Isidore Singer.

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twns-Lexihon ; Nouvelle Binqraphie Generale ; Woer-
mann, Ismael iiud Rafael Mengs, in Zeitschrlft flir Bild-
ende Knn.'<t, vol. v., 1893.
s. F. C.

trait-painter ; born in Copenhagen 1690; died ia
Dresden Dec. 26, 1765. He learned the art of min-
iature- and enamel -painting in Llibeck, and then
traveled through Germany, Italy, and Austria, earn-
ing a scant livelihood until 1764, when he was ap-
pointed professor at the Academy of Art in Dresden,
and court painter to King August III., from whom
he received an annuity.

Bibliography: C. F. Bricka, Dansh Biografisk Lexicon:
Philip Weilbach, Daiisk Kunstnerlexikon.
s. F. C.

MENKEN : American family, tlie first known
member of which was Solomon Menken.

Jacob Stanwood. Menken : American mer-
chant; born in Cincinnati 1838; youngest son of
Solomon Menken. With his brother Nathan Davis
he entered the Union army, and was captain of
Company B, 27th Ohio Infantry. He is (1904) a
member of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion.

Nathan Davis Menken : American merchant ;
born 1837 at Cincinnati; died 1878 at Memphis,
Tenn. ; second son of Solomon Menken. He entered
the Union army at the outbreak of the rebellion in
1861, and was captain of Company A, 1st Ohio
Cavalry. He was commander of General Pope's
body-guard, and took part in thirty-seven battles
and skirmishes in West Virginia, being mentioned
for his " distinguished and soldier-like bearing " as
a member of the supporting force in Colonel Brod-
hcad's report (March 27, 1862) of the battle of Kerns-
town, Va. ("War of the Rebellion, Ofticial Records,'
first series, xii. 156, Washington, 1902). During
the epidemic of yellow fever in Memphis in 1878
Menken assisted a number of his coreligionists to
leave the city by supplying them with the necessary
funds. He iiimself remained, and, while cooperating
with the Howard Association of which he was a
member, succumbed to the disease. Menken was
also a member of the Military Order of the Loyal

Percival S. Menken : Eldest son of Jules A.
Menken; born in Pliiladelphia 1865; educated at
Columbia University (M.A., Ph.D., LL.B.). He
is a member of the New York bar, and president
of tlie Young Men's Hebrew Association of New
York. For a number of years he was a trustee and




secretary of tlie Jewisli Theological Seminary Asso-
ciation, and is now (1904) a director of the Jewisli
Theological Seminary of America.

S. Stanwood Menken : Eldest son of Nathan
D. Menken ; born in Memphis 1870. He is a mem-
ber of the New York bar and is active in civic
affairs. In 1897 lie was nominated for judge of the
City Court on the Citizens' Union ticket as well as
on the People's ticket. In 1896 he founded the Hall
of Records Association, to properlj' house the public
records in New York city.

Solomon Menken: IJorn in Westphalia, Prus-
sia, 1787; died in Cincinnati, Ohio, 1853. He was
sent to New York in 1821 as supercargo in a sailing-
vessel belonging to his uncle, a banker and ship
owner of Amsterdam. In 1819 he settled in Cin-
cinnati, Ohio, and founded in that city about 1825
the first wholesale dry-goods house, that of Men-
ken «.t jNIilius. His sons, Jules A. (born in New
York 18:i(); died at Watch Point, Vt., 1890; first
lieutenant in the Home Guards, Cincinnati, during
the Rebellion), Nathan Davis, and Jacob Stanwood
Menken (for the last two see above), were merchants
in Cincinnati (from 1855 to 1861) and Jules A. and
Nathan Davis in Memphis, Tenn. (as Menken & Co.
from 1862 to 1888, and as J. S. Menken tt Co. from
1888 to 1899).

Bibliography: I.saac Markens, The Hehreivs in America,
New York, 1888; H. S. Morais, Tlie Jews of Philadelphia,
Philadelphia, 1894; Simon Wolf, The American Jew as Pa-
triot, Soldier, and Citizen, Philadelphia, 1895.
.V E. N. S.

MENKEN, ADA ISAACS : Anglo-American
actress and writer; born June 15, 1835, at Milneburg,
La. ; died in Paris, France, Aug. 10, 1868. Her first
appearance before the public was at the Opera-
House, New Orleans, where she danced with her
sister Josephine, the two lieing known as "The
Theodore Sisters." From New Orleans Ada^ ent
to the Tacon Theater, Havana, as a dancer. Thence
she went to Texas, where she had many thrilling
experiences, among them being a capture by Indians.
Next she tried her hand at literature, writing for
various newspapers, and teaching languages.

In Aug., 1856, she Avas married to Alexander
Isaacs Menken, publicly embracing Judaism ; and
she next played in Milman's "'Fazio" at the Varie-
ties, New Orleans, and at various theaters in the
South and Middle West. While at Nashville (April 3,
1859) she was married to John C. Hecnau, the prize-
fighter, known also as the "Benicia Boy." With
him she went to New Y'ork city, appearing at the
National and the old Bowery theaters in "Soldiers'
Danger" and "The French Spy." Next she joined
the company of John E. Murdoch, with whom she
went on tour, playing roles entirely beyond her and
even attempting Ladi/ Mncbetlt.

She made her appearance in her best-known role,
that of 3Iazeppa, at the Green Street Theater, Al-
bany, N. Y., June 7, 1861. Her success was con-
siderable, though the part was more acrobatic than
histrionic. In Oct., 1861, she married B. H. Newell,
better known as Orpheus C. Kerr. Her next step
was to go to London, where on Oct. 3, 1864, she ap-
peared at Astlcy's Theatre as Mnzeppa. She failed
to please, and Avent into temporary retirement,
emerging Oct. 9, 1865, to play J.eim in Brougham's

"Child of the Sun." In the meantime she had di-
vorced Newell and married James Barclay (Aug.
21, 1865). A year later she went to Paris, where
she played at the Gaite in Burgois and Dugue's
■■ Les Pirates de la Savane " (Dec. 30).

Ada Menken i)ublished two books of poems: the
first, "Memoirs" (1856), under the nom de plume
"Indigena"; the second, "Infelicia," in 1868, dedi-
cated " by permission" to Charles Dickens. She at-
tracted considerable attention among English and
French men of letters, e.r/., in London, Charles
Dickens, Charles Beade, and Algernon C. Swin-
burne, and in Paris the elder Dumas, Theophile
Gautier, and Victor Hugo.

Bibliography: Era Almanac, \9^; Did. National Biogra-
phu, xxxvll. 252; Appleton's Kncyc. American Biography:
Memoirs accompanying the 1888 edition of Infelicia.

J. E. Ms.

MENORAH: The holy candelabrum. For
Biblical Data see C.\ni)i-esttck.
— — In Rabbinical Literature: The Talmud

The Mosaic .Menorah lis Described in Rabbinical Literature.

(After a sketch by J. D. Eieenstein, New Y'ork.)

speaks only of the menorah made bj" Bezaleel for
the Tabernacle in the time of Moses (Ex. xxxvii.
17 et seq.), which was later placed in the Temple




(Tosef., Sotah, xiii., beginning), between the ten
menorot made by Hiram for Solomon's Temple
(I Kings vii. 49). Each of these menorot was one
denarius in excess of the required weight ("kik-
kar ") of the Mosaic menorah (Men. 29a).

The Mosaic menorah, according to the Talmud,
stood 18 " tefahim " ( 1 tefah = 4 inches), or 72 inches,
high, divided as follows: 3 tefahim for the tripod,
including a " perah " (blossom in relief); 2 tefahim
space ; 1 tefah for a " gebia' " (cup or vase), " kaftor "
(knobj, and perah; 2 tefahim space; 1 tefah for
a kaftor and branch on each side of the center

A Modem Menorah.

(In the possession of Maurice Herrmann, New York.)

shaft and a kaftor above the joint; 1 tefah space;

1 tefah for a kaftor and branch on each side and
a ka f tor above ; 1 tefah space ; 1 tefah for a kaf-
tor and branch on each side and a kaftor above ;

2 tefahim space ; 3 tefahim for a cluster of three
gebi'ot, a kaftor, and a perah on each of the branches
and the center shaft (Men. 28b).

The gebia' is described as resembling an Alexan-
drian cup; the kaftor resembled the half of an apple;
the perah resembled a blossom carved on i)illars.
Altogether there were 22 gebi'im, 11 kaftorim, and
9 perahim (ih. ; see accompanying illustration).
Maimonides further explains that the gebia' Avas
broad at the top and narrow at the bottom (proba-
bly in the style of a flower-vase); tiie kaftor Avas
somewiiat egg-sliaped with pointed tops; tiie i)erah
looked like a dish witli tiie l)rim doubled outward
("Yad," Bet lia-Behirah. iii. 1-11). The spread of
the brandies was 9 tefahim (36 inches), and tlierc
was the same measure for tiie tripod ("Shilte lia-
Gibborim," rh. xxxi.).

Tlie branches of tlie lamps had the apertures in

which tlie wicks were placed turned toward the
center lamp, which was known as " Ner ha-Ma'a-
rabi " (= "the Western Lamp ") because it was next
to the branches on the east side (Rashi on Shab.
22b). For, according to the Talmud, the menorah
was so placed that its two branches
Position, pointed toward the east and west re
spectively. A similar rule applied to
all vessels in theTemple (Men. xi. 7), except the Ark.
Maimonides, however, holds the opinion, also ex-
pressed in tiie Talmud, that the menorah, like the
Ark, was placed at right angles to the length of the
Temple, i.e., pointing north and south and facing
east and west. But this theory appear^ to be un-
tenable. It was opposed by Abraham ibn Daud
(RaBaD) and was strongly attacked in "Shilte ha-
Gibborim " (xxxi. 261)).

Tlie cleaning and refilling of the lamps, except
the two most easterly, were performed by a priest
every morning. If the priest found them extin-
guished, he relighted them. The two eastern lamps
were left burning till after the morning service, and
were then cleaned and refilled (Tamid iii. 9; Yoma
33a). The Ner ha-Ma'arabi, also called " Ner Elo-
him" (I Sam. iii. 3), was left burning all day and
was refilled in the evening. It served to light all
the lamps. The Ner ha-Ma'arabi contained no more
oil than the other lamps, a half-log measure (1 log
contains the liquid of six eggs), sufficient to last
during the longest winter night (Men. 89a); yet by
a miracle that lamp regularly burned till the fol-
lowing evening {ib. 86b). This miracle, however,
ceased after the death of Simeon the Righteous,
who was high priest forty j'ears before the destruc-
tion of the Temple (Yoma 39b).

There was a ladder of three steps 9 tefahim high
and 9 tefahim Avide in front of the menorah. On
the second step were placed the tongs, shovels,
dishes, and' oil. This ladder or stool Avas made by
Bezaleel out of Shittim-Avood; but in Solomon's
Temple it Avas made of marble. Tiie priest ascended
the steps to fix and light the lamps (Men. and Tamid

The menorali depicted on Titus' arch is probably
a representation of one of Solomon's menorot, but
not of tlie Mosaic menorah, Avliich Avas concealed
by the priests prior to the destruction of tlie First
Temple and of Avliichall trace has since disappeared.

Symbolically the menorah represented the crea-
tion of the universe in seven days, the center liglit
symbolizing the Sabbath. The seven
Symbolic branchesare the seven continents of the

Sig-nifi- eartli and the seven heavens, guided

cance. by the liglit of God. The Zohar says:

"These lamps, like the planets aliove,

receive tlieir light from tlie sun " (" Beha'aloteka,"


Tlie design of the menorah is used for a Mizrah
]-)icture. The seven Avords of Ps. cxiii. 3 respect-
ively designate tlie seven branches. Some derive
the design of the branches from a seven-verse chap-
ter in the Psalms, or from the seven-vense prayer
of R. Nehunya ben ha-Kanah beginning Avith
" Anna, bekoali gedulot." A tablet Avitli such a de-
sign is sometimes placed in front of the prayer-desk.
Aviiile others use the figure of the menorah as a




decoration for the Ark. Others again, in writing
amulets, arrange a formula of seven letters and seven
verses in the form of a menorah ; and it was em-
ployed also on tombs. See Amulet (illustration) ;
Akt in the Synagogue ; Candlestick ; Mizkah.

Bibliography : Bahr, SumhnliU des Mosaigchcn Cultus, i.
534-.543; Friedrieh, SymhoUh dcr Mnsautchen StiftKhilttc ,
pp. 157-158, Leipsic, 1841 ; Rofe, SliiUe ha~(jihhorim, c"h.
xxxi., Mantua, 1607; Isserles, Torat h'a-'Olah, i., ch. xvl.;
Kolbo, Binyan Ariel, p. 75, No. 259, ed. Vienna, 188.3.

A. J. I). E.

MENORAH. See Periodicals.

MENSTRUATION: The first appearance of
the menses is known to depend on various factors —
climate, occupation, residence in towns, etc. — of
which racial affinities are the most important. Cli-
mate is of unquestionable influence, the earliest age
varying from eleven in hot to fifteen years in cold
climates. Oppcnlieim, from an investigation of the
time of the first menstruation in Bulgarian, Turk-
ish, Armenian, and Jewish girls, concluded tliatrace
is the most important factor; and Lebrun states
that among 100 girls of Jewish and Slavonian ex-
traction, the majority of the Jewish girls menstru-
ated at thirteen, while only one Slavonian girl men-
struated at that age. Weissenberg presents statistics
for Jewesses in South Russia from which it is seen
that the first onset of menstruation was on the aver-
age at the age of fourteen ; the earliest appearance
was in one girl at the age of ten ; and in one it was
as late as eighteen (Weissenberg, " Die Siidrus-
sischen Juden," p. 77).

F. Weber investigated the subject in St. Peters-
burg and found the following percentages, "early
appearance " representing cases of fifteen years of
age, and " late appearance " those of seventeen years :

Early appearance. .
Late appearance. . .











Considering as " premature " those who had their
first menstruation at the age of twelve, and as "de-
layed " those at eighteen years, Weber found the
following percentages:














It appears from this that the first appearance of
menstruation is much earlier in the Jewish and in
the Slavonian girls than in the others.

Joachim's statistics for Hungary show that the
first menstruation takes place there as follows:

Magyar peasant girls 15 to 16 years.

Jewish girls H " 15

Slovak girls 16 " 17

Stober (" Topographic et Histoire IVIedicale de Strass-
bourg," p. 266, Paris, 1864) found that in Strasburg
the first onset of menstruation was at about the
same age in Jewish girls as in the non-Jewesses.
In no case did he observe it to occur before the
twelfth year, and most had begun to menstruate
between fourteen and seventeen. But he based his

opinion on only a few observations. Raciborski
("Traile de la Menstruation," p. 630, Paris, 1868)
found that the first menstruation appeared in Jew-
esses at the average age of 14 years, 3 months, 26
days, as against 15 years, 3 months, 9 days in Sla-
vonian girls.

From the investigations of M. Fishberg in New
York it appears that the first menstruation appears
in Jewish girls of that city at the average age of 12
years, 7 months. Of the 483 girls thus investi-
gated 390 were immigrants mostly from eastern
Europe, and 93 were natives, of foreign parentage.
In the American-born girls the first menstruation ap-
peared at the average age of 12 years, 1 montii ; and
among the foreign-born girls the average age was 13
years, 2 months. The earlier onset of menstruation
in the daughters of immigrants as compared with
their mothers has been observed by Engelman in
other immigrant peoples in the United States (see
" Age of First Menstruation on tlie North American
Continent" in "New York Medic:d Journal," Ix.w.
221-228, 270-277). After a careful study of statis-
tical evidence he concludes that as regards the time
of functional development the American girls are
very much more precocious than those of other con-
tinents in the same region of the temperate zone,
and more precocious than the peoples from whom
they have sprung. It appears that the Jewish
girls in the United States show similar character-
istics when compared with their sisters in Europe.
The cause of this precocity is to be looked for in the
social and educational conditions surrounding Jew-
esses in the United States.

For laws concerning menstruation see Niddah.

Bibliography : H. Ploss and Max Bartels, Das Weih, 7th ed.,
pp. 364-380; Weber, Ueber MenstrualverhUlttiii<Ke der
Frauen in St. Petersbum, in St. Petersburger MedicU
nische Wocherischrift, 1883, Nos. 41, 42, 43; Joachim, Vnqa-
rische ZciUchrift, iv.. Nos. 20-28 ; A. Corre, La Mere et V En-
fant dans les Races Humainen, Paris, 1882.
J. M.-Fi.

WOLF: Rabbi at Fiaukfort-ou-the-Main at the
beginning of the eighteenth century. He wrote
an elementary text-book on mathematics entitled
"Reshit Limmudim," in three parts: (1) " Kelale
Handasah," the general rules of algebra; (2) " Yeso-
dot ha-Gematriot," the elements of geometry; (3)
"Yesod ha-Tekunah," on astronomy; the first part
only has been published (Berlin, 1775). It contains
the first book of Euclid, rearranged, witli many
original examples by the author.

Bibuography: Ptelnschnelder, Cat. Bodl. col. 702; Ftirst,
Bild. Jud. ii. 368; Zeitlin, iJih/. Hebr. p. 238; Fuenn, Kene-
set YisraeU i. 40; Benjacob, Ozarha-Sefarlnuv- »12, No. 49.
D. S. J. L.

MEPHIBOSHETH : Only son of Jonathan, son
of Saul, first king of Israel. The chronicler gives
him the name of :\lerib-baal (IChron. viii. 34), mean-
ing, perhaps, "Ba'al contends." The relation of the
two names is similar to that existing between Ish-
bosheth = " man of shame," and Esh-baal = " man of
Baal " (lb. verse 33). Upon the slaughter of Saul
and his sons on ;Mt. Gilboa, the nurse in Jonathan's
house fled with Mephibosbeth, and in the flight the
child fell and became a permanent cripple (II Sam.
iv. 4). When David came to the throne his former




love for Jonathau impelled him to inquire whether
any of Saul's house remained alive, tliat he might
show them kindness for the sake of his former bosom
friend. Through Ziba, who had been a servant
of Saul, he learned of the cripple Mephibosheth.
David liad him brought to Jerusalem, restored to
him the estate of Saul, and made him a perpetual
guest at the royal table {ib. ix. 1-8).

When David fled from Absalom this royal heir
remained in Jerusalem — according to Ziba's story
{ib. xvi. 3), that he might be ready to take the throne
■which was about to be restored to his father's house.
On David's triumphal return to Jerusalem Mephibo-
sheth went out to meet and greet liim. He was un-
washed and unkempt. When David questioned him
concerning his reason for having remained behind,
Mephibosheth threw the blame on Ziba, and as evi-
dence of his own sincerity pointed out his unkempt
«tate {ib. xix. 24-30). The king was evidently per-
plexed at the conflicting stories ; and he decided that
the estate of Saul should be divided equally between
the questionable characters with whom he had to
deal. Mephibosheth had a son, Micah (I Chron. viii.
34, 35).

E. G. H. I. M. P.

MEQ,UINEZ : Town in the interior of Morocco,
about 35 miles west-southwest of Fez. It contains
about 6,000 Jews in a total population of 50,000. But
very little is known concerning the Jews there. The
town was founded about 940 c.e. As was the case
in other parts of Mauritania, it is probable that there
were a few Jews in Mequinez before 1492, and that
these were joined by many others at the time of the
expulsion from Spain. It has been pointed out that
of thirty family names in Mequinez at least eight-
een, such as "Gozlan," "Toledano," "Pariente,"
"Sasportas," and "Verdugo," are Castilian in ori-
gin. Moreover, various customs, the mode of fem-
inine dress, and the methods of preparing food, all
seem to show the influence of the Spanish Middle
Ages. Details of the history of the Mequinez Jews
are accessible only for the years since the Alliance
Israelite began to publish its bulletins. In 1878 the
town suffered from a famine whicli ravaged all
Morocco, and the Alliance Israelite, the Anglo-Jew-
ish Association, and the Board of Deputies of Lon-
don sent abundant relief to the suffering Jews. The
following year the affliction Avas renewed through a
drought and an epidemic, on which occasion Mequi-
nez received relief from the Morocco Famine Kelief
Fund of London. According to the Bulletin of the
Alliance for 1880, between 1864 and 1880 forty -two
Jews in Mecjuinez were assassinated by Mohammed-
ans. The appeal of tlie Alliance Israelite director of
schools to the consular and diplomatic representa-
tives of Morocco and tiie presence of one of these
directors at Mequinez have helped to make the lives
of the Jews there somewhat more secure.

Mequinez has nineteen synagogues, the oldest of
which dates back 150 years. Each of these is named
after its founder or else after tiie family which sup-
ports it {e.r/., the Synagogue of Mordecai Loubaton).
The Alliance Israelite founded two schools (attend-
ance 61 boys and 36 girls respectively) at Mequinez
in 1901. There are also ten small Talmud Torahs,
having about 800 pupils and known by the names

of the teachers in charge of them. The custom of
placing epitaphs upon graves is not general in Me-
quinez, except in the case of those who die without
leaving male issue. In Mequinez, as in almost all
the Jewish communities of Morocco, it is not cus-
tomary to invest any one with the title of chief
rabbi. Religious matters are placed in the hands of
a triumvirate of dayyanim, the president of the pres-
ent (1904) triumvirate being R. Salomon Verdugo.
These three rabbis are assisted in the discharge of
their duties by a " ma 'amad, " or council of notables ;
in case of necessity these constitute also a court of

The revenues of the Jewish communal adminis-
tration are raised by means of a tax of one " dours "
(about 60 cents) per head for large cattle and one
" peseta " (about 46f cents) per head for small cattle,
and by contributions made by the wealthy families
on the approach of the important holj^ days. These
sources of revenue enable the communal adminis-
tration to contribute to the schools of the Alliance
Israelite, support the rabbis and the poor of the
city, provide for funerals, pay the poll-tax, make
gifts to the royal court and to the local authorities
on the occasion of great Arabian f^tes, and purchase
the privilege of using the public roads.

There are two societies in this populous commu-
nity — the hebra kaddisha, which has charge of funer-
als, and the foundation of which dates back to
ancient times, and the "hilluk," or the society
charged with the weekly distribution of money and
produce to the needy. The occupations of the
Jewish population embrace all classes of mechan-
ical labor and commerce. Some Jews are even em-
ployed as kitchen gardeners in the outskirts of the
town. The Jews of Mequinez occupy the Mellah,
a walled ghetto containing 250 houses, all belonging
to Jews. The streets are wide, but are not paved.

From the standpoint of literature, Mequinez is the
most fruitful community of Morocco. It has had
at least thirteen rabbinical writers of note, of whom
the following belonged to the family of Verdugo,
the dates of death in each case being given in
parentheses: Mordecai (1773) ; Moses (1783); Judah
(1803); Mimun (1812); Raphael (1820); Petha-
hiah (1842): Jacob (1843); Joseph (1852). Of the
Toledano family there may be mentioned Hayyim
(1782); Jacob (1802): Moses Habib (middle of the
19lh cent.). David Hessin lived there toward the
end of the eighteenth century.

Tlie 'Isawites, members of a fanatical Arab sect,
make annual pilgrimages to Mequinez to visit the
tomb of Abu 'Isa, the founder of the sect. On the
day of their arrival the gates of the Mellah are shut,
and the government of the town places a guard there
to prevent the pilgrims from pillaging and massa-
cring its inhabitants. See Morocco.

Bibliography: Colonics Juives dmis VAfriquc Romaine,
in R. K. J. 1902. No. 87 ; BuUetim nf the Alliance Tsraelitt
Univernelle, 1861-1901 : Hazan, Ha-Ma'alot lirShelnmoh, pp.
32, 81, 90.

D. M. Fr.

MEBAB (2-i»i): The elder of Saul's two daugh-
ters (1 Sam. xiv. 49; xviii. 17, 19). Saul formally of-
fered Merab'shand to David with the condition that

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 121 of 169)