Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

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"barzel" in II Kings vi. 5 mean "tongs," whereas
it usually denotes only "iron"); bellows ("map-
puah"; Jer. vi. 29; comp. Isa. liv. 6); tining-pot
("mazref") for silver and a (melting) furnace
("kur") for gold (Prov. xvii. 8), whence the desig-
nation "furnace," for Egypt (Ueut. iv. 20; comp.
Isa. xlviii. 10), is derived. A prophecy of Ezekiel's
(Ezek. xxii. 18-22) rests wholly on the technical
process of metal -casting.

In Talmudic times there was used the anvil
("saddan" = "lilock"; Gen. R. x.), the "base"
("tahtit"; Keliin xvii. 17) for forging, which was
beaten upon witii a hammer. "To beat with the
hammer "(•' makaii ha-pat^ish ") is a very frequent
expression in rabbinical literature. In the opinion of
the Rabbis, tongs (" zcbet ")were created directly by
God as the tinai act of creation (Ab. v. 6); compare
the tongs (' yattukin " and " parakin " in Kelim xii.
3) Qsed in metal casting. Tliere were used also the
spade ("kardos," in Ps. Ixxiv. 5, 6; comp. Ab. iv.
5), the shovel (" mara " = fjuppov), the ax (" hazina "),
and the hammer ("koriios " = utapvug). For grind-
ing a peculiar tool was used (" mashbezet " ; Kelim
xvii. 17; comp. "yahad " in Prov. xxvii. 17). Iron
sledges ("masrekot shel barzel" ; Ber. 61b: comp.
Git. 57b) are mentioned as instruments of torture.
The pass2ige quoted from Ezekiel (xxil. 18-22)

illustrates the manipulation of metals. The ore was
gathered and thrown into the furnace, aud the lire
was blown to melt it ("natak," substantive, "hit-

To rid the cast of slag ("sig," "sigim ") the metal

was refined again in the fire ("zaraf," "zakak").

To aid the process of melting, a kind

Manipula- of soa p (" bar, " " barit " = " sal alkali, "

tion. "potash"; see Luzzatto on Isa. i. 25)

was thrown into the furnace. Hence

a distinction was made between unrefined silver

(" kesef sigim " is probably the term ; Ezek. xxii. 18)

and refined silver (" kesef mezukkak " in I Chron.

xxix. 4, or "zaruf " in Ps. xii. 7). After the metul

had been purified it was tested (" bahan "). Smelters

aud gold-workers in general were called "refiners"

("zorefim"; Neh. iii. 32; comp. ib. verse 31); there

were also ironsmiths ("harashe barzel"; II Chron.

xxiv. 12) and coppersmiths ("harash nehoshet"; I

Kings vii. 14). Copper could be worked in various

ways; tliere were shining copper (yellow bronze V;

"nehoshet muzhab " in Ezra viii. 27), polished coj)-

per ("nehoshet kalal " in Ezek. i. 7; Dan. x. 6), and

probably gilded copper also.

Perhaps certain places in Palestine derived tJieir
names from the foundries existing therein, e.f/..
"Zarephat" (I Kings xvii. 9) and "Misrephoth"
(Josh. xi. 8, xiii. 6). Malleable metals, such as gold,
were made into plates (yp"l) from which were cut
threads or wires ("kizzez petilim"; Ex. xxxix. 3).
The important art of soldering was also known
("debek"; Isa. xli. 7). At the time of Solomon
there was a special place for casting ("yazak";
comp. " muz?ak " in Job xi. 15). For the sanctuary
"scoured" copper (" morat " ; I Kings vii. 45, 46)
was used, while for the Tabernacle in the wilder-
ness the metal was not cast, but hammered into
shape (comp. "mikshah"). As the excavations at
Mycena? show, this process was known before cast-
ing, and was in use even in prehistoric times.
The Hebrews knew also how to make gold and sil-
ver articles by incrustation ("zafah," "hafah ").

Ornaments of gold and silver are frequently men-
tioned in the Bible (see Costume). The Hebrews
had metal mirrors (" mar'ot " ; Ex. xxxviii. 8; comp.
Blumner, I.e. iv. 265). Several metal
Ornaments, articles recorded in the Bible and

"Weapons, Mishnah are mentioned together in
and Kelim xi. 8: e.g., weapons (helmet,

Utensils, lance, i'ikcjv, greaves, cuirass), women's
ornaments ("golden city," i.e., a kiud
of crown with an image of Jerusalem), necklaces
("catellae "), nose-rings, finger-rings with or without
seals, metal threads, etc. Besides, there were the
sword ("hereb," "sayif"), knife, dagger (" pugio "),
sickle, scissors, hnh-cuvh'vs {Kn?.Aiypa<pT/), etc. (Kelim
xiii. 1, 2). The mortar (" maktesh " ; Prov. xxvii. 22)
was usually of copper, probably for .sanitary rea-
sons, because copper does not rust ; the pestle (Bib-
lical "'eli"; Aramaic, "bukna"), of iron. Tiie iron
pestle breaks the copi)er mortar ("asita" ; Niddah
36b). Mention should also be made of: the hoe
(" mafselet "), the cutting-knife (cfiilr/ = Hebr. " sak-
kin," "magrefah"), the metal funnel (Ttpdxoor =
"aparkas"; Kelim xiv., end), and the furnace and
hearth of metal {ib. v. 11). From this last arises




tlie expression "copper bottom" of tlie furnace
{ih. viii. 3).

The wealth of the Patriarchs in gold and silver is
often emphasized (Gen. xiii. *2, xxiv. 22). Accord-
ing to a legend, Abraham built )iim-

History. .self a high iron tower (Soferim ix.).
The Israelites took articles of silver
and gold with them out of Egypt (Ex. xi. 2, xii.
35); and the .Midrasli on tliis passage (Tan., Bo)
states that they melted the idols of the Egyptians
into lumps of metal. For the golden calf and for
the Tabernacle the precious metal was used in large
<iuantities. Many fabulous stories are told of the
wealth of Korah. as also of that of Joseph. David's
and Solomon's wealth in gold has already been
spoken of. Solomon's throne was especially costly
(I Kings x. 18). On the other hand, some of the
later Jewish kings were so poor that they often used
copper instead of gold. The copper pillars of Sol-
omon's T(miple are said to have been taken to
Home; but those taken could have been only from
Herod's 'I'emple. Benjamin of Tudela, who saw
them in Rome, states that on the day of mourning
for Jeru.salem tlie\' wept and exuded sweat. Moie-
over, tlie pillars of the Temple (Herod's) are de-
scribed as of silver, gold, copper, tm (^'13), and iron
("Seder ha-Dorot," ed. Warsaw, i. 92a). Antiochus
iV. stole much gold and silver from the Second
Temple (I Mace. i. 21-24); and Herod tiie Great
enriched himself by jilundering the alleged graves
of the kings (Josephu.s, "Ant." vii. 15. ^ 3; xvi. 7,
S 1). All the gates of Herod's Temple were of gold
with the exception of the Nicanor Gate, the copper
on which, however, shone like gold (Mid. ii. 3). It
is said that Nicanor had copper gates made in Alex-
andria for the Temple, and that they reached Pales-
tine only by a miracle (Yoma3>'a; '^'er. Yoma ii. 4).
At the time of Herod, ]\Ienahem, the jiresident oi
the Sanhedrin, brought eighty n.en in golden breast-
plates before the king (Hag. iii. 2). The Pvoman
general Crassus took away a golden beam from the
■Temple f)f Jerusalem (Josephus, l.r. xiv. 7, ^ 1).
The cymbals in the Temple at Jerusalem deserve
mention (Ps. cl. 5; Shek. v. l.^V^V) as being made of
metal. A golden grape-vine was placed on the gate
of the Temple (Mid. iii. 8).

The high priest John, i.e., King John Ilyrcanus,
did away with "the noise of hammering" in Jeru-
salem (Ma'as. Sh. v. 15; otherwise in-

Miscella- terpreted in M. K. 11a). There are
neous halakic regulations as t(^ whether
Conditions, neighbors were required to endure
the noise of hammering (see "Pa-
had Yizhak," s.r. "n-nn niJOIS)- Founders or
gold-workers figure in later times also {ib. s.r.
nVJJOIK)- When the table service broke at the court
of King Jannseus it was replaced by the gold-work-
ers in Jerusalem (ih.). Women liked to wear golden
ornaments; hence it is said that "goldsmiths have
much to do with women " (Kid. 82a). R. Ishmael
h. Elisha had a golden tooth made for a Jewish
maiden (Tos., Niddah, 4b, 66b). Earth instead of
gold was put into the chest of Nahman of Gimza.
H. Joshua b. Hananiah was a maker of needles (Yer.
Ber. 7d; Yer. Ta'an. 67d; see"'Aruk," s.r. ''DnS).
The teachers with the cognomen "Nappaha" were

