Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

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Messina occupied an exceptional position in virtue
of being the seat of the highest court of appeal for
all the Jews of Sicily; and in 1439 Moses Hefez
(Bonavoglio, who, as tlie representative of seven-
teen coiumunities, had induced King Alfonso V.,
in 1430 and 1431, to repeal ordinances unfavorable
to the Jews) was made chief justice ("naggid ") of
the supreme court. Being at the court in Naples
when appointed, he deputed his brother to act as his
proxy ; the latter accordingly was invested with the
new dignity in the synagogue of Palermo. jNIoses
Hefez (lied in 1447. Messina itself was not subject
to the jurisdiction of the new chief justice, but
formed a judicial tlistrict of its own.

The Messina communit)' must have been one of
the largest on the island, judging from the tax-re-
turns. In addition to tlie imposts levied equally
upon all the communities, it was required to fur-, after 1347, .the standards for the galleys of the
conuuanding oflicer. Wine and meat also were
taxed. In 1170 the conununity numbered only 200
persons, but in 1453 there were 180 families there —
about 3 percent of the total population. Il had
several synagogues, one in the suburb of San Philip.
Tliere fragments of an inscription of the year 440 are
said to have been found, but the reference is probably
to one of much later date, in honor of a certain
" Moses " (?) who built a synagogue or some similar
structure. A considerable number of Jews living
in the vicinity of Messina endeavored to evade the
taxes and imposts of the community, and conse-
ijuently were excluded by a royal diicree of 1344
from its rights and privileges.

Little is known of the intellectual life of the Jews
of Messina. About 1300 Abraham Abulatia, cabalist
and magician, had two pupils there— Abraham and
Nathan; some time later Aaron Facassi (Favi) olli-
ciated there as rabbi, and pronounced a sentence of
excommunication upon a physician named Aaron
(1340), which sentence was repealed by the govern-
ment. Moses Hefez (referred to above) officiated as
rabbi about 1430, and succeeded in having the Jews
released from compulsory attendance at Christian

The scholars of Messina who edited the manu-
script of Nahmanides' commentary on the Penta-
teuch, on which the Naples 1490 edition was based,
are of somewhat later date. The Jewish phy.sicians
of Messina include Naccon de Fariouo and Aaron
(1367), Moses Spagnuolo and Bulfarachio (1375),
Moses Yabe (1383), Joseph Factas and Gaudio (1396),
Benedetto da S. Marco "Lugrossu " and Machaluffo
Aycu]ino(1404), Isaac de Bonavoglia(1425), Vilelmo
Saccas (1432), Aaron de Sacerdotu de Girachi and
Raba (1448), Moses de la Bonavoglia (1477). and
Vitali Aurifici. There were a number of Turkish
scholars of the sixteenth century who bore the sur-
name "Messini."

BiHi.iocRAPnv : Ziinz, Z. G. pas.siin ; Bartolomeo e Giuseppe
Lagiunina, Onllcc DiiJlomaticodci Guide idiSlcilla, passim.
G. I. E.

MESSING : Prussian family, members of which
in the nineteenth century settled in the United
States of America.

Joseph Messing : Talmudist, exegete, and
rabbi; born at Argenau, Prussia, April 30, 1812;




died in London, England, March 20, 1880. The
only rabbinates he held were those of Gostyn and
VVitkowo, Posen. Messing was the author of:
twelve homilies on Hanukkah (Breslau, 1862);
"Gal Na'ul " (1864), a commentary on Megillah,
containing a prefatory notice by Sir Moses Moute-
tiore; "Abne Shayish" (1868), a commentary on the
tractate Abot ; "Penish'al Haggadah " (1869), a
commentary on the Haggadah; and "Arono shel
Yosef " (1876) on Bible exegesis.

Three sons of Joseph Messing, who received their
training luider Guttmacher at Griitz, and Ottingcr
and Zunz at Berlin, were called to fill prominent
puli)its in tlie United States.

