Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

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after reading J. S. Delmedigo's "Elim," which
opened for him the hitherto unknown world of
science. He went to Berlin, and there, being at-
tracted by the brilliant circle of Jewish scholars of
which Moses Mendelssohn was the central figure, he
remained for several years. From Berlin lie went to
Brody, where he exerted much influence over Perl,

Krochmal, and other early representatives of the
Haskalah in Galicia. Later lie lived in the pala-
tial home of Joshua Zeitlin in Ustye, government of
^loghilef, at the same time that BAia'cii 1!EN Jacob
resided there. He removed thence to Mikolayev,
which belonged to the estate of Prince Adam Czar-
toryski, who engaged him as teacher for hischildren.
M. Letteris saw an essay on Kant's philosophy writ-
ten by Mendel in French for Czartoryski.

Levin's works are: "]\Ioda' la-Biuah," with an
approbation l)y ^Mendelssohn (Berlin, 1789); " Re-
fu'otha - Am" (Zolkiev, 1794; 2dcd. Lemberg, 1851),
popular medicine translated from tiie Fieucli by
Tisot; "Heshbouha-Nefesh" (Lemberg, 1809; Wilna,
1844; Warsaw, 1852), practical ethics, after Frank-
lin; "Masse'ot ha- Yam " (Zolkiev, 1818), travels on
the sea, after Campe. His paraphrase of Tibbon's
translation of the "Morcli Nebukim " in popular
rabbinical Hebrew was published by M. Suchas-
tover (Zolkiev, 1829), and his introduction to that
work, entitled "Elon Moreh," by H. S. Slonimski
(Odessa, 1867). Mendel was also the author of a
Yiddish translation of Proverbs (Tarnopol, 1816),
which innovation called forth a satirical work
against him by Tobiah Feder("Kol Mehazezim,"
Berdychev, 1816). He tran.slated also Ecclesiastes
into the same dialect; but the work Avas not pub-
lished till long after his death (Odessa, 1873).

Bibliography : Fuenn, Kiryah Ne'emanali, pp. 277-278. Wil-
na, 1860; Idem, Safah le-lWemanim, p. UO, Wilna, 1881;
Ha-Measf>ef (Letteris ed., 1862), i. 96-97; Stanlslavski. Men-
del Levin, in Voskhod. 1881, No. 3, pp. 116-127 ; Zeitlin, Bibl.
Poa-Mendch. pp. 202-204.
H. R. P. Wl.

LEVIN, MORITZ : German rabbi ; boin 1843
at Wongrowitz, Posen. He studied at the L'niver-
sity of Berlin, and was prepared for his rabbinical
career by private teachers. After officiating as rab-
bi for a short time at Zurich, lie went in 1872 in a
similar capacity to Nuremberg. Since 1884 he has
been preacher of the Reform congregation in Berlin.

Levin is the author of: "Gott und Seele nach Jii-
discher Lehre," Zurich, 1871 ; " Der Gottesdienst des
Herzens. Israelitisches Gebetbuch flir Oeffentliche
und Privataudacht," 2 vols., 1872; "Lehrbuch der
Biblischen Geschichte und Literatur," 3d ed., 1897;
"Iberia," Berlin, 1892; "Bar Kochba," 1892 (2d
ed., 1904) ; " Lehrbuch der Judischeu Geschichte und
Literatur," 3d ed., 1900; "Die Israelitische. Reli-
gionslehre, Systematisch Dargestellt," 1892 (2d ed.,
1900); "Die Reform des Judentums. Festschrift
zur Feier des 50-Jahrigen Bcstehens der jQdischen
Reformgemeinde in Berlin," 1895. S.

LEVIN, POUL THEODOR: Danish author;
born in Copenhagen June 17, 1869; educated at the
University of Copenhagen (Ph.D. 1898). Levin,
who has become widely known as a literary critic,
has written two dramatic works — " Antoinette " and
"Sejr" (Copenhagen, 1895 and 1899). In 1894 he
published "Dansk Litteraturhistorie i Omrids," a
liistory of Danisli literature, followed later by sev-
eral general essays in the same field, among which
are "Ovid's Ungdomsdigtning " (1897) and "Egne
og Stajder " (1899).