probably blacksmiths. The word "pattish"(=
" hammer ") occurs also as a jirojier name; in the
Tahrmd it has a symbolical meaning. At tlie time
of Har Kokl)a there were many Jewish smiths, and
at Sichniin metal-workers were especiallv numer-
ous (Gratz, "Gesch." 3d ed., iv. 136, 145). The
workshojis of the goldsmiths are mentioned in
the lime of the Mishnah (Tosef., Kelim, middle ex-
tract, vii. 10). At Jerusalem the gold-workers seem
to liave formed a separate gild ("zehabim"; Tosef.,
Suk. iv. 6). The word "tarsiyyim" was formerlj'
translated "ironsmith" (Schiirer, "Gesch." 3d ed..
ii. 65, note 212).

In the Middle Ages there were makers of metal
implements (Abraham, "Jewish Life in the Middle
Ages." Index, London, 1896). It is interesting to
note that .lews took part in the Bristol copper tradd
(i//.). The Jews engaged extensively in coinage
also (see Mixters). Strangely enough, the wri-
tings on alchemy ift the Middle Ages circulated
under the name of Moses; the word
In the 3nT ""O (Gen. xxxvi. 39), really a
Middle proper noun, was exjtlained to mean
Ages. ■the one who changes copper into
gold " (Ibn Ezra, ad loc. ; comp. a
work on ^nt '"O in Steinschneider, " Hebr. Uebcrs."
No. 577). Miriam, Moses' sister, is said to have been
the discoverer of the chemical known as bain-marie
(see Jkw. Excyc. i. 329, .v. c Alchemy). A Jew
taught the English how to smelt cojiper ("Tr, Jew.
Hist. Soc. Eng." iii. 12). In northern Africa the
Jews were the only locksmiths, goldsmiths, metal-
founders, and minters (see Akktc.k). An Italian
traveler of the sixteenth century relates that the
greater number of Karaites in Jerusalem had for a
long time been metal-founders ("Jerusalem," v. 86).
From the very beginning Jews took an active part
in the art of printing; and in some instances the
Rabbis themselves cast the type for the printing of
their own works (ih. v. 286). Toward the end of
the eighteenth century there were in Berlin many
Jewish die-sinkers and engravers (see " Kaufmann
Gedenkbuch," pp. 629-fi5i^; comp. " Mitteilungen
. . . fnr Jlidische Volkskunde,"ix. 12f< sf?.). The
word "Ghetto" is said to have been derived from
tlie Venetian mint, beside which the Jews lived.

Just as on the occasion of the war with Midian
the Bible established laws of cleanliness in regard to
metals, so later in rabbinical literature
Halakic metal vessels are discussed in their re-
Bearing, lation to the Levitical laws of cleanli-
ness. Metal vessels, whether flat or
hollow, become unclean (vessels of other materials,
if flat, do not become unclean); if they break they
become clean ; but w hen mended the earlier un-
cleanness returns (Kelim xi. 1). Each metal dish
which has a particular name may become unclean
(ib. 2). If clean iron is united with un(;lean iron,
the larger constituent decides as to purity (ib. 4).
All implements of war, all ornaments worn by
women may become unclean in so far as they have
a hollowed part, thus constituting a vessel (ib. 8).
The rule that a firmly fitting cover protects from
uncleanness does not apply to ba'az (see above) and
lead, because the cover only lies on top, but does
not close the vessel hermetically {ib. x. 2). If metal





vessels whicli liave become iinelc;in from contact
with a corpse receive the purilicative sprinkling,
then break and are melted togetlierand respriukled,
all on the same day, they, in tlii' opinion of some,
become clean (/i. xiv. 7). But these rules become
lost in a sea of details, and further information on
the subject must be obtained from tlie coch's (Miu-
monides, "Yad,"etc.). See Kklim.

In the only passage in the Bible in which an al-
most complete list of the metals is given their order
of value is as follows: gold, silver,

Value of copper, iron, tin, and lead (Num. xxx.

Metals. 22). Generally, however, in the Bible,
as also on the Egyptian monuments,
silver is named before gold, to which metal it was
preferred, owing to the greater difficulty in obtain-
ing it. However, in estimating Solomon's wealth,
it is said of silver that " it was nothing accounted of."
Consequently, even at that early time gold must
have been estimated at its true value (I Kings x. 21).