Aaron Messing : Eldest son of Joseph Mes-
sing; born 1843; rabbi at Mecklenburg (1859-67),
New York (1867-70), San Francisco (1871-91). In
1891 Messing was called to the rabbinate of B'nai
Sholom Temple, Chicago, which he still (1904) occu-
pies. He has founded not less than twelve congre-
gations and twenty-three Sunday-schools in Nevada,
Oregon, and California. Messing is the author of
several popular Sabbath-school text-books, espe-
cially "A Hebrew Primer" and "The Jewish Cate-

Mayer Messing : Second son of Joseph Mes-
sing; born 1843. He is the oldest rabbi in continu-
ous service with one congregation in the United
States, having been minister to the Indianapolis
Hebrew Congregation for thirty-seven years, since
Oct. 21, 1867.

Henry Messing : Third son of Joseph Messing;
born ^lureli 10, 1848. He has been rabbi of the
United Hebrew Congregation. St. Louis, Mo., since
March 8, 1878.

Abraham Joseph Messing : Youngest son of
Aaron Messing; born Aug. 4, 1873, at Chicago,
111. ; was graduated from the Hebrew Union Col-
lege in 1897, and has been rabbi of Temple Beth-
Or, Montgomery, Ala., since Sept. 1, 1897.

BntLiOGRAPiiY : L\pve, BihlinornphUrlicft Lexiknn, pp. 319-
:!21 ; Winter and Wiinsche. Die JVulische IAtteratui\ iii.
824 : American Jewish Year Book. 19113-4, pp. 81, 92.
A. S.

METALS : Although Dent. viii. 9 describes the
Promised Land as one rich in ore, Palestine itself
was really almost without metals, which had to be
imported from neighboring countries. The passage
in question is therefore taken by certain scholars to
refer not to Palestine proper, but to Bashan, the
present Hauran, whose rocks contain as much as
20 per cent of iron— hence the name " basalt. " Noth-
ing is known of mining among the flebrews them-
selves (see Mines and Mining); the description in
Job xxviii., which shows a full knowledge of the
technical process, probably refers to Egypt, which
had engaged in mining on the Sinaitic Peninsula
from earliest times. The existence of these mines
in Sinai may account for the fact that the Jerusalem
Pentateuch Targum translates "the wilderness of
Ziii" (Num. xiii. 21; xxxiv. 3,4) by "mountain of
in.n." Josephus("B. J."iv. 8, S2;comp. Malala's
"Chronicle," xviii. 182), however, places "the iron
mountain" in Trachonitis and not in the vicinity of
Sinai (comp. Derenbourg in " R. E. J." viii. 27")).
Another "mountain of iron" is mentioned (Suk. iii.
VIII.— 33

1); but this was in the vicinity of Jerusalem, and
received its name not from its richness in iron, but
from the fact that its rocks were hard asiron. Rob-
inson ("Researches," i. 512) has shown that the
country about the Red Sea is likewise entirely with-
out iron deposits.

The Hebrews were aware of the existence of gold
at Ilavilali, Ophir, and Uphaz ; and they obtained the
precious metal from these districts either by means
of tiieir own ships, as under Solomon
Sources of (I Kings i.v. 28) and Jehoshaphat (ib.
the Metals, xxii. 49), or tlnougii the markets of
Tyrk, wiiere silver, iron, tin, and lead
were brought (Ezek. xxvii. 12), probably by traders
from Tarshish (ib. xxxviii. 13). Tarshish is men-
tioned as being under Tyrian dominion (Isa. xxiii.
10); but its location and even the meaning of its
name are still disputed points. The same doubt at-
taches to two cities, Betah and Berothai, conquered
by David, from which he "took exceeding much
brass" (II Sam. viii. 8; in I Chrou. xviii. 8 these
cities are Tibhath and Chun). Copper utensils came
also from Javan (which here probably means Cy-
prus), Tubal, and Meshech (Ezek. xxvii. 13). Ac-
cording to the ideas of the time, the people of the
last-named country lived in the far north ; and the
expression "iron from the north" occurs in Jer. xv.
13. This iron seems to have been an especially good
variety. The Rabbis mention the excellent Indian
iron ('Ab. Zarah 16a; Ab. R. N., Recension A,
xxviii.) and the Indian swords (Tan., Wa'ethanan,
6). Since the Oriental trade was chietly in the
hands of the Phenicians, the Israelites could thus
become directly actiuainted with the metals and had
opportunity to obtain po.ssession of them.

A general name for " metal " does not occur in the
Bible, but the following species are mentioned : gold,
silver, copper, iron, tin, lead, antimony or stibium,
and electrum.

Gold ("zahab," connected with the root " zahab,"
" to shine ") : The various Biblical terms (see Goi.u)
employed to designate the ^color or the degree
of purity of different varieties of the metal are in
part identical with the terms used in the Talmud
(Y'er. Y^oma iv. 4ld ; a little different in Y'oma 44b)
to characterize seven varieties: (1) good gold (with
reference to Gen. ii. 12; comp. "good gold from
Ophir"; Targum Shcni to Esth. ii. 1, ed. Lagarde,
p. 227); (2) pure gold, i.e.. such gold as can be put
into the tire without losing weight (the golden lamp
of the Tabernacle is said to have been put into the
tire eighty times without losing weight) ; (3) fine gold
("zahab segor"; comp. I Kings vi. 20); (4) "zahab
mufaz," wiiich, according to one explanation, looks
like burning brimstone, and according to another
and probably more correct explanation is so called
from the place in which it was found (Solomon's
throne was covered with this kind of gold; see I
Kings x. 18) ; (o) unalloyed gold : (6) spun gold (" za-
hab shahut "), flexible as wax (the emperor Hadrian
is said to have had a piece of the size of an egg; Dio-
cletian, one as large asaGordian denarius): (7) Par-
vaim gold (II Chron. iii. 6). probably so called from
an Arabian district. In the Babylonian Talmud
gold of Ophir occupies the third place in the list;
and "mufaz" gold is— apparently correctly— con-




nected with "paz" (coinp. Cant. v. 15). The word
occurs witli the same meaning in the Tahiiud (Git.
lib, 58a). If "ufaz "' (Jer. x. 9; Dan. x. 5) is not a
proper name, it is likewise probably connected with
the same root. Some commentators, referring to
Targum, Peshitta, and manusciipts of the Septua-
gint, consider it to be corrupted from " Ofir." Almost
all the names for gold here mentioned occur in I
Kings X. Perhaps "oslikar" (Ps. Ixxii. 10; Ezek.
XX vii. 15) should also be connected with " sagur " ; in
Assyrian " hurasu sakru " means " massive " or "solid
gold"(Delitzsch, " AssyriscJies Handworterbuch,"p.
499b) ; and " sagur" and" eshkar" may be synonymous
(Cheyne, in "Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch." 1899, xxi. 246;
comp. Barth in " Programm des Berliner Rabbinei'-
seminars," p. 32, Berlin, 1901). The Assyrian "hura-
su" explains the Hebrew "haruz" (Prov. viii. 10,
xii. 27) ; the latter is used poetically for gold and
really means "decided," i.e., "declared a unit of
value," which gold had been for a long time. More-
over, the Greek XP'^^'^': (= "gold") is said to come
from the Hebrew (perhaps Phenician; see "R. E. J."
xvi. 276) word "haruz " (Bochart, "Hierozoicon," ii.
534; H. Lewy, "Die Semitischeu Fremdworter im
Grlechi.schen," p. 59). Poetically "ketem" (Lam.
iv. 1; Job xxviii. 19, xxxi. 24, etc.) is used, and ap-
pears also in connection with "paz." The expres-
sion "bezer" occurs only twice (Job xxii. 24, 25),
and is usually interpreted to mean "bars of gold."
The meaning "gold in rings" is also accepted for
it (Hoffmann, in "Zeitschrift fur Assyriologie," 1887,
p. 48). "Ophir" — that is, goldof Ophir — is its paral-
lel; and the writer of the Book of Job (Job I.e.) says
that both of these kinds of gold shall be as of no
value to those who fear God. In the Talmud " seeth-
ing gold " is also mentioned (" zahab roteah " ; Sauli.
92b). See also Gold for Biblical passages.

Silver ("kesef"): This metal derives its name
from its pale color. The denominative "hiksif"
means " make pale " ( " kasaf , " like the Arabic " kasaf , "
= "desiderarc "), although in Job xxii. 25 a compar-
ison seems to be made between silver and something
shining. The Greek apyvpiov{— Latin "argentum")
likewise goes back to hpydq ("white"). "Kesef"
was, in addition, a term for money in general
among the Hebrews (see below). Silver has its
veins (Job xxviii. 1). It is not found on the surface,
nor in river-beds, like gold ; t)ut it must be taken
with hard labor from the depths of the mountain.
Strangely enough, the Septuagint translates "ka-
sifya," in Ezra viii. 17, according to the meaning of
the root: fv apyvpiov tottu, "place of silver," that is,

Copper (" nehoshet ") : The Hebrews probably
knew copper only in its natural state, and not as
bronze, wiiich is copper alloyed with tin, unless
the copper ore was found mixed witii tin. Accord-
ing to one hypothesis, the Biblical-Hebraic "sefer "
means " brass " or " bronze " ("J. Q. K. " x v. 102). The
term Kni"i3 ("bronze") occurs only in a late Jewish
Avork ("Seder ha-Dorot," s.v. in, following "Shal-
shelet iia-Kabbalah," ed. Amsterdam, p. 8b), where
the metals collected by David for the building of
the sanctuary are enumerated (comp. Eusebius,
"Prreparatio Evangelica." ix. 4). Bronze tablets
are mentioned in I Mace. viii. 22; xiv. 18, 26; and

in Antiocii tablets of the same metal informed the
Jews of their rights. The altar was covered with
copper, which did not molt, although fire was con-
tinually burningupon it (Lev. R. vii.; Tan., Teru-
mah, 11). Abronze serpent (Num. xxi. 9; II Kings
xviii. 4) is mentioned, and the proper name " Xe-
hushta" (II Kings xxiv. 8), the hyssop represented
in bronze (Parah xii. 5), and shells of bronze {noyxi',
Yelammedeuu, in "'Aruk," s.v. ^3J"lp) are note-
worthy. See Copper.

Iron ("barzel," "parzel"): The mountains of
Palestine contained iron ore (Deut. viii. 9). Its
value was less than silver and more than stones (Isa.
Ix. 17). As was also the case in early times among
the Greeks and Romans, iron was little used by the
Hebrews; and it is mentioned only four times in the
first four books of ^Moses (see Ikon). Man}- under-
stand the word " paldah" (Nah. ii. 4) to mean " steel,"
a preparation of iron ; but the correctness of this in-
terpretation is uncertain. Iron can be broken in
pieces with a hammer. In this it isa symbol of the
Torah, which has numerous attributes and charac-
teristics (Suk. 52b; see Tos. ib.). A teacher of the
Law must be as hard as iron (Ta'an. 4a). To forge
and harden iron it must be put red-hot into cold
water (Shab. 41a). Iron was heated on coal; and
there are haiakic regulations for doing this on the
Sabbath {ib. 130a). Iron as well as lead was used
on the yokes of animals (Kclim xiv. 4, 5). The
Rabbis were acquainted with the magnetic stone
which attracts iron (Sotah 47a, "eben sho'ebet").

Tin (" bedil," from a root meaning " to separate ") :
The name itself indicates that the metal is not a pure
one, but consists of parts separated from other
metals, perhaps the lead in bars of silver (so De-
litzsch on Isa. i. 25, Avhere the word is used in the
plural with " sigini " ; Ibn Ezra rightly observes that
no other names of metals occur in the plural); com-
pare the Latin " stannum " (Pliny, " Historia Natu-
ralis," xxxiv. 47); German, " werk " ; and English.
" alloy. " That " bedil " denotes some particular metal
is evident from passages like Num. xxxi. 22 and
Ezek. xxii. 18, 20; xxyii. 12, where it is mentioned
along with other metals; and according to the Sep-
tuagint this metal was Kaaalrepog ='' tin," a trans-
lation which Luther has throughout his version.
Among the Romans, until the fourth century, tin
was called "plumbum album." The Jews were
probably acquainted with tin through the Plie-
nicians, who brought it from their European colonies
(from Britain [?]; see Gutschmid, "Kleine Schrift-
en," ii. 55). The instrument used in summoning
the people to synagogue in Babylonia was of tin
(Pethahiah of Regensburg, p. 14, ed. London, 1856).
Beautiful tin Seder platters are still in existence.

Lead ("'oferet"; Aramaic and Neo-Hebrew in
Mishnah and Talmud, " abar, " " abra ") : Lead is men-
tioned in Num. xxxi. 22; Ezek. xxii. 18, 20; also
in Ezek. xxvii. 12, where it is referred to as an ex-
port of Tarshish. Lead was obtained direct from
the mines (Hul. 8a). It is the symbol of weight (Ex.
XV. 10). Tradition relates that the river-beds near
Jerusalem were lined with lead (Letter of Aristeas,
ed. Wendland, §90; cotup. "Seder ha-Dorot," i. 115,
Warsaw, 1891). White lead (Persian, "sapidag"
[see "Z. D. M. G." 1. 6, 43] ; Syriac, "aspedka") oc-




curs iu the " llalakot Gedolot " and elsewhere iu the
literature of tiie Geouim as "alsetidag" (see Ko-
hut, "Aruch Conipletum," iv. 82). A wire of lea<l
C'petilah shel abar" ; Sauh. 52a) was used iu killing
those coudcnnied to death by tire. The eaves of
houses were made of lead (Mik. vi. 8).

Antimony or Stibium c puk " = "ej-e-paini "
[conip. "Z. D. M. G." V. 33()J; now ealled "kuhl"
in the Orient; hence the verb " kahal " [E/.ek. .\xiii.
40]: often mentioned in llie Talmud and Midrash
[e.f/., Shab. viii. 3]): One spoke of "enlarging" the
eyes with paint (Jer. iv. 30, K. V.)or of painting
them (II Kings ix. 30). The meaning of Isa. liv.
11 is disputed. According to Saadia, paint is
meant here also; thus the meaning would be that
tiie .stones shine like women's eyes. 3Iore modern
scholars read "nofek." Wisdom xiii. 14 interprets
it to mean that on feast-days the faces of the gods
were colored red with minium.

Electrum : A translation given by many for
"l.iashnial " (Ezek. i. 4, viii. 2); the English versions
have A.MBEK. Bochart (•' Hierozoicon," iii. 893)
takes it to be the auriclialcuni of the ancients. Tlie
Talmud has a haggadic interpretation for it (Hag.
13a; comp. Munk in "Guide des Egares," ii. 229).
Omitting " hashmal" as not being the name of a met-
al, Moses Cohen (on Ibn Ezra on Isa. i. 25) says that
there are seven kindsof metals mentioned in theBible.
A general name for metals, "matteket" (plural,
"matUikot"; Kelim xiii. 7, xiv. 1; Hul. i. 6), from
the root "' matak " = '" natak " (Targ.
Metals in to I Kings vii. 16, 23), is first found in
the Tal- the post-Biblical literature of the Jews.
mud. ^''OO occurs in the Middle Ages ("R.
E. J." xliii. 83j. Roman "metalla" in
Spain are mentioned iu I Mace. viii. 3. By way of
punishment Jews were often exiled to Roman "me-
talla," i.e., mines. A rather comprehensive word is
'Dl"lJ ("broken pieces of iron"; Jastrow, "Diction-
ary," p. 266), from which ''JOTlJ (B. B. 89b; comp.
"llalakot Gedolot," ed. Ilildesheimer, p. 421) would
seem to mean "iron-monger." Other names for
metals which occur arc the following:

Argentum or Argentarium (Latin): Table-sil-
ver; occurs often iu the Midrash (, " Lehn-
worter," ii. 126). A similar word is "chrysargy-
nun," a kind of money (sec below).

Arsenicon (Greek) : A chemical element which
occurs naturally together with sulfur and metals.
In the Talmud (Hul 88b), Syriac, and Arabic it is
called "zarnikh."

Asimon (Greek, aar/juov): In Mishnah, Talmud,
and Midrash, an tmstamped (silver) coin (Krauss,
I.e. p. 86). The word may, however, be related to
the Syriac "sema," which means simply "silver"
(Payne Smith, " Thesaurus Syriacus," p. 2494). By
"asem" the Egyptians indicated a compound of
gold and silver (Greek, if/.cKrpov); and tiie Septua-
gint translates the Hebrew "hashmal" (see above)

From' tannaitic times dates a i-egulation forbid-
ding the making of weights out of "ba'az" (see
below), lead, tin {Kacci-epoq), and other metals, be-
cause they gradually wear away to the disadvan-
tage of the buyer (Tosef.. B. B. v. 9 [ed. Zucker-
mandel, p. 405]; B. B. 89b); in the text of the

"Halakot Gedolot." p. 421. NTIDDS also is found
among the forbidden metals. Still Inunanuel Low
reads more correctly JXl-CD^N (= " white lead " ; see
al)ove) instead of N~nEDN N^N-

Ba'az : This nutal, mentioned above, is proba-
bly a kind of tin (comp. Kelim xxx. 3; Targ. to
Ezek. xxii. 18, and Targ. Yer. to Num. xxxi. 22).
Ba'az ranks above lead and Ktiooirrpar (Men. 28b).
It is doubtful whether " abaza '' (Targum for " bedil")
is related to it (see conunentators on Kelim x. 2).
Ba'az was used for sealing documents (Targ. to Jer.
xxxii. 11, 14).

Halkoma (Greek, jt-aPKoi/zo): Brass or copper;
mentidued often in the Targum (Krauss, I.e. p. 299);
especially bows of brass are mentioned (comp. the
cognomen " Halikopri " = ;(fa?.K07rdpe/oc = " ihe man
with a brazen face " (Krauss, I.e. p. 251). A similar
analogy was: "A scholar is firm as iron" (Ta'an.
4a). Corinthian brass, celebrated in antiquity
(n^Jl^p), is mentioned in the Talmud (, I.e.
p. 543), as well as by Josephus (" Vita," t, 13). Tlie
Syrian translates Ezra viii. 27 similarly. Xaf.Ko
\i3avov, in Rev. i. 15, ii. 18, can hardly mean any-
thing else than "brass of Lebanon."

Gruti (Greek, ypvTii): Pieces of metal (Krauss,
I.e. p. 183). Perhaps the above-mentioned '0113
came from it (comp. ypvro-«j/w = " dealer in old
iron," in Wilcken, "Ostraka," i. 381).

Hararah (Kelim xi. 3): Lumps of metal after

Karkemisha : An Aramaic word of unknown
origin, occurring in the Targum (Targ. Yer. to
Num. xxi. 22; job xix. 24), and meaning "lead."

Milela (Ket. 67a): Gold ore as broken in the
mine (Jastrow, I.e. p. 793).