Bibliography: Salmonsen''s Store Illustrerede Konversa-
s. F. C.

Levin, Kabel



FRIEDERIKE: German wiilcr; born at JJeiiiii
June 19, 1771 ; died there March 7, 1833. Her home
life was uucongenial, her fatlier, a wealthy jo\veIer,

beinir a strong - willed
man and riding his fam-
ily despotically. She
was very intimate with
Dorothea and Henriettc,
(laughters of ^I o s e s
]\Iendelss(»hn. Together
with them she knew
Ilonrictte Herz, with
whom she later became
most intimatel}' associ-
ated, moving in the same
intellectual sphere. Ra-
hel's home became the
meeting-place of men


like Schlogel, Schelling,
Steflfens, Schack, Schlei-
Rahel Levin. ermacher, Alexander and

"Willielm von Humboldt,
Lamolte-Fouque, Baron Brlickmann, Ludwig Tieck,
Jean Paul I^ichter, and F. von Gentz. During a
visit to Carlsbad in 1795 she was introduced to
Goethe, whom she again saw in 1815, at Frankfort-

After the death of her father in 1806 she lived
successively in Paris, Frankfort-ou-the-Main, Ham-
burg, Prague, and Dresden. This period was one
of misfortune for Germany; Prussia Avas reduced to
a small kingdom and her king was in exile. Secret
societies were formed in every jiart of the country
with the object of throwing off the tyranny of Na-
poleon; J^ahol herself belonged to one of these soci-
eties. In 1814 she married, in Berlin, Karl August
Varuhagen von Ense (b. Feb. 21, 1785, at Dussel-
dorf ; d. at Berlin Oct. 10, 1858), after having been
converted to Christianity. At the time of their mar-
riage, Varnhagen, who had fought in the Austrian
army against the French, belonged to the Prussian
diplomatic corps, and their house at Vienna became
the meeting- place of the Prussian delegates to the
Vienna Congress. She accompanied her husband in
1815 to Vienna, and in 1810 to Cailsruhe, where lie
was Prussian representative. After 1819 she again
lived in Berlin, where Varnliagen had taken up his
residence after having been retired from Ins diplo-
matic position.

Though not a productive \vrit(1' herself, Pahel
was the center of a circle of eminent writers, schol-
ars, and artists in the Prussian capital. A few of her
essays ajiix'an-d in print in " Das.Morgenblatt," " Das
Schweizerisclie .Museum." and " I)er (Jesellschaf-
ter," and in 1H30 her" Denkbliitter einer r.erlinerin "
was published in Berlin. Her eorrespouch'nce with
David Veit and wilii Varidiagen von Ense was i)id)-
lislied in Lcipsic, in 1801 and 1874-75 respect ivel}'.

Hahel always showed the greatest interest in her
former coreligionists, endeavoring by word ami
deed to better tlu ii- jiosition, esjiecially during tiie
anti-Semitic outburst in Germany in ISU). On tiie
day of her funeral Varnliagen sent a considerable
sum of money to the Jewisji \mmi\ of Berlin.

The poet Ludwig' Robert was a bmihi rof IJahi'l.

and with him she corresponded extensively; her
sister Rosa was married to Karl Asser.

UiBLio(;RAPnY: Sctimidt-Weissenfels, Hahel uw\ Hire Zeit,
Leipsic, 1857 ; Mrs. Vaughan Jennings, RnlicJ, Her Life ami
I/C(f ers, London, 1876; Assing. ^4i(.s RalteU Herzenslehen,
ib. 1877 ; Kayserling, Die Jlidinchen Fraucu, pp. 208 et scq.,
Leipsic, 1879; Varntiagen, liaJieh ciu Buck den Amleiikens
fllr Ihrc FreiuKle, Berlin, is:i3; idem, Oalerie van Bild-
ni»sen nunRahel'ft Um(ja>ni nnd Brief wechsel, Leipsic, 1836;
Berdrow, Rahd Variiliