His collections of poetry, down to
1885. Although Crescimbeni, Tiraboschi, and Zeno
doubted the authenticity of the sonnet, scholars
like Quadrio and, with some hesitation, Foscolo ac-
cepted it. Morici concludes that the sonnet is the
work of some cinquecentist, and that Giustina Levi-
Perotti never existed.

Bibliography : Borgojrnoni, Le Rimedi Francei<C(i Petrarca,
pp.23 ct scq., Modena, 1711 ; (arducci. Rime di Franvesco
Petrarca, pp. 3-4, Leghorn, 1876; Crescimbeni, DelV IMoria
della Viilqar Poesta, iii. 164 et scq., Venice, 1730 ; Foscolo,
Opere Editc e Inedite, x. 409, Florence, 1859; Kayserling,
Die Jlidi«cheii Fraueii ; Morici, Giti^tina Levi-Pcrotti e le
Petrarchiste MarchiQiane, in Rasseuna Nnzioiiale. Aug.,
1899; Pesaro, Donne Celebri TsraeUte, in 11 VenKiUo iKraeli-
tico, 1880, p. 376; Quadrio, Delia Storia e della Raginne li'
Ogni PDcsirt, i.-ii. 187-188 194, 195, Milan; Tiraboschi, Sto-
ria della Letteratnra Italiana, V. 581, Florence; Zeno, i>iA'-
xcrtazioni Vaxftianc, i. 257b.

J. u. c.

LEVIAS, CASPAR: American Orientalist;
born in Szagarren Feb. 13, 1860; received his ele-
mentary education in Russia and his collegiate
training at Columbia College, New York (A.M.),
and Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore; he was
fellow in Oriental languages at the former (1893-94)
and fellow in Semitic languages at the latter univer-
sity (1894-95). Since 1895 Levias has been instruc-
tor at the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Oliio.
His published works are as follows: "A Grammar
of the Aramaic Idiom Contained in the Babylonian
Talmud," Cincinnati, 1900; "The Justification of
Zionism," 1899. Besides these, Levias has published
a large number of essays, chiefiy on philological sub-
jects, in "The American Journal of Semitic Lan-
guages " (in which his Talmudic grammar first ap-
peared) and in the " Hebrew Union College Journal."

A.

LEVIATHAN AND BEHEMOTH : Names
of gigantic beasts or monsters described in Job xl.
The former is from a root denoting "coil," "twist" ;
the latter is the plural form of " behemah " =



lieviathan
Levin, Hirschel



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



38



"beast."— Biblical Data: Evt-r siuce Bochart
(" Hierozoicon," iii. 705), " behemoth " has been taken
to denote the hippopotamus; audJablonski, to make
it correspond exactly with that animal, compared an
Egyptian form, " p-ehe-mu " (= " water-ox "),which,
however, does not exist. The Biblical description
contains mythical elements, and the conclusion is
justified that these monsters were not real, though
the hippopotamus may have furnished in the main
the data for the description. Only of a unique being,
and not of a conunon hippopotamus, could the words
of Job xl. 19 have been used : " He is the first [A.
V. "chief"] of the ways of God [comp. Prov. viii.
22]'; lie that made him maketh sport with him" (as
the Septuagint reads, TrsTrou/fitvov h/KamnnL'taHai;
A. V. " He that made him can make his sword to
approach unto him"; comp. Ps. civ. 26); or "The
mountains bring him forth food; where all the
beasts of the field do play " (Job xl. 20). Obviously
behemoth is represented as the primeval beast, the
king of all the animals of the dry land, while levi-
athan is the king of all those of the water, both alike
unconquerable by man (rt. xl. 14, xli. 17-20). Gun-
kel ("Schopfung und Chaos," p. 62) suggests that
behemoth and "leviathan were the two primeval
mojisters corresponding to Tiamat (= "the abyss";
comp. Hebr. "tehom") and Kingu (= Aramaic
"'akna" = serpent") of Babylonian mythology.
Some commentators find also in Isa. xxx. 6 ("baha-
mot negeb" = "beasts of the south") a reference
to the hippopotamus; others again, in Ps. Ixxiii.
22 ("I am as behemoth [=" beasts"; A. V. "a
beast"] before thee"); but neither interpretation has
a substantial foundation. It is likely that the le-
viathan and the behemoth were originally referred
to in Hab. ii. 15: "the destruction of the behemoth
[A. V. "beasts"] shall make them afraid" (comp.
LXX. , " thee " instead of " them ").

E. O. II. K.

In Rabbinical Literature : According to a

midrash, the leviathan was created on the fifth day
(Yalk., Gen. 12). Originally God produced a male
and a female leviathan, but lest in midtiplying
the species should destroy the world, He slew the
female, reserving her flesh for the banquet that will
be given to the rigiitcous on the advent of tlie Mcs-
siali (B. B. 74a). The enormous size of the levia-
than is tiius illustrated by K. Johanan, from.whom
proceeded nearly all the haggadot concerning this
monster: "Once we went in a ship and saw a fish
which put his head out of the water. He had horns
upon which was written: ' I am one of the meanest
creatures that inhabit the sea. I am three hundred
miles in length, and enter this day into the jaws of
tiic leviathan ' " (1^. B. l.<\). When the leviathan is
hungry, reports \\. Dimi in the name of R. Johanan,
he sends forth from his moutli a heat so great as to
make all the waters of tiie deep boil, and if lie
would jiut his head into paradise no living creature
could endure the odor of him {ih.). His abode is
the Mediterranean Sea; and the waters of the Jor-
dan fall into his month (Bek. 55b; B. B. /.'•.).

Tiic body of the leviathan, especially his eyes,
possesses great illuminating power. This was the
opinion of R. Kliezer, who. in theeourseof a voyage
in company with R, Josliua, e\iilaineil to the latter.



when frightened by the sudden appearance of a
brilliant light, that it probably proceeded from the
ej^esof the leviathan. He referred his companion to
the words of Job xli. 18: "By his neesings a light
doth shine, and his eyes are like the eyelids of the
morning" (B. B. ^.c). However, in spite of his
supernatural strength, the leviathan is afraid of a
small Avorm called "kilbit" (n"'n^D), which clings to
the gills of large fishes and kills them (Shab. 77b).

The leviathan is prominent in the haggadic litera-
ture in connection with the advent of the Messiah.
Referring to Job xl. ^0 (Hebr.), "and
In the the pious ones [nnnn] sliall make a
Messianic banquet of it," R. Johanan says that
Times. at the time of the resurrection a ban-
quet will be given by God to the
righteous, at which the flesh of the leviathan will be
served (B. B. I.e.). Even the hunting of the levia-
than will be a source of great enjoyment to the
righteous. Those, says R. Judan bar Simon, who
have not taken ])art in pagan sports will be allowed
to participate in the hunting of the leviathan and of
the behemoth (Lev. R. xiii. 3). Gabriel will be
charged with the killing of the monster; but he
will not be able to accomplish his task without
the help of God, who will divide the monster with
His sword. According to another haggadah, when
Gabriel fails, God will order the leviathan to engage
in a battle with the ox of the mountain (" shor ha-
bar "), which will result in death to both of them
(B. B. 75a; Pesik. p. 188b). Not only will the flesh
of the leviathan fiu-nish food for the table of the
righteous, but there will be a great supply of it in
the markets of Jerusalem (B. B. I.e.). Erom the
hide of the leviathan God will make tents for the
pious of the first rank, girdles for those of tiie
second, chains for those of the third, and necklaces
for those of the fourth. The remainder of the hide
will be spread on the walls of Jeru.salem; and
the whole world will be illuminated by its bright-
ness (ih.).

These haggadot concerning the leviathan are in-
terpreted as allegories by all the connnentators with
the exception of some ultraconservatives like Bahya
ben Asher ("Shull.ian Arba'," ch. iv., p. 9, col. 3).
According to IMaimonides, the banquet is an allusion
to the spiritual enjoyment of the intellect (connnen-
tary on Sanh. i.). The name, he says, is derived
from rvh ("to join," "to unite"), and designates
an imaginary mcnister in which are
Symbolical combined the most various animals
Inter- ("Moreh," iii., ch. xxiii.). In the
pretation. cabalistic literature the "piercing levi-
athan "and the "crooked leviathan"
(Isa. xxvii. 1), upon which the liaggadali concerning
the hunting of the; animal is based, are inter]u-eted
as referring to Satau-Saniael and his sjiouse Lilith
("'Emck ha-Melek," p. 130a), Avhile Kimhi, Abra-
vanel, and otiu'rs consider the expressions to be allu-
sions to the destruction of the powers which are
hostile to the Jews (comp. Manasseh ben Israel,
"Nishmat Ilayyim," i>. 48; see also Kohut, "Aruch
Compietum," n.r. "Leviathan," for other references.
and his essay in "Z. D. M. G." vol. xxi.. p. 590, for
the parallels in Persian literature). The haggadic
sayings obtained a hold on tlie imagination of the



39



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Xieviathan
Levin, Hirschel



poets, who introduced allusions to the banquet of
the leviathan into the liturgy.

s. s. I. Br.

In Apocryphal Literature : Both leviathan

and behemoth are prominent in Jewish eschatology.

In the Book of Enoch (Ix. 7-9), Enoch says:

" On that day [the day of .iudginent] two monsters will be
produced : a female monster, named ' Leviathan,' to dwell hi
the depths of the ocean over the fountains of the waters ; but
the male is called 'Behemoth,' who occupies with his breast a
"waste wilderness named 'Dendain' [read "the land of Naid "
after LXX., if yji Nai5 = iij i>tn3. Gen. iv. 16], on the east of
the garden, where the elect and the righteous dwell. And I
besought that other angel that he should show me the might of
these monsters ; how they were produced on one day, the one
being placed In the depth of the sea and the other in the main
land of the wilderness. And he spake to me: 'Thou son of
man, dost seek here to know what is hidden?'" (Charles,
" Book of Enoch," p. 155; eomp. " the secret chambers of levia-
than " which Elihu b. Berakel the Buzite will disclose. Cant. U.
1.4).

According to II Esdras vi. 49-53, God created on
the fifth day the two great monsters, leviathan and
behemoth, and He separated them because the sev-
enth part of the world which was assigned to the
water could not hold them together, and He gave to
the behemoth that part which was dried up on the
third day and had the thousand mountains which,
according to Ps. i. 10, as understood bj' the hag-
gadists C the behemoth [A. V. " cattle "] upon a
thousand hills"; comp. Lev. R. xxii. ; Num. R.
xxi. ; and Job xl. 20), furnish behemoth with the
necessary food. To the leviathan God gave the
seventh part of the earth filled with water; and He
reserved it for the future to reveal by whom and at
what time the leviathan and the behemoth should
be eaten.

In the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch, xxix. 4, also,
the time is predicted wlien the behemoth will come
forth from his seclusion on land and the leviathan
out of the sea, and the two gigantic monsters,
created on the fifth day, will serve as food for the
elect who will survive in the days of the Messiah.

Behemoth and leviathan form in the Gnostic sys-
tem of the Ophites and others two of the seven cir-
cles or stations which tlie soul has to pass in order
to be purged and to attain bliss (Hippolytus, " Ad-
versus Omnes Hasreses," v. 21; Origen, "Contra
Celsum," vi. 25). As if the meat of the "wild ox''
behemoth and the fish leviathan were not deemed
sufficient for the great banquet of the

Among rigiiteous in the future, a fowl was
the added, i.e. , tlie " ziz " (A. V. " the wild

Gnostics, beasts" of the field), mentioned in Ps.
1. 11 after the account of the behe-
moth in verse 10, and understood by the Rabbis to
signify a gigantic bird (B. B. 73b). Thus the Apoc-
alypse of Simeon b. Yohai(Jellinck, "B. H." iii. 76)
has the three animals, the monster ox behemoth,
the fish leviathan, and the gigantic bird ziz, pre-
pared for the great banquet. This tradition, how-
ever, indicates Persian influence, for it is of the
Parsee cosmology that tlie existence of such primeval
representatives of the classes of animals is a part.
There are four such species mentioned in "Bunda-
his," xviii.-xix. : (1) "the serpent-like Kar fish, the
Arizh of the water, the greatest of the creatures of
Ahuramazda," corresponding lo the leviathan; (2)
the tliree-legged ass Khara, standinsr in the midst of



the ocean (" Yasna," xli. 28); it is mentioned in the
Talmud as the " unicorn keresh," " tigras" {i.e., " thri-
gat " = " three-legged "), the gazel of the heights
(Hul. 59b), and forms, under tiie name "Harish," in
Mohammedan eschatology a substitute for behemoth
and leviathan (see Wolff, "Muhammedanische Es-
chatologie," 1872, pp. 174, 181); (8) the ox Hadha-
yosh, from which the food of immortality is pre-
pared, and which forms the parallel of behemoth;
and (4) the bird Chamrosh, the chief of the birds,
which lives on the summit of Mount Alburz (comp.
"Bundahis,"xix. 15); compare also Simurgh (Aves-
ta "Saena Meregha," eagle-bird, gritfin, Hebraized
" Bar Yokneh "), the fabulous giant-bird, which the
Rabbis identified with ziz (.see Windischman, "Zo-
roastrische Studien," pp. 91-93; West, "Pahlavi
Texts," in Max Mliller, "S. B. E." v. 65-71).

BiBLTOGRAPHT : The Commentaries of Dillmann, Delitzsch, and
others on Job: Gunkel, SchOpfuitg und Chans, (iottingen,
1895 ; Eisenmenger, EntdecMes Judemthum, ii. 296 et seq.,
873 et t<cq.; Weber, System der Altsunagngalen Thealnf/ie,
1880, p. 195 ; Hastings, Diet. Bible ; Cheyne and Black, £71-
c.i/c. BibL

E. G. H. K.

LEVIN, EMANUEL BORISOVICH: Rus-
sian teacher and communal worker ; born at Minsk
Dec. 15, 1820; educated at the Molodechensk school
for the nobility (1836-41). He taught in G. Klaczko's
jirivate school at Wilna from 1842 to 1844, and at
the public schools of Minsk from 1846 to 1851.
Having passed his examinations in 1848, he received
an appointment in the Jewish government school
at Proskurov, Podolia (1851-52), and subsequently
in the rabbinical school at Jitomir (1853-57).

In 1859 Levin settled in St. Petersburg, where he
became one of the first members of the Society for
the Promotion of Culture Among the Jews of Rus-
sia, of which he acted as secretary until 1872, when
he became an honorary member. Since 1895 Levin
has been a member of the historical committee of
the society and one of the collaborators of the
"Regesty i Nadpisi." Levin was elected a member
of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in
1870 ; and he is also a member of the Society for the
Promotion of Commerce and Industry. In 1895
Levin was made an honorary citizen by the Russian
government for his " Code of Laws Concerning the
Jews."

Levin's other works include: a Russian grammar
in Hebrew, Wilna, 1846; "Moiseyevo Brachnoye
Pravo," St. Petersburg, 1875, on the marriage laws
according to tlie Talmud and the rabbinical litera-
ture, translated from Hebrew sources; "Svod
Uzakoneni o Yevrcyakh, ih. 1885; "Perechen
Ogranichitelnykh Zakouov o Yevreyakh v Yevre-
yakh o Rossii " {ib. 1890), both on the disabilities of
the Jews in Russia; " Sboraik Ogranichitelnikh Za-
konov o Yevreyakh," ib. 1902, on the same subject.
He published also the text of the Pirke Abot with
Russian translation and notes, ib. 1868.

ir. K. S. M. G.

LEVIN, HIRSCHEL BEN ARYEH LOB

(called also Hirschel Lobel and Hart Lyon) :
German rabbi; born at Rzeszow, Galicia, in 1721;
died at Berlin Aug. 26, 1800. His father (known also
as Saul Levin) was rabbi at Amsterdam; and on
his mother's side Hirschel was a nephew of Jacob



Levin, Hirschel
Levin, Poul Theodor



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



40




Hirschel Levin.



Emden. Although be occupied himself also with
secular sciences and philosophy, Levin paid special
attention to Hebrew grammar and literature, and
composed several Hebrew poems. Levin was a dis-
tinguished Talmudist, and in 1751, when he was only
thirty years old, be threw himself into the struggle
between Emden and Eybeschutz, naturally siding
with the former. His epistles against Eybeschutz

made such an impression
that in 1756 he was elected
thief rabbi of the London
congregation of German
and Polish Jews. In 1760
Jacob Kimhi having pub-
lished at Altona a respon-
sum in which he charged
Ihe London butchers
("shohetim") with negli-
gence in regard to their
duties, Levin warmly de-
fended them. The ward-
ens of his synagogue,
however, refused him per-
mission to make a public
reply to Kimhi's charges;
he therefore resigned in
1763, and accepted the
rabbinate of Halberstaflt. It would appear, from
the letter in which the community of Halberstadt
offered him the rabbinate, that Levin's resignation
was occasioned by the neglect of Biblical and Tal-
niudic studies by the Jews of London. He after-
ward became rabbi of Mannheim; and in 1772 he
was appointed chief rabbi of Berlin. He was a
great friend of Mendelssohn.

In 1778 Levin gave his approbation to Mendels-
sohn's German translation of the Pentateuch. In
the preceding year the Prussian government had or-
dered Levin to make a resume in German of the Jcav-
ish civil laws, such as those on inheritance, guardian-
ship, and marriage, and to present it to tlie royal
department of justice. Levin, not having a thorough
knowledge of the German language, applied to
Mendel.s.sohn to do the work. Mendelssohn, accord-
ingly, wrote his " Ritualgesetze der Juden," printed
under Levin's superintendence, 1778.

Despite his toHcnition and enlightenment. Levin,
instigated by the rabbis of Glogau and Lissa, began
in 1782 to persecute Naphtali Ilerz Wcssely for
his "Dibre Slialom we-Emet" (Landshuth, "Tole-
dot Anshe lia-Shem," p. 85; Kayserling, "Mendels-
sohn," p. 307). lie proiiibited tiie printing of that
work, and insisted upon the e.xpidsion of the author
from Berlin. But Wes.sely's friends prevailed on
Levin to desist from attacking Wessely, while Men-
del-ssolm at the same time gave Levin to understand
that the press in Germany was free to everybody.

Levin wrote: Epistles against Eybeschutz, printed
by one of Euiden's jjiipils, in the"Sefat Einet u-
Leshon Zehorit," Altona, 1752; gios.ses on Pirke
Abot, printed with Emden '.s commentary to Pirke
Abot, Berlin, 1834; notes to tlie "Sefer Yuhasin "
and "Sefer lia-Hinnuk," some of which were pub-
lished in Kobak's " Jeschurun." Some of his poetry
was pviblished in " Ha-Maggid " (.\iv.) under the title
" Nahalat Zebi." Finally, three manuscript volumes



of his respousa are to be found in the library of the

London Bet ha-Midrash, bearing the numbers 24

to 26.

Bibliography : Griitz, Gcsch. 2d ed., xi. 41, 89, 1.51 ; H. Adler,
HI Puhl. A)nih)-Jen\ Hist. Exhibition, l^sr, pp. 2.S0 et scq.;
Liindshuth, Toledot A}ishe lin-S)in)i. pp. I'i-'iii; Kayserling.
Moses Mendelssohn, pp. 283, 291, :J11 ; Auerbacli, Gcsch. del'
Isrttelitischen Ocmeinde Halberstadt, pp. 89 et seq., Halber-
stadt, 1806 ; Fuenn, Keneset Yisrael, p. 284.
s. s. M. Sel.

LEVIN, ISRAEL SOLOMON : Danish gram-
marian and linguist; born in Randers 1810; died
in C^openhagen 1883. He graduated from Banders
high school, and afterward was employed as editor
of a critical journal and as a translator of novels.

Levin was the author of several works on Danish
grammar, notably " Dansk Lyd og Kjonskere"
(1844), and of two novels, "Krigsforta^Uinger for
Menigmand" and "Nogle Trsek af Livet i Ham-
burg" (1848).
Bibliography : C. F. Bricka, Damk Biografisk Lexicon.

s. F. C.

LEVIN, JACOB : Galician Hebraist ; born at
Brody in 1844. In 1865 he became coeditor with
Werber on the Hebrew paper "'Ibri Auoki," in
which he published a series of articles on the posi-
tion of the Jews in Russia before Alexander II. In
1880 he produced a didactic poem entitled " Ilitpat-
tehut Tebel," on the evolution of religion and phi-
losophy. Levin had previously translated into He-
brew Schiller's " Die Braut von Messina " under the
title "^Medanim Ben Ahim " (Brody, 1868).

Bibliography: Sokolov, Sefer ho^Zikknrun, p. 63, Warsaw,
1889 ; Zeitlin, Bibl. Post-MendeU. p. 202.
s. M. Set,.

LEVIN, JOSHUA HOSCHEL BEN ELI-
JAH ZEEB: Lithuanian Talmudist and author;
born at Wilua July 22, 1818; died at Paris Nov. 15,
1883. After studying Talmud and rabbiuics under
Elijah Kalischer, Levin settled in Volozhin, where
he lectm-ed on Talmud and wrote several works.
In 1871 he was called to the rabbinate of Praga,
near AVarsaw. Toward the end of his life Levin
went to Paris with the intention of proceeding thence
to the Holy Land; but at the request of Israel Sa-
lant he remained in the French capital and became
preacher for the Russo-Polish conununity there.

Levin was the author of many works, of which
the following have been published at Wilna: "Ilag-
gahot," notes on the Midrash Rabbah ; "'Aliyyot
Eliyahu" (1856). a biography of Elijah Wiln^;
"Ma'yene Yehoshua'," a commentary on Pirke
Abot," printed in the " Ruah Hayyim" of Hiiyyim
Volozhin (1859); " Ziyyun Yehoshua' " (1859), a com-
plete concordance to botii Talmuds; "Tosefot Sheni
le-Ziyyon," glosses to tiicMishnah; " Peletat Sofe-
rim"(1863), novelUc and essays; "Dabar be-'Itto"
(1878), discussions and explanations on halakic
matters.

Bibliography: Univ. Tsr. .xxxix. 156; Ha-Mcliz, 1883, col.
142:i; lla-Asif, 1., swtion 1, p. 141.
s. s. M. Sel.

LEVIN, JUDAH LOB (JEHALEL): He-
brew poet; born at Minsk, Russia, 1H45. He stud-
ied Talmud under Rabbi Hayyim Selig and other
prominent rabbis. At the age of sixteen he read
thrmmh the entire Talmud. He was then married to



41



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Levin, Hirschel
Levin, Poul Theodor



the daughter of a Hasid; and uudor the iiilluonce of
his new surroundings he began the study of tlio
Zohar and other mystical literature. In 1868 he
went to Kiev as teacher in the house of Lazar
Brodski, wliere he studied German and Russian.
He was also made treasurer of the Brodski Hour-
mills. In 1887 he was appointed treasurer of the
Brodski sugar-retinery in Tomashpol, Podolia, where
he is now (1904) residing.

Levin began to write Hebrew poetry at the age
of ten; and he has contributed extensively during
the last tliirty years to tlie Hebrew periodicals " Ha-
Meliz," "Ha-Zeiirah," "Ha-Maggid," "Ha-Asif,"
and "Ha-Shahar." His first collection of verse, en-
titled "Sifte Benanim" (Jitomir, 1871), contains
mostly occasional poems. In 1877 his " Kishron ha-
Ma'aseh" appeared, first in "Ha-Shahar " (vols, vii.,
xviii.), and then in book form. It contains four large
poems throwing light on the social condition of the
Jews of Russia. They are socialistic in tendency.
In another volume of "Ha-Sliahar" (Ix.xx.) he pub-
lished "Elhauan," an epic poem in three parts, also
concerning the social condition of the Russian Jews.
Levin's style is affected and lacks brilliancy. In
1883 he translated Disraeli's "Taucred" into He-
brew under the title "Nes la-Goyim." The transla-
tion was much criticized by Frischman in " 'Al ha-
Nes," Warsaw, 1883.

Bibliography: Zeitlin, Bihl. Post-Mendelf<.; Lippe, BibJin-
grapliische.'i Lexicon ; Klausner, Nnvo-Yev7'eiskaya Litera-
tura ; Frischman, Tohu wa-Bohu, Warsaw, 1883.

H. K. J. G. L.

LEVIN, LEWIS CHARLES : American poli-
tician and writer; born at Cliarleston, S. C, Nov.
10, 1808; died in Philadelphia March 14, 1860.
When still a youth he went to Woodville, Miss.,
where he became a school-teacher and studied law.
After having been woimded in a duel he left that
town and practised law successively in Maryland,
Kentucky, Louisiana, and Pennsylvania. In 1838
he settled in Philadelphia and was there admitted to
the bar. There he edited the "Temperance Advo-
cate," and soon became knoTvn as a writer and
speaker in the interest of the Temperance party.
He was instrumental in the formation of the Na-
tive American party in 1843, and founded in its
support in Philadelphia the "Sun," of which daily
paper lie became the editor. In 1845 he was elected
to Congress, retaining his seat until 1851. He be-
came a member of several committees and was
chairman of the committee on naval affairs.

Bibliography: C. Adier, in American Jewish Year Bonk,
5661 (1900-1).
A. F. T. H.

LEVIN, MENDEL (called also Lefin and
Satanower) : Polish scholar and author; born in
Satanow, Podolia, about 1741 ; died in Mikolayev,
in the same province, 1819. He was educated for a
Talmudist, but became interested in secular studies



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