Niska: A bar of gold or silver; occurs a dozen
times in the Babylonian Talmud (Jastrow, I.e. p.
917). According to J. Halevy (in "M. Scienc. Ling."
xi. 73), "niska" is Sanskrit, and means "money-
bag." The Greek /?u/.of indicates "lumps" or
"bars" (Krauss, I.e. p. 141; comp. the Greek /ii'V''C
= Latin " massa" in Bllimner, " Technologie," iv. 219).
For sheet metal there Avas likewise a term from
the Greek, |i^t3"'D (^f'«^o»'; Krauss, I.e. p. 441), for
which "tas" is used elsewhere. Still unworked
pieces arc called "golemim " (Kelim xii. 6).

' Eshet and 'Ashashit : Especially frequent
terms (Kohut, I.e. vi. 281; Jastrow, I.e. p. 1127),
meaning "lumps" or "plates" or s(miething sindiar
(comp. Yoma 34b). Plates of iron were warmed
(for the high priest): iron plates are spoken of also
in 'Ab. Zarah 16a. It is therefore natural to con-
nect these words with the Biblical Hebrew "'eshet"
(Ezek. xxvii. 19)= "hard iron"; since the idea
"hard" seems certainly to be contained in it. In
Men. 28b it is stated tliat the lamp of the sanctuary
might be made of " 'eshet " as well as of gold ; but
" 'eshet" can not mean " iron, "since it is classed above
silver, unless indeed iron on account of its rarity
was more valued than silver or even than gold.
The metal must also have cast a reflection ; for the
lamp itself ("candela") is ealled "'ashasit." The
plates, whether of iron, silver, or gold, must, there-
fore, have been highly polished, somewhat like the
ancient mirrors.

Obryzon (Greek, bjipv^ov): Pure gold; a term oc-




cuniug ouce in the Taiguin (Krauss, I.e. p. 14), aud
used alsoiu Syriac aud Arabic. Xpvaapyvpov, mouey
called "gold-silver," occurs also in rabbinical wri-
tings (Krauss, I.e. p. 298).

Paliza (Arabic, "falaz"; but see Frankel, l.r. p.
153): A kind of bronze. Samuel (in the 3d cent.)
bought a golden dish which was offered him as
bronze (B. K. 113b).

Stomoma (Latin, from the Greek aTofiufia; in
Ber. 621), NOtSVN) : A term meaning sometimes the
tempering of iron, sometimes steel itself. The ex-
pression is found also in Syriac, Mandaeau, and Ara-
bic; the genuine Arabic is "shaburkan" (LOw, in
Krauss, I.e. p. 120; according to a passage quoted
there, tin was also so tempered. Concerning the
method see Blumner, I.e. iv. 343). Jager, Reiche-
uow, and Frenzel, in "Handbuch der Zoologie,"
etc. (ii. 510, Breslau, 1880), state that the art of
changing iron to steel was practised by the Jews.

Sulfate of Iron : Used for ink ; ;ifdAKat'^of =
" vitriol " ; often mentioned by the Rabbis (Krauss,
I.e. p. 549).

Marteka: Silver-slag (Git. 69b).

For the working of metals the Hebrews had to
rely wholly on the Phenicians, as the history of the
building of Solomon's Temple indicates. In Saul's
time the Hebrews had armorers who
Manufac- were very unpopular with the Philis-
ture. tines (I Sam. xiii. 19, 20); and at the
fall of Jerusalem smiths and lock-
smiths ("haras" and "masger"; II Kings xxiv. 10)
are mentioned.

The tools used were : the hammer or ax (" pa'am " ;
Isa. xli. 7; comp. anfiufi in Sirach [Ecclus.] xxxviii,
33; other tools are mentioned, ii. xxxviii. 13, xlviii.
17; also "'makkabah " in Isa. xliv. 12; "pattish," ib.
xli. 7 ; and " halmut " in Judges v. 26) ; tongs (" mel-
kahayinx " ; Isa. vi. 6) ; hatchet (•' garzen " ; Siloam
inscription and Deut. xix. 5; this makes the word

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