Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

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war on the stalf of Brig. -Gen. John S. Williams of
Kentucky, and holding finally the position of as-
sistant adjutant-general.

Since the war .Aleyer lias been largely engaged in
the cultivation of sugar and cotton and in financial
and commercial pursuits in New Orleans. In 1879
he was elected colonel of the First Regiment of the
Ltniisiana State National Guard, and in 1881 was
appointed brigadier-general to command the First
Brigade, embracing all the uniformed corps of the
state. He was elected as a Democrat to represent
the First District of Louisiana in the Fifty-second
Congress, and has been successively reelected up to
and including the present (1904) Fifty-eighth Con-
gress. Meyer has served on the committees on Na-
val Affairs and District of Columbia.

Bibliography: Biini}(t\)h'n<i] CunqrexMonal Dirfcturii. \k
692. Wasliington, 1903.


MEYER, ALBERT: Danish tenor singer; born
Oct. 29, 1839, at Soro, Zealand. In 1860 he sang in
the chorus of the Royal Theater, Copenhagen, where
he received instruction from II. Rung. He subse-
quently appeared at several concerts, and had just
received his tirst role in "The Hunter's Bride"
(" Jiegerbruden '") at the Royal Theater, when the
war between Denmark aud Germany broke out (1864)
and he was called to serve in the army. Upon his
return in 1805 he gave a concert which procured
for him the means for a year's study under Lam-
perti in Milan. In 1860 he received an engagement
at Folketheatret in Copenhagen, where he re-
mained as a soloist until 1873, when he decided to de-
vote his whole time to giving instruction in singing.
He wrote "Theoretisk-Praktisk Sang.skole," which
presents a theoretical-jiractical singing method based
upon physiological studies of the human voice, and
which appeared in Copenhagen, 1874, with a pref-
ace by Professor Panum. After a visit to the con-
servatories in Berlin, Leipsic, Brussels, and Paris.
Meyer opened in 1876a similar institution in Copen-

In 1882 he M'as appointed conductor of the chorus
of the Copenhagen Synagogue, for which he com-
piled "Synagogekorets Melodier ved Sabbaths
gudstjenesten " (Copenhagen, 1892), melodies for
use at the Sabbath services, among which are some
compositions of his own.

Bibliography: C. F. Briclca, Dansk Binyrafisk Lexicon.
s. F. C.

MEYER, ANNIE (nee Nathan) : American
writer; born in New York city Feb. 19, 1867. She-
early revealed literary gifts, and articles from her
pen appeared in "The Critic," "Harper's Bazar,"
" Lippincott's Magazine," and "The Bookman."
The best-known of her shorter stories is " Vorbei."
Some of her tales depict phases of Jewish life.

In 1887 she married Dr. Alfred MeyiM-. Her first
books were "Helen Brent, M.D." and "My Park
Book " (New York, 1899). Her most notable pro-
duction is a novel, "Robert Annys, Poor Priest"
(New York, 1901). She edited "Woman's
Work" (1898), the standard book on the subject.

Mrs. Mej'cr has furtlier distinguished herself as
an organizer, public lecturer, and woman of affairs.
She was chairman of the Committee on Literatures
at the World's Fair Congress at Chicago, and was
at one time vice-president of an anti-woman suffrage




movement. Ilei' most valued commimnl service was
in connection with the founding of Barnard College
— tlie llrst women's colleire in JSew York. It Avas
her energy that gathered together its promoters and
secured the collection of funds for the first year.
See also Nathan.

A. M. H. H.

MEYER, ARTHUR: French journalist; boru
at Havre 1846. When still ayouth lie went to Paris
and bought and edited the "Revue de Paris," which,
however, was soon discontinued. For nearly twenty
years he reported foi- " Le Gaulois" and "Paris
Jnurnal," lu'condng, in 1868, part owner of the
lormer, which he made the organ of the Uonapart-
ists. When Prince Louis died in 1879 Meyer left
the "Gaulois" and bought the " Paris Journal,"
soon afterward " Le Gaulois," and finally the
"Clairon." The three papers lie then merged un-
der the name of the "Gaulois," and made it the main
organ of the Clerical-Monarchic party. Meyer was
one of the most vehement adversaries of Captain

BiBLioORAPm : yinivroii Lnnm^si lUuatre.
s. F. T. H.

MEYER, DAVID AMSEL : Danish financier;
born ill Copeiiiiageii Jan. 18, 1753; died there Aug.
30, 1813. Meyer started in business for himself at
a very early age, and during the period of geneial
prosperity in the last decade of the eighteenth cen-
tury his operations increased greatly, extending to
transoceanic countries. On the death of his brother,
who had for some time been his partner, Meyer asso-
ciated himself with his nephew S. S. Trier, and
founded the firm of Meyer & Trier, which occupied
a prominent position in the world of finance. Sev-
eral times the house had to face severe crises, as in
1795, when a fire devastated Copenhagen, and in
1799, when a general financial panic occurred. The
firm, however, sustained no material injury to its
commercial interests.

In 1806 Meyer criticized the way in which the
finances of the country were being administered,
and he especially denounced the reckless issue of
unsecured paper currency. During the depression
of the money market due to the Napoleonic wars,
h« was summoned by King Frederick VI. (1808),
who consulted him on financial matters of state.
Meyer is said to have exercised a great deal of infiu-
ence on legislation in those days ; and, in conunon
with other unofficial advisers of the king, he had
to bear his share of popular hatred, perhaps not un-
mixed with envy. During a financial crisis in 1811
Meyer acted as the agent of the government in en-
deavoring to avert pecuniary disaster. Enormous
sums were j)laced at his disjiosal; and it was left to
him to decide whether applicants for funds desired
the mone}' for legitimate business or for
speculation, and to grant or refuse the rerpiests ac-
cordingly. The Danish merchants did not long sub-
mit to his arbitration, but sought other means of
raising capital.

During the latter part of the year 1811 .Meyer re-
tired from active business, and in 1812 his firm re-
ceived a letter of thanks from the king for its
"arduous and self-sacrificing work in accordance

with our will and desire." At tlie same time he re-
ceived the title of " Hofraad."

Meyer left a fortune of 300,000 rigsbankdaler
($150,000), of which sum he bequeathed 200,000
kroner (§50,000) to Jewish schools and charities in
Copenhagen, while the remainder was distributed
among various other educational and charitable

Bibliooraphy: Nathanson, Hnfrnad IMvid Amnel Mcuer'x
Lfrllc^ Copenhagen, ISIG; c. F. Brloka, I>a»i«fc Iiinurafi»h
S. F. C.

MEYER, EDVARD: Danish journalist and
author; born Aug. 6. 1813, in Copenhagen; died
there Aug. 4, 1880. He was the son of very poor
parents and received little or no education during
his boyhood, which he spent in a Jewish charitable
institution. At the age of fourteen he was appren-
ticed to a wood-turner in Kjoge, and spent several
years at this trade. In 1837 he established a weekly
journal, the " Kallundborg Ugeblad," which in 1839
was incorporated with another paper. In 1841
Meyer returned to Copenhagen, where he started
a humorous weekly, " Frisky tten," and later a sen-
sational daily, "Flyveposten," which- latter for some
years yielded him an annual income of nearly 50,000
Danish crowns. After many vicissitudes Meyer
ended his days as he had begun them — in a Jewish
charitable institution.

Of his many writings may be mentioned : " Poetisk
Nysepulver" (Copenhagen, 1826); "Conversation"
{ib. 1839), four pamphlets; "Danske Folkesange"
{ib. 1839), Danish popular melodies; "Digte og
Eventyr" {ib. 1842), poems and fairy-tales.

Bibliography: C. F. Briclia. Dansk Biografisk Lexicon;
Brsleif's Fcyrfatter-Lericnn.
8. F. C.

MEYER, ERNST: Danish genre painter; born
May 11, 1797, at Altona, Sleswick-Holstein; died in
Rome Feb. 1, 1861. He studied at the Academy of
Arts and in Lorentzen's Malerskole ("painters'
school") in Copenhagen, and became, in 1814, a pu-
pil of the Modelskolen, where he was twice awarded
a silver medal (1816 and 1818). One of his first
paintings was "Gretchen Kneeling Before the Holy
Virgin," which was exhibited at the Academy of Arts
in 1818 and which received much favorable comment.

Meyer aspired to become a historical painter, but
after an unsuccessful attempt he abandoned this
branch of the art. He sjient three years (1821-24)
in Munich, and then went to Rome, where he met
Thorwaldsen, the sculptor, who was the animating
spirit of the circle of Danish artists there.

Of Meyer's paintings the following may be men-
tioned: "Scene at a Well near a Capuchin Monas-
tery," 1827; "A Neapolitan P'isher funnily " (i)ought
by Pnnce Christian Frederick). 1833; "A Fisher-
man Observing the Wind " and " Parents Leading
Their Son to the Cloister "(painted between 1833 and
1837), both of which are now in Thorwaldsen s Mu-
seum. His most famous jtainting was "Sailors
Landing Travelers at Capri," which was exhibited
at the Copenhagen Academy of Arts in 1837 and
became so popular that Meyer made several copies
of it.
Bibliography: C. F. Brloka, Dannk BingraiiKk Le.ririm.

s. F. C.




ish convert to Christianity; born at Hamburg in the
second half of the seventeenth century ; died in Bel-
gium about 1738. After having been baptized at
Bremen, he became a missionary and traveled for
thirty years. He was the author of the following
works: (1) "Licht zu Erleuchten die Juden," ex-
alting the glory of Jesus (Leipsic, ITll); (2) "Me'irat
'Enayim," a pamphlet written in German, in which
the author draws a parallel between Moses and
Jesus, showing the supremacy of the latter (Amster-
dam, 1713) ; (3) "Der Abscheuliche Mord Christi," in
which he endeavors to demonstrate that the duration
of the exile of the Jews can be attributed only to
the crucifixion of Jesus (Hamburg, 1719) ; (4) " Vera
Immanuelis Generatio," written in Hebrew and de-
monstrating the divinity of Jesus from the Proph-
ets, especially from Isa. vii. 14.

Bibliography: SammJung von Alten und Neuen Theolo-
gischen Sachen, 1723, p. 628 ; Wolf, Bibl. Hebr. lii.. No. 1897b.
D. I. Br.

MEYER, LEOPOLD : Danish physician ; born
in Copenhagen Xov. 1, 1852. After graduating
from the university of that city (M.D. 1880) he went
abroad to study obstetrics, and on his return became
privat-docent in gynecolog}' at his alma mater. In
1897 he was appointed professor of obstetrics and
children's diseases in the same university.

Of Meyer's writings the following may be men-
tioned: "Det Normale Svangerskab, Fodsel, og
Barselseng," Copenhagen, 1882 (2d ed. 1891); "Men-
struationsprocessen og dens Sj'gelige Afvigelser,"
ib. 1890; "Den Forste Barnepleje," ib. 1891. Since
1890 Meyer has been associate editor of the "Biblio-
thek for Loeger," the leading Danish medical journal.

Bibliography : Cariie and Selnier, Den Danske LctQcstand ;
C. F. Bricka, Dansk Biografisk Lexicon.
s. F. C.

MEYER, LOUIS : Polish poet ; born in the
village of Sluzewo (Sluzhew), government of War-
saw, Russian Poland, 1796; died March 25, 1869. He
was sent in 1810 by his father to Berlin, where he pre-
pared himself for a business career, at the same time
manifesting an unusual talent for poetry. In 1816
he returned to Poland, where he established him-
self in business, but still found ample time to con-
tinue his studies and to write German verse. In
1861 he was elected member of the County Assem-
bly, which, however, on account of the Polish insur-
rection, did not convene.

Meyer's collected wriiingswere published under
the title "Hinterlassene Deutsche Scliriften einesPol-
nischen Juden," Berlin, 1871. The book contains
epic and dramatic poetry, pictures from Jewish life,
and some aphorisms in prose.
BiBi.iOGRAi'H V : Hinterlassene Deutsche Schriften, etc.

H. R.

MEYER, LUDWIG: German psychiatrist;
born at Bielefeld Dec. 27, 1827; died at Gottiiigen
Feb. 8, 1900. He studied medicine at the universi-
ties of Bonn, Wiirzburg, and Berlin (M.D. 1852),
and 'became assistant at the Charite Hospital in the
last-named city. Later he held the post of jdiysi-
cian at the in.sane asylum in Schwetz, and was a[)-
pointed chief physician at the city hospital, Ham-
burg, in 1856. In 1866 he became professor of

psychiatry at the University of Gottingen, and
director of the insane asylum connected with this
university, which positions he continued to hold
until his death.

' ^Meyer founded with Griesinger in 1867 " Das
Archiv fiir Psychiatric. " He wrote more than one
hundred essays for the medical journals. He was an
authority on psychiatry, and man}' hospitals have
been built and furnished according to his sugges-
tions and plans; among them are those of Hamburg,
Gottingen, St. Urban, and Marburg.

Bibliography: Paget, Bi'Hi. Le.r.i Hirscli, Biog. Lex.; A.
(Tamer, in DeuUche Medizinisehe Wochenxchrift, Feb. 22.
1890, p. UU.

s. F. T. H.

thor; born in Gandersheim, Brunswick, Jan. 3, 1780;
died in Copenhagen July 28, 1854. From 1802 to
1805 he lived in the latter city as a private teacher,
being subsequently appointed tutor in the family
of Count Schimmelmann. In 1810 he became a nat-
uralized citizen of Denmark, and entered the service
of the government as chief of the bureau of the
national debt. He resigned his appointment in
1821, receiving the title of professor.

Meyer now devoted his time exclusively to writing,
his first work, "Haandbog i den Tyske Poctiske
Literatur," appearing in Copenhagen in 1828. In
1837 he published a voluminous glossary of all for-
eign words and phrases occurring in the Danish
language. This lexicon, which was entitled "Kort-
fattetLexicon overFremmede, i det Danske Skrift-og
Omgangssprog Forekommende Ord, Kunstudtryk,
og Talemaader," has, under the name of "Meyer's
Fremmedordbog," become one of the leading author-
ities among Danish lexicographical works, and has
passed through several editions (Copenhagen, 1837,
1841, 1899-1900).

Bibliography: Salmonsen^s Store Illustrerede Konvcrso-
s. F. C.

MEYER, MORITZ: German physician; born
at Berlin Nov. 10, 1821 ; died there Oct. 30, 1893.
After studying at the universities of Heidelberg,
Halle, and Berlin (M.D. 1844), he settled in Berlin
in 1845, where he practised until his death. Meyer
was a specialist in diseases of the nerves and in the
use of electricity in their treatment. During his re-
searches he invented tlie "' Mej^ersche Unterbrecher,"
an instrument used in examining the reaction of
muscles and nerves. He is the author of a well-
known work entitled "Die Electricitilt in Hirer An-
wendungauf Practische Medizin " (Berlin, 1854; 4th
ed. 1883). He furthermore wrote several articles on
the paralysis induced by the constant use of snulf.

Bibliography : Paget, BiogrniiJiischcs Lexikon.

s. F. T. H.

MEYER, M. WILHELM: German astrono-
mer; bnrii at Brunswick Feb. 15, 1853. He first
engaged in the book trade, but soon gave it up and
pursued astronomical studies at the universities and
observatories at Gottingen, Leii^sic, and Zurich. In
1876 he established himself as privat-docent at Zu-
licii ; in 1877 he became a member of tiie stalf of the
observatory at Geneva, and in 1882 he lectured on as-
trimcmy at the Geneva University. In 1883 he re-




moved to Vienna, and thence to Berlin, where lie be-
came (1888) director of the •' Urania," a society for the
popularizing of natural science, whoso organ, "Ilini-
mel und Erdc," he lias edited since 1889. Together
with Schwalbe he edited Diesterweg's "Populiire
llinimelskunde" (18tli ed., Berlin, 1893). He has
published : " Die Kiuiigin des Tages unil Hire Fa-
milie" (Vienna. 188")); "Die Entstehung der Erde
und des Irdisclien " (Berlin, 1888); "Mussestunden
eines Naturfreundes " {ib. 1891), etc.

Bibmograph V : Metiers Konversatiniis-Lcrikon.


MEYER, RACHEL: Gernuin authoress; born
in Danzig .March 11, 1800; died in Berlin Feb. 8,
1874. A few years after the death of her sister
Frederika, she married the latter's husband. While
devoting herself to charity and teaching, she found
time to entertain noted men and to continue her own
self-education. The publieafion of her lirst book,
written while superintending the instruction of her
children, was retarded by the death of a son. It. ap-
peared in Berlin in 18."")3 under the title "Zwei
Schwestern " ; it deals with the triumph of love over
self and is an idealistic exposition of the marital
relation. Her husband's business necessitated his
removing to Vienna; here Rachel met Kompert and
August Frankl, and here she lu'oduced her sketch
of Vienna life entitled " Wider die Natur." Another
work, entitled "Rachel" (Vienna, 1859), is a novel
describing tiie life of the great actress Rachel. "In
Banden Frei " (Berlin, 1869), her last novel, is a
character study of lier friend Lina Davidson. Rachel
spent her last years in Berlin, with her daughters.
Despite her idealism she was practical, and shortly
before her death wrote a sketch of Stephenson, the
inventor, with the express purpose of fostering in
her nephew the practical spirit.

BiBi.iOGRAPiiv: Kayserling, Die JVulischen Frantii, pp. 248-
s. S. J. L.

MEYER, SAMUEL: German rabbi; born in
Hanover Feb. 26, 1819; died there July 5, 1882.
He studied Talmud in his native city and at Frank-
fort-on-the-Main, and attended the University of
Bonn. In 1840 he was chosen successor to Nathan
Adler as district rabbi of Hanover and Luueburg.
He carried out in 1847 the plan, already projected
by Adler, of founding a teachers' seminary in Han-
over. Besides a few sermons he published "Gesch.
des Wohlthatigkeits-Vereins der Synagogen-Ge-
meinde Hannover" (Hanover, 1862), and edited
some unpublished poems of Abraham ibn Ezra,
which lie had discovered ("Orient, Lit." 1842).

BiBMOGR.\Piiv : Stelnschneider, Hrhr. Bihl. vi. 32.

s. M. K.

HUSZ) : German authoress, and leader of a salon;
born in Berlin in the latter half of the eighteenth
century; died at Oranienburg Dec. 11, 1828. She
wrote many stories, dramas, and political and moral
essays in German and French, her French work being
especially well received. Among her many friends
were Goethe, Lessing, and Schiller. Most of their
letters to her were accidentally burned, only twenty-
one letters from Goethe, written in the years 1797-

1815, being saved ; these were published by Varn-
liagen von Ense.

Sara Meyer was light-minded, susceptible to flat-
tery, conceited, and lacked moral sUimina. After
severing her first marriage-ties she was baiitized and
married Baron von Grotthusz. Her younger sister,
Mariane, after the death of Prince Reuss, Austrian
ambassador to the Prussian court, was found to be
his lawful wife. She never bore the title of princess,
but resided in Vienna as Frau von Eybenburg
(from 1799). Like her gister, she was well educated,
but wrote indilferently. She left in manuscript
a number of sketches of well-known characters.

Bnu.iOGRAPHY : Kavserling, Die JMixchcu F»«i(c»i, pp. 216-

s. S. J. L.

MEYER, VICTOR: German chemist; born in
Berlin Sept. 8, 1848; died in Heidelberg in 1897.
He was inclined toward literature and the stage,
when a visit to his elder brother, then studying chem-
istry at Heidelberg, turned his thoughts intoanotiier
channel, and he decided to become a chemist. He
thoroughly pre])ared himself in mathematics and
natural science in one of the gymnasiums of Berlin,
spent one semester at the University of Berlin, and
studied for some time with A. W. Hofmann. In
1865 he entered the University of Heidelberg, in
whose faculty there were such men as Hehnholtz,
Kirchhoff, and Bunsen. The last-named made liim
his jirivate assistant. In 1868 he returned to Ber-
lin to increase under Bayer liis knowledge of organic

When only twenty-three years old he was aj)-
poiuted assistant professor at the Stuttgart Poly-
technic School, and in 1872 Avas called to Zurich as
the successor of Wislicenus. His brilliant work in
Switzerland (1872-85), both in the laboratory and
in the lecture-room, attracted students from many

In 1885 he received a call from the University of
Gottingen, and spent three years in reorganizing
the laboratories there. In 1889 lie was invited to
Heidelberg, his alma mater, to succeed Bunsen. The
latter regarded him as the brightest and most i)rom-
ising oftlie many eminent men who had studied
under him, and it was his wish on his retirement
that IMeyer should be appointed as his successor.

Meyer's fame as a lecturer was worUl- wide; and
his ingenuity and skill in devising and manipulating
experiments', combined with his personal magnetism,
attracted many hearers. Meyer's remarkable insight
is illustrated by liis discovery and studies of the
thiophene group (1882). He discovered and de-
scribed the type of oximes (1882), investigated the
nitro- (1872).' nitrcso-, isonitroso-, and iodo-com-
IKuinds (1892), and studied the organic derivatives
of ammonia, and with these the stereochemistry of
nitrogen. He published his important researches
on the esteritication of the acids of the aromatic
series (1894-95).

Of great value are his investigations in physical
chemistry, particularly those of vapor densities
(1878-80) and the study of high temperatures. To-
gether with Jacobson lie wrote an excellent text-
book on organic chemistry ("Lehrbuch der Orga-
ni.schen Chemie," 2 vols., Leipsic, 1891-95). Of his




other works may be mentioned: (with Lauger)
"Pyrochemische Untersiichungeii," Brunswick,
1885; "DieThiophengruppe," ib. 1888; "Chemische
Probleme dor Gegenwart," Heidelberg, 1890;
"Ergebnisse und Ziele der Stereochemischen For-
schung," 1890; (with Treadwell) "Tabellen zur
Qualitativen Analyse," 3d ed., Berlin, 1891; "Aus
Naturuud VVisscnschaft," Heidelberg, 1892; "Marz-
tage ira Kanarischeu Archipel," ib. 1893.

Meyer's unceasing and confining work ultimately
shattered his nervous system; and in a tit of dejec-
tion he took his own life.

BiBLiO(;RAPHy : Meyers Knnversatioiis-Lexikon : Zcitschrift
filr AiiorganUche Chcmie, xvi. ; NahirwiKxcnscliaftliche
Rumhchnu, xii., Nos. 43, 44; H. Goldschmldt, Zur Erin-
neruno an Vii-tor Meyer, Heidelberg, 1897. y /-i t
8. J. G. L.

poser ; born at Berlin Sept. 5, 1791 ; died at Paris May
2, 1864. His real name was Jakob Liiebmann Beer ;
but he changed it when
his grandfather promised
to leave him his fortune
on condition that the com-
poser prefix the name
" Meyer " to his patro-
nymic. He received his
early instruction in music
from Franz Lauska and
Muzio Clementi, and at
the age of seven made his
debut as a pianist in one
of Patzig's pupils' con-
certs (Oct. 14, 1800), play-
ing the D Minor Con-
certo by Mozart. He
then studied theory under
Zelter, and later under
Bernard Anselm Weber,
director of the Berlin
Opera, with whom he re-
mained until 1810, in
which year he went to
Darmstadt to study for two
years under Abbe Vogler.

In 1811 he wrote the
oratorio " Gott und die Na-
tur," the score of which
so pleased the Grand Duke

of Hesse that he appointed Meyerbeer composer to

the court. The first performance of the work took

place May 8, 1811, at the Singakade-

Early mic, Berlin. Two operas, "Jephtha's

Works. Gell\b(le"and" .\biinelek,oderdie Bei-

den Kiialifen," which Meyerbeer had

written, were produced at the Royal Opera-House,

Munich, in 1813. Soon afterward he gave a piano

recital at Vienna, achieving a complete success.

In 1815 Meyerbeer went to Venice in order to
familiarize himself with Italian iiu'lody and vocali-
zation. He now set to work writing in tiie Italian
vein, and met with instantaneous success, his four
operas composed at this time- being received with
immense enthusiasm. In 1823, while engaged on
"II Crociato in Egitto," the composer went to Ber-
lin, Avhere he unsuccessfully endeavored to arrange
for a performance of his three-act opera " Das Bran-

Giacomo Meyerbeer.

denburger Thor. " In 1824 "II Crociato" was pro-
duced at Venice with very great success; and two
years later Meyerbeer accepted an invitation to
Paris to witness a performance of the same opera.

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 129 of 169)