From the Talmudic description of the lamp (Men.
28b) the following classification of the metals ac-
cording to their value results, beginning with the
most precious: " 'esliet " (see above), gold, silver,
ba'az (see above), lead, tin (Knaairepnc). The spears
of the Ilasmonean kings were of iron plated
with ba'az (//;.); hence iron stood at the foot of
the list, but only in regard to value. In respect to
usefulness it stood high among the Jews. Among
the Greeks and Romans iron is always ranked above
tin and lead (Bliimner, I.e. iv. 8). The coinage of
Oriental peoples rests on a gold basis; that of the
Phenicians and the Greeks on a silver one; that of
the Romans on one of copper {ib.). The Bible tixes
silver as the medium of exchange (Levy, "Gesch.
der Jlidischen Miinzen," p. 8); so that in the matter
of monc}', as in other things, the Hebrews were de-
pendent on the Phenicians (comp. Schl'irer, I.e. ii.
fio). Amisimah in this connection is instructive (B.
M. iv. 1). It states which metal is to be regarded
as a commodity, wiiich as coin. "Silver buys gold
(that is, as soon as tiie buyer has the gold coins —
tiie commodity — in his hands, he must pay for
tliem with silver coins); gold, however, will not
buy silver. Silver will buy copper; but not vice
versa. Stamped money ("matbea'") will buy asi-
mon ; but not vice versa."

Among thefiguresof speech in the Bible in which
metals occur, there is the elaborate symbolism of
Dan. ii. and vii., where the kingdoms of the earth
are compared to metals. This idea Avas thoroughly
exploited throughout the Middle Ages (see Driver,
"Daniel," pp. 94-97, Cambridge, 1900); comj). Ex.
R. XXXV. 5: "Gold is Babylon; silver is Media;
copper is Greece; iron is not mentioned either at tiie
time of the First or of the Second Temple, since it
symbolizes Edom [Rome], which had destroyed the
Temple; lience Edom can bring God no present in
the Messianic kingdom." Iron is thesymbol of war
(Mek., Vitro; Tosef., B. K. vii. C); the relation be-
tween gold and copper altars should be judged ac-
cordingly (Midr. Tadshe, xi.). A pliallus was made
of copper, or of gold (Ezek. xvi. 17; Isa. Ivii. 8).
According to Philo, who developed at length the
symbolism of metals, gold denoted wisdom {aoipla;
Philo, "De Leg. Alleg." ed. Mangey, i. 25) or reason

[idem, " De Vita Moysis " iii. 4); copper denoted
perception {alcfti/oir; il).). From this Biihr ("Sj'm-

bolik dcs Mosaischen Cultus," i. 280)
Symbolic tiled in vain to prove the existence
Meaning', of an elaborate synibolism of metals

among tiie Hebrews. Maimoiudes
sa3's of the Sabiaiis that they a.ssoeiatcd a particular
metal with each of the planets and made their statues
to the latter of the appropriate metal (Chwolsoii,
"Ssabier und Ssabismus," ii. 658 ct fcj.). In Ai.-
CHE.MY "moon " is equivalent to silver; "sun," to
gold. In the IMidrash iron is tlie sj'inbol of war
(Mek., Vitro, 11 ; B. K. vii. 6). The golden altar in
the sanctuary symbolized the soul ; the copper one,
the body (Midr. Tadshe, xi.). " A scholar who is not
hard as iron is no scholar " (Ta'an. 7a); R. Sheshet
was such a hard scholar (Men. 95b). A scholar
appears to an idiot like a golden pitchr-i-; if he has
spoken to the idiot once he seems like a silver
pitcher; and if he derives benefit from the fool he is
only an earthen one(Shab. 52b). The strict ban was
called "iron fate" ("gizra de-farzela " ; B. K. 81b).

In sorcery and supei'stition the metals were im-
portant agents. If any one was bitten b}' a mad
dog he was to driidc out of a copper tube for twelve
months; in a severe case he was to use a golden
one (Voma 84a). Just as imprecations were usually
written on leaden tablets in Rome (R. Wlinsch,
"Sethianisehe Yernuchungstafeln aus Rom," Leip-
sic, 1898), so the Jews wrote, and still write, their
A.MUi.ETS preferablv on metal tablets. Coins or
gold ornaments were put in the shoes or clothing of
a bridegroom, with the idea that gold would take
away tlie power of witchcraft (responsum quoted
in Glassberg's " Zikron Berit la-Rishonim," p. 149,
Berlin, 1892). If copper, iron, tin, lead, or any other
kind of metal is thrown into the tire and some of
tlie pretended stone of wisdom is rubbed off into the
metal, gold refined seven times will come out of the
fire (Johanau Allemanno, in " Iverem Hemed." ii. 48;
Glassberg, I.e. ji. 204). Even to-day Jews give
heed to the so-called "tekufah." Water may be
kept from becoming poisonous if it comes in con-
tact with iron (S. Landau, in "Aruch," j). 1665;
Griinbaum, "Gesammeltc Aufsatze zur Sprach-und
Sagenkunde," pp. 102, 144, Berlin, 1901; " R. E. J."
xli. 147). For sorcery with metals see also "Sefer
Vuhasin," ed. London, p. 234a.

In Vemen to-day most people wear iron bands on
their arms and feet and claim to feel strengthened
thereby. The children wear around their necks a
thick band of seven kinds of iron (" Eben Safir," p.
58b, Lyck, 1866). With this should be compared
the metal amulets ("lamina") representing the ser-
pent of Moses, which a sect of Jews wore early in
the common era (Philastrius, "Hieres,"t5 21). In an
apocrypiial work ascribed to Cham, prescriptions
on copper plates are spoken of (Fabiicius, "Codex
Apocr. N. T." i. 301). Indeed, Korah is said to have
engaged in chemistrj^ (Griinbaum, " Neue BeitrUge
zur Semitischen Sprach-und Sagenkunde," p. 171).

BiBi.iociRAPiiY : De Wette, Lthrhuch der HihrHisch -JVuU-
srlitii A irlHl(ilo{jii\ S§ 10."). ](K!, Leipsio, ISH; RoseniniilliT, lii-
hJisrhe AUerthvnixluDiilc, iv. ], ')>*•: Movers. I'lii'niizirr, iii.
1, 27 ; Burton, Tlie (iold Mhir.sof Midimi, London, 1878 ; Gln-
hits, .XXXV. 'Mi ; Kinzler. liililinrhe Natiirntschichte, 9tli ed.;
Bliimner, Tecfniolmiie iind Tfrminoloqie der (iewerhe und
KlUistc bci Uriechcn und ROmern, vol. iv., section 1, Leip-




sic, 1886; Bahr, Sy>n})()Uk des Moaaischc^i CuIhiK, 1. 258-295.
Heidelberg, 1837; K. Meyer, flrxcli. des AltertliumK, i. 22e;
Blau, -Das AltJVuUsche Zauhcrwenoi, p. 157; Z. D. P. V.
ii. lUl.

J. S. Kr.

METATRON (Ilebr. piOnO; Greek, M^yrdrup;
Latin, " Mehitor '"): Maine of an angel found only in
Jewisli literature. Eiisha b. Abuyali, seeiuu this
angel in the lieavens, believed there Avere "two
powers" or divinities (Hag. 15a, above). When
God wept over the destruction of the Temple,
3Ietatron fell on liis face and .said: "1 will weep;
but weep not Thou." God answered and said: "If
thou n ilt not suffer ISIe to weep, I will go wliither
thou canst not come, and there will I lament" (Lam.
Iv., Introduction, g 24; conip. Jer. xiii. 17). jSIctat-
rou bears the Tetragrammaton ; for E.\. xxiii. 21
says, "My name is in him." Yet he may not be
Avorshiped; for the .same passage says, "E.\change
Me not for him" (dialogue between a heietic and a
Babylonian teacher, in Sanh. i^fSb, below; Targ. Yer.
to Ex. xxiv. 1 has ^Michael instead of Metatron).

Moses begs Metatron to intercede with God for
huu, that he may not die; but the angel answers:
" It is useless; iov I heard the words behind the veil,
'Thy pra^-erwill not be answered ' " (both editions
of Tan., Wa'elhanan, 6). When God sorrowed for
the death of ]\Ioses, Metatron fell down before Him
and consoled llim (Grilnhut, "Likkutim," v. 105a),
and when Moses died, this angel with three others,
" the princes of wisdom, " cared for him (Targ. Yer. to
Deut. xxxiv. 6). The eai'ly commentators with good
reason identified the prince of the world (Hul. COa;
Zeb. 16b; Sanh. 94a) with Metatron (JoOl, "Blickein
die Keligionsgesch." i. 124 et seq.). God instructs
children in the Torah during the last quarter of the
day ; Metatron, during the first three-quarters ('Ab.
Zarah 3b). It was this angel who caused Shamhazai
to say before the Flood, " God will destroy the world "
(Yalk. i., g 44). He is, moreover, Enoch, the great
scribe (Targ. Yer. to Gen. v. 24; in Hag. 15a lie is
likewise represented as a scribe).

These statements, found in the earlier sources,
contain all the characteristic traits ascribed to Me-
tatron in the later mystical woiks. The latter call
him the " prince of the presence " (Jel-

In Later linek, "B. H."ii., pp. xvi., 55 etseq., v.

Records. 171; " Responsen der Gaonen," ed.
Ilarkavy, No. 373, p. 372;comp. Isa.
Ixiii. 9), and "prince of the ministering angels"
(Jellinek, I.e. v. 172). He is the "mighty scribe"
[ih. ii. 68), the lord of all the heavenly hosts, of all
treasures, and of secrets {ib. ii. 114, v. 174), and
bears the lesser divine name (i6. ii. 61, 114, 117; v.
175). The Zohar defines his nature exactly by de-
claring that he is little lower than God (after Ps.
viii. 6; Yalk. Hadash, 7, No. 51; comp. especially
Jellinek, ^.c. v. 174). He is identical in all respects
with Enoch; the "Hekalot" {ih. v. 170-190). in
which he is the chief personage, is called also " The
Book of Enoch" (comp. ih. ii., p. xvi. and vi. 58:
"Enoch whose name is Metatron ").

In the Apocrypha likewise Enoch appears as the
heavenly scribe (Book of Jubilees, iv. 23; II Enoch
liii. 2), although elsewhere he is called Michael
<Ascensio Isaise, ix. 21), while, as noted above, Targ.
Yer. to Ex. xxiv. 1 substitutes the name of Michael

for Metatron, which is found in tl)e other sources.

In the Hebrew writings Metatron fills the role of

Enoch in the Apocrypha in bearing

Identical witness to the sins of mankind. Since
with both sources represent him as a youth,

Enoch. it may be assumed that the first ver-
sions of the Hebrew mystical works,
though they received their present form in the geonic
period, originated in antiquity, so that the concep-
tion of ^letatron must likewise date from an early

The views regarding the source of this conception
differ widely. The name "Metatron," which, as
stated above, occurs only in Hebrew writings, is
in itself striking. The derivation from the Latin
"metator" (=: "guide") is doubtless correct, for
Enoch also is represented as a guide in the apocry-
l)hal work which bears his name; and the Hebrew
Book of Enoch, in which, however, reference to
Metatron is constantly implied, says: "He is the
most excellent of all the heavenly host, and the
ginde [Metatron] to all the treasuries of mv [God]"
(B. H. ii. 117).

Mysticism prefers obscurity, and intentionally
chooses a foreign word instead of the well-known
name of Enoch. Kohut identifies Metatron with the
Zoroastrian Mithra; but probably oidy a few traits
were borrowed from the latter. Sachs, Gruubaum,
Weiustein, and others think that Metatron is iden-
tical with Philo's Logos; but L. Cohn, the eminent
Philonist, contradicts this view. M.
Views as Friedlilnder, on the other hand, takes
to Origin. Metatron to be, both in name and in
nature, none other than Horus, the
"frontier guardian" and "surveyor of the frontier"
of the early Gnostics. These divergent views clear-
ly indicate that Metatron combines various traits
derived from different systems of thought. Grun-
wald(in " Jahrb. fiir JiidischeGesch. und Literatur,"
1901, pp. 127 et seq.) has yet another solution for
the problem of Metatron. The ancients had already
noticed that the numerical value of the letters in the
word "Metatron" corresponded with those of the
word "Shaddai" (=314), and "Metatron" is also
said to mean " palace " (" metatrion "), and to be con-
nected with the divine name DlpO ("place"), etc.

In medieval mystici-sm Metatron plays the same

role as in antiquity and in the period of the Geonim

(passages in Schwab, s.v.), thus furnishing a further

proof of the tenacity and stability of mystic and

superstitious conceptions.

Bibliography : W. Bousset, Die ReJiuion des J^tdeuthuinx im
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