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to meet the invader Joshua and his army. Merom is
now commonly identified with the modern Lake al-
Hulah, about fifteen miles north of the Sea of Galilee,
and it is described as being of the shape of a pear with
the stem pointing southward. It is three miles wide
in its broadest part, and nearly four miles long, from
the swamps to the outlet into the River Jordan.
The lake is seven feet above the level of the Medi-
terranean, and varies from ten to sixteen feet in
depth. Not far from its southwestern shores there
is a considerable plain which seems to be the most
probable location of the great battle between Joshua
and the North-Canaanitish allies. The commander-
in-chief of these forces, gathered from all parts of
northern Palestine and even from the Jordan val-
ley, was Jabin, King of Hazor. The great multi-
tude of warriors is compared in numbers with " the
sand that is upon the seashore . . . with horses and
chariots very many."

The only hint as to Joshua's method of attack
is the statement that he came against the enemy sud-
denly, and fell upon them. This probably indicates
a night march and early morning attack as at
Gibeon (Josh. x. 9, 10). The Israelites smote them,
put them to flight, and pursued them in every direc-
tion. Their horses were hamstrung, and their chari-
ots were burned, while their cities and the whole
country were laid waste. This last great battle so
reduced opposition that Joshua was now ready to
partition among the tribes of Israel for a permanent
possession the land with its unconquered individual
fortresses.

E. G. H. I. M. P.

MERON or MIRON : City of Galilee, situated
on a mouutain, three miles northwest of Safed and
four miles south of Giscala, with which city it is al-
most always mentioned in the Talmud. One of the
passages is : " One may eat olives [the product of tiie
Sabbatical year] till the last ones disappear from the
trees of Giscala and Meron " (Yer. Sheb. ix. 2). The
ascent to micron was so narrow that two persons



could not walk abreast (R. H. 15a), and this de-
scription may well be applied to the Merolh fortified
by Josephus C'Vita," ^ 37; " B. J." ii. 20, i^ 6).
Meron is si)oken of as a city inhabited by priests
(Yer. Ta'an. iv. 5), a fact alluded to by Eleazar ha-
Kalir in one of his piyyutim (comp. Rapoport in
his preface to Shalom ha-Kohen's "Kore ha-Dorot,"
s.v. "Meron '"). It is stated in the Midrash (Eccl. R.
xi. 3) that a quarrel resulting in blows broke out
between the people of Meron and those of Giscala
on account of the remains of R. Eliezer b. Simeon,
which each party desired to bury.

To-day Meron is represented b,y the village of
Merim (called in Hebrew writings " Kefar Minm"),
celebrated for its very ancient synagogue and for the
tombs of some prominent tannaim. Benjamin of Tu-
dela, who visited it, describes a cave there containing
the tombs of Hillel and Sliammai and many of their
disciples; and he states that R. Benjamin b. Japheth
and R. Judah b. Beterah also were buried there.
But Benjamin does not mention the tombs of R. Sim-
eon b. Yohai and his son Eleazar. Samuel b. Sam-
son, who was at Meron in 1230, speaks of the school
and tomb of Simeon b. Yohai which lie saw there, as>
well as of the tomb of Eleazar. At the foot of the
mountain, Samuel states, are 336 other tombs, and
outside of the village are the tombs of Simeon
Hatufah and of the prophet Obadiah (Carmoly,
'' Itineraires, " pp. 133-134). There is now a magnifi-
cent bet ha-midrash enclosing the supposed tombs of
Simeon b. Yohai and Eleazar, which have become
the place of an annual festival, held on Lag be-
"Omer, and called "Hillula de-R. Shim'on ben
Yohai " in commemoration of the death of the sup-
posed author of the Zohar.

Meron is not to be identified with Shimron-meron

of Josh. xii. 20, as the latter is called by the Rabbis

"Simonia" (Gen. R. Ixxxi. ; comp. LXX. ad loc),

and is the modern Simuniyyah, a village west of

Nazareth (Robinson, "Researches," ii. 344). It

may, however, be identical with Madon (Josh, xi.l),

which is rendered " Meron " in the Scptuagint ; and

some scholars identify it with Meroz, mentioned in

Judges V. 28.

Bibliography : Benjamin of Tudela, Itineraru, ed. Asher. t.
45 ; (Jarmoly, Itineraires, pp. 1.5H et seq.; Neubauer, U. T.
pp. 228 et !<eq.; Robinson, Researche.% ii. 444 ; Schwarz,
TehtCot ha-Arez, pp. 233-224, .lerusalera, 1900.
.1. ■ M. Sel.

MERV : District town in Russian Central Asia,
on the River Murgab. The town sprang up when
the district was annexed to Russia in 1884. It has a
total population of 8,727, including 486 Jews (1899).
The old historic Merv is now utterly in ruins, and
lies about eight miles east of the present town, ad-
joining the manufacturing settlement of Bairam
Ali, in the imperial domain of the czar.

The Jews seem to have enjoyed greater religious
liberty in old Merv than in many other cities. Dr.
Wolff(" Mission to Bokhara, "lip. 144, 148, New York,
1848), who was in Merv in 1831, and visited it again
in 1844 when engaged on his well-known mission to
Bokhara, speaks of the Jews there as being in great
favor with the calif. They were permitted to main-
tain tiie Jewish faith and practises which they had
been c'ompelled to abandon at :\Ieshed, where they
were obliged to profess Mohammedanism.



Merwan
MeshuUam



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



502



O'Donovau, writing in 1882, before Merv was
annexed to Russia, speaks of there being but seven
Jewish families there. Tliey were mostly engaged
in trade, he states, and were treated witli consider-
able tolerance; yet "they were not allowed to call
themselves ' Moussai,' their religious name in these
Eastern countries, but were compelled to style
themselves ' Jedid,' which signifies a convert to the
Mussulman faith" ("The Merv Oasis," ii. 129). A
writer in the "Jewish Chronicle" (ilay 12, 1899) has
a note regarding tlic Jews at Merv under the Rus-
sian rule. lie states that they came from Meslied,
whicli most of them left in 1840 to escape the alter-
natives of persecution or conformity to the Moslem
faith. He adds, however, that "although they
openly acknowledge their religion— for the Russian
authorities put no impediments in their way in this
respect— they live in dread, and meet for prayer in a
cellar which is surrounded by a high wall. There is
no Ark in the synagogue, and the scrolls of the Law
are kci)t in a separate room, which can be entered
only through a secret door. The Jedids have a de-
jected appearance and fear everybody. They earn
a precarious living as arti.sans."

BiBMOORAPUV: o'Donovan, The Merv Oaxis, 2 vols., London,
1883 (abridRed, 1 vol.. New York, 1884) ; Skrine and Ross, The
Heart of Axia. pp. 349-^56. London, 1899; Alhrecht, Rtis-
sisch CeittraUweiupp. 3T-«9. Hamburg, 1896; Uurrleux and
Fauvelle, Snmnrkoid la Bieii Gardte, pp. 64-9«5, Paris, 1901.
II. K. A. V. W. J.

MERWAN HA-LEVI : French philanthropist
of the second half of the eleventh century; one of
the most prominent Jews of Narbonne, who de-
voted his time and fortune to that community. It
seems that he was also in favor with tlie govern-
ment, being thus enabled to check unfavorable
measures against the Jews. He was the head of a
family which produced several famous Jewish
scholars, among whom were his son, R. Isaac of
Narbonne, and his grandson. Nasi Moses ben Jo-
seph of Narbonne.
Bibliooraphy: Gross, Gallia Jiulaica, p. 413.

o. A. Pe.

MEHZBACHEIl, ABRAHAM: German
banker; born 1812 at Baiersdorf near Erlangen;
died June 4, 188.1, at Munich. He at first intended
to follow a rabbinical career; but after an unsuc-
cessful application for the office of rabbi in Ans-
bach, he settled us a banker in Munich. He was an
enthusiastic champion of the motlerate conservative
Jewisii party, and a member of the central commit-
tee of the Alliance Israelite Universelle.

Merzbachcr was noted chiefiy as a patron of Jew-
ish science. Ho publislied at his own expense the
work"nikduke Sofcrim," in 16 volumes, by Ra-
phael Nathan Itabbinovirz (d. 1888). In the interest
of this learned protege and friend, Merzbachcr col-
lected one of the largest ju-ivate Jewish lii)raries in
the world, which now forms part of (he city library
of Frankfort-on-tlie-Main. S.

MESERITZ. See Miedzyrzfxz.

MESHA: King of Moab. tributary to Ahab,
King of Israel. He was a sheepmaster, and paiil
the King of Israel an annual tax consisting of the
wool of 100,000 lambs and of 100.000 rams (II Kings
iii. 4). He rebelled against Israel and refused to



pay tribute; whereupon Jehuram, King of Israel,
uniting his forces with those of Jehoshaphat, King
of Judah, and of the King of Edom, n\arched round
the southern end of the Dead Sea and invaded the
jMoabilish territory. That route was chosen, as is
mentioned in the Moabite Stone, because the cities
north of the Arnon were fortified by Mesha.

The invading army sull'ering from want of water,
the prophet Elisha, who was present, was consulted
upon the suggestion of the King of Judah. He
bade them dig trenches in the sandy soil, which
were speedily filled with water. The Moabite army,
seeing the rays of the sun reflected in the water,
imagined that the enemies had quarreled and mas-
sacred one another; they made a reckless rush to
spoil the camp, only to be repelled, routed, and put
to flight with great loss, the few who escaped en-
tering Kir-haraseth. The combined armies advanced
into the land unopposed, "marred " the fields with
stones, stopped up the cisterns and fountains, felled
the forests, and beleaguered the fortress. With 700
warriors Mesha attempted to break through the ene-
my's lines. Utterly failing in this, and reduced to
desperation, he went to the top of the wall, and, in
full view of the invaders, offered his eldest son, who
should have reigned in his stead, as a burnt offering
to propitiate the wrath of his god Chemosh. In
consequence of this " there came great wrath upon
Israel"; and the Israelites, without pursuing their
successes further, at once evacuated the country,
leaving Mesha in undisturbed possession of it (ih.
iii. 6-27). See Moabite Stone,
e. g. ir. t\ L.

MESHA (Me'asha) : Palestinian amora ; lived
in the third century at Lydda, in Judea. He seems
to have lost his ])arents when a child, for he was
brought up by his grandfather, the eminent hag-
gadist Joshua b. Levi. At an early age he displayed
fine intelligence. His grandfather was fond of hear-
ing him recite on Fridays the Biblical portion for
the week ; and the Midrash relates of him that once
in his childhood he became ill and remained in a
trance for three days, and that when he recovered
his father asked him where he had been all that
time; to this Mesha rei)lied that he had been in a
confused world and that persons held in honor
in this world were there disgraced (Ruth R. iii. 1).
Oidy a few halakot and sayings of his have been
preserved in the Talmud.

Bibliography : Heilprin, Seder ha-Dorot, 1882, ii. 270; Bacher,
yl(/. Pal. Amor. i. 128. iii. 614.
s. s. A. S. AV.

MESHERSHAYA BAR PAKOD : Babylo-
nian amora of tiie si.\Ili and last generation; lived
in Sura. In the persecution of Jews by Perozes
(Firuz), King of Persia, Meshershaya was impris-
oned and executed together with Amemar bar Mar
Yankai and the exilarch Huna .Mar (469-470).

Buii.KicRAPiiv: Slierira fiaon. /frspriii.sd, ed. Neubauer, A 34;
lli-ilprln. Seller h(i-l)<>riit, 1889, i. ItiS.
s. s. A. S. AV.

MESHULLAM BEN DAVID : German tosa-
list of the twelfth or of the liist half of the thir-
teenth century. He was the son of the tosafist and
liturgist David ben Kalonymus of Miinzenburg, and
he corresponiled with R. Baruch ("Mordekai," Ket.



503



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Merwan
Meshullam



ii. 149), witli Simhali of Speyer (ib. Hul. vi. 657, x.
737), and with Isaac Or Zaiua' (Hay^im Or Zarua',
Kesponsa, Nos. 103. 121). Gross ("Gallia Judaica,"
p. 196) tliiiiU.s that the Mesliullam mentioned in
"3Iordekai," Hul. vi. 657, is Mesliullam of Mehin.

Bibliography: A. Epstein, in Monatsscln-ift, xll. 468; Kohn,
Marduchai ben HUleU P- 141-
E. c. M. Sb:i..

MESHULLAM BEN ISAAC SALEM BEN
JOSEPH: Italian poel; lived successively at
Mantua and Venice at the end of the sixteenth cen-
tury and at the beginning of the seventeenth. Like
his father, he was a corrector in the Hebrew printing-
offices at the above-named cities, which he often sup-
plied with laudatory poems of his own composition.
In addition to these, which were inserted at the
head of several books, Meshullam was the author of
three liturgical poems, namely: (1) "Kiuah," an
elegy on the conflagration at Mantua in 1610: (2) a
poem on the Exodus from Egypt: and (3) a selihah
forming a fourfold alphabetical acrostic.

Bibliography: Steinschneider, Cat. BoclL col. 1751; Zunz,
LitcraUtnjcsch. p. 424.

G. I. Br.

MESHULLAM BEN ISRAEL: Talmudic

scholar of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries;
author of "Mar'eh Mekom ha-Dinim" (Cracow,
1647), an alphabetical index to the Shulhan 'Aruk.
Fiirst ("Bibl. Jud." ii. 369) records that he was
known also as "Phoebus," and says he died at Am-
sterdam in 1652 and was praised by David de Barrios.

Bibliography : Steinschneider, Cat. Bndl. col. 1750.
E. c. M. Sel.

MESHULLAM BEN JACOB OF LUNEL:

French Talmudist; died at Luuel in 1170. He di-
rected a Talmudic school which produced several
famous men, and was an intimate friend of Abraham
b. Isaac, ab bet din of Narbonne, who addressed to
him several responsa, antl spoke of him in high
terms. His Talmudic decisions are quoted in " Sefer
ha Terumot."

]\Ieshullam was interested also in philosophy.
According to Ibn Tibbon, Avhom he encouraged to
translate Bahya's " Al-Hidayah ila Fara'id al-Kulub "
into Hebrew ("Hobot lia-Lebabot"), he wrote sev-
eral works dealing with moral philosophy, advised
and assisted other Jewish writers, and possessed a
large library. Judah ibn Tibbon is never weary of
praising Meshullam's zeal in investigating the va-
rious branches of knowledge.



Bibliography: Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. 229.

s. s.



A. Pe.



MESHULLAM BEN JOEL HA-KOHEN :

Galician Talmudist; died at Lemberg Sept. 25, 1809.
At lirst rabbi at Zuravvno (Galicia), he was called to
Koretz to succeed his brother Isaac ; he then went
to Bolechow, and finally to Lemberg. Meshullam's
Talmudic attainments are evident not only in his
works, but also from the fact that the most famous
anion-g his contemporaries requested his responsa.
One of these is contained in "Sha'ar ha-Hakanah "
(Lemberg, 1794), the work of his ancestor Naphtali
ha-Kohen, another in Elijah Gaon's "Shenot
Eliyahu."



Meshullam was the author of "Pithe Niddah"
(Lemberg, 1802), comments on the laws of Niddah.
The book contains also a specimen of the author's
work oii.^the Pentateuch, entitled "Likkute Yom."
One of his responsa is also found in "Zikrou Ivehun-
iiah," a work by his brother Lsaac.

Bibliography : Buber, Atixhe Shcm. p. 171.
u. A. Pe.

MESHULLAM BEN JONAH : Physician and
translator of the thirteenth century. Itai)|iears that
he lived in southern France. He occupied himself
with medicine merelj' as a study, and seems never
to have practised. At the desire of a friend named
Hafez or Shalem, Mesliullam translated into Hebrew
the medical work " Kitab al-Tazrif," by Zahrawi.
The translator's preface begins with a Hebrew poem
in honor of Haliz.

Bibliography: Steinschneider, Hrhr. Uebers. p. 745; Neu-
bauer. Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS. No. 2130.
S. J. Z. L.

MESHULLAM BEN KALONYMUS BEN
TODROS : French scholar of the twelfth and thir-
teenth centuries; nasi of Narbonne. Meshullam
sided with Judah al-Fakhkhar in his attacks on the
works of Maimonides and the philosophers. Never-
theless, he blamed Al-Fakhkhar for tiie excessive ar-
dor with which the latter fought thcMaimonists, say-
ing that among the latter there were many great
and pious Jews. In a letter which he Avrote to Al-
Fakhkhar, Mesliullam particularly asked him to
be indulgent toward David Kiinhi. Al-Fakhkhar
yielded to his friend's request, assuring him that he
would write nothing against Kimhi.

Bibliography: Geiger. in Ozar Nehmad, il. 172; idem, in
Jlld. Zeit. X. 285 ; Gross, Gallia Jitdaiva, p. 408.
s. s. M. Set..

MESHULLAM BEN MACHIR (DON BO-
NET CRESCAS DE LUNEL): French .scholar;
settled at Perpigiian, where he died in 1306. Abba
Mali, who was a relative of Meshullam, lamented
the latter's death in a letter of condolence which he
sent to the community of Perpignan ("^linl.iat Ke-
na'ot," MS. No 132). Abba Mari also bewailed Me-
shullam's death in one of his liturgical pieces.
Gross thinks that Meshullam b. Macliir is to be
identified with Sen Bonet de Lunel, who wrote a
commentary on Ibn Ezra's Bible commentary.

Bibliography: (iross, Gallia Judaica. pp. 2«9, M'A; idem, in
n. K. J. iv. 205; Renan-Neubauer, Les Rabbins Frangais,
p. 694.

s. M. Sel.

MESHULLAM BEN NATHAN OF ME-

LUN (called also Meshullam of Narbonne) :
French tosafist; born at >;arb()nne about 1120. He
was a member of the rabbinical college of Narbonne
and, with Abraham ben Isaac, ab bet din. and other
rabbis, was one of the signatories of a rcsponsum
issued there about 1150 ("Teshubot ha-Rambam,"
p. 4, Leipsic, 1859; '' Kol Bo," No. 20). Not long
after 1150 Meshullam settled at Jlelun, where he
acquired considerable authority and where he cor-
responded with some of the greatest rabbis of France,
including those of Paris. He obtained the title
of "Rab?' whiciihad an official character in northern
France. Meshullam was rather indulgent in his
decisions, which much displeased R. Tam. A po-



Meshullam
Messiah



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



504



lemical correspondence ensued between these two
scliolars, and Meshullam, in spite of his clever dia-
lectics, was obliged to submit in fear of excommuni-
cation (com p. K. Tam, "Sefer ha-Yashar," pp. 72-
76; Tos. to Pes. 105a; Bezah 16a; 'Ab. Zarali 29b;
"Mordekai," Shab. iv. 3:34 et passim). Gross (in " Mo-
natsschrifl," xvi. 390) and Kohn {i/j. xxvi. 148)
declared that Meshullam b. Nathan of Melun and
Meshulhun of Narboune were two different persons,
though Gross afterward surrendered this opinion
and identified them. Gross conjectures also that
this Meshullam may be identical with the Biblical
commentator quoted in the commentary to Chron-
icles (II Chron. xiii. 2) wrongly attributed to Rashi
(comp. Zunz, "Z. G." p. 71). and that it is he who is
spoken of by Yom-Tob of Joigny ("Mordekai,"
Shab. i. 250).



Bibliography: Gross. Gallia Judaica, pp. &52-.'i53; Zadoc

Kahn in R. E. J. i. 235-238; Kotrn, Mardochai ben HdleU

p. 141.

G.



M. Sel.



MESHULLAM PHOEBUS BEN ISRAEL
SAMUEL : Chief rabbi of Cracow ; born about
1547; died at Cracow Oct. 17, 1617. Meshullam is
first known as the head of a flourishing yeshibah
at Brest-Litovsk, one of his pupils being Joel Sirkes.
The year of his arrival at Cracow is not recorded,
but it is certain that he was there in 1605. He was
a recognized authority in rabbinical matters and
was consulted by Mei'r Lublin (Responsa, No. 81)
and by Sirkes ("She'elot u-Teshubot ha-BaH," No.
102). A responsiim of Meshullam to Joshua Falk
ha-Kohen contains an explanation (to Niddah v. 1)
■which shows Meshullam to have possessed a thor-
ough knowledge of anatomy and some knowledge
of Latin ("She'elot u-Teshubot ha-BaH ha-Hada-
shot," No. 34). Two other responsa of his are ex-
tant {ib. No. 81 and "She'elot u-Teshubot Ge'one
Batra'e, " No. 44). Abraham Schrenzel in his " Etan
ha-Ezrahi" (Responsa, No. 29) mentions a work
by Meshullam Phoebus entitled "Sefer Shemot Git-
tin," a treatise on the proper names in a bill of di-
vorce. From a manuscript in his possession Meshul-
lam edited the responsa of Moses Minz (Cracow,
1617).
BiBi.ior.RAPiiY : J. M.'Zunz, 'Ir ha-Zedek, pp. 49-52.

H It. M. Sel.

MESHULLAM BEN SOLOMON (surnamed
En Vidas) : Poet; lived at the beginning of the
thirteenth century. Althougii Jedaiah Bedersi, in
his" Iggeretllitnazzelut," classes Meshullam among
the Proven(;al poets, MeshuUam's native country
seems to have been Spain. According to Gross
("Gallia Judaica." p. 146), the name of the place
riKDT. which is added to MeshuUam's name in a
Bodleian manuscript (Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Ilebr.
MSS." No. 1970, fol. 201), is to be corrected to
n'^'"'D^ (= "'Da Piera"). In a Florence manuscript
Meshullam is designated as "En Vidas de Gerona."

Meshullam ranged himself with the Orthodox in
their struggle against tin; i)hilosophers. He directed
his attacks chiefly against the translator of that
work, Judaii al-Harizi, and wrote several satirical
poems on the "Moreh Nebukim." These poems
have been published by Steiu.schneiderin the"Sam-
melband Kleiner Beitrilge aus Handschriften " (i. 3).



Meshullam was a poet of talent; indeed, Abraham
Bedersi, in his review of the principal Hebrew
poets, classes him before Benveniste. The greater
part of his poetical productions are extant in manu-
.script (Neubauer, I.e., and the Florence MS. cited
above). See Dapieka.

Bibliography: Cannolv, in Ha-Karmd, vli. 4(i; Gratz.
(icscli. vii. 52; Renan-Neubauer, Lc>i liabhum Frauftm,
p. 72H; Gross, Gallia Judaica, p. 140.

G. L Br.

MESHULLAM TYSMENITZ. See Tys-
MENiTz, Meshullam.

MESHUMMAD. See Apostasy.

MESHWI AL-'UKBARI: Founder of the
Jewish sect Al-'Ukbariyyah (Okbarites), which
derived its name from the city of 'Ukbara, near
Bagdad, said to have been the place of residence of
Meshwi. According to Kirkisani, Meshwi lived after
Ishmael Al-'Ukbari; his original name was Moses,
but it was converted by his adversaries into Meshwi
(= "one whose ideas are confused"). Meshwi dif-
fered in many points from both the Karaites and the
Rabbinites. Because the Day of Atonement is termed
in the Bible "Sabbath of Sabbaths" he affirmed that
that feast must always occur on a Sabbath, which
would makefile Feast of Passover fallen Thursday.
He ordered his followers to turn to the West in pray-
ing, instead of in the direction of the Temple. Ac-
cording to Meshwi, it was not allowable to offer
sacrifices in the Temple on Sabbath. Contrary to
the Biblical prohibition, Meshwi is said to have al-
lowed his followers to eat fat. Hadassi ("Eshkol
ha-Kofer," g 98), on the authority of David ibn
Merwan al-Muljammas, gives the name of the
founder of the sect as Moses of Baalbek, who is
probably identical with Meshwi al-'Ukbari. From
an obscure passage in the " Ozar Nehmad " of the
Karaite Tobias ben Moses, Delitzsch concludes that
Meshwi embraced Christianity in the later part of
his life ; but this is highly improbable, for the sect
would not have survived the apostasy of its founder,
and Meshwi still had followers at the time of Kir-
kisani.

Bibliography : Pinsker, LtkVute Kadmnnimiot, 1. 16, 43; li.
8H, 98; Fiirst, Gesvli. des Kdraert. i. 85; Gratz, Gesch.v.
202 ; Gotlloher, Bikkoret le-Tnlednt ha-KaraUm, p. 204 ; Har-
kavy, Le-Korot h'a'-Kittot be-YisraeU in Gratz. Dibre Yerm
YisraeU iii- 509.
8. I. Bu.

MESOPOTAMIA. See Aram; Assyrl\; Ba-
bylonia.

MESQ,UITA : Castilian family, members of
which, during the period of the Inquisition, found
their way to Holland, England, and America.

David Bueno de Mesquita was one of the
wealthy merchants of Amsterdam about the middle
of the seventeenth century. The family Bueno de
Mesquita still exists in England ; in American liis-
tory also the name appears at an early date. Luis de
Amesquita is mentioned in the course of the trial
of Gabriel of Granada by the Inquisition in Mexico
(1042-45). From Obregon it is learned tiiatLuisde
Mesquita (alias De Amesquita Sarmiento) was a na-
tive of Segovia, Castile, and a citizen and merchant
of Mexico. The iiiime is found also in the West In-
dies. Benjamin Bueno de Mesquita is mentioned



505



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



DIeshullain
Messiah



as a Portuguese merchant, resident in Jamaica, who
petitioned the king tor letters of denization in 1664;
he appears to have lived there several years before
the date mentioned. Banished from the island
shortly after 1664, he went to New York. lie was
buried in that cit)% and his tombstone in the old
cemetery on New Bowery is the oldest Jewish tond)-
stone existing in New York; it bears the date of
1683. Other members of the same family remained
in Jamaica, and their name is i-epoatedly met with at
later dates; thus Jacob Fernandes Mesquita
was naturalized there in 1740 and Moses Mesquita
in 1749. Abraham Bueno de Mesquita was a resi-
dent of the island of Nevis early in the eighteenth
century, though administration of his estate was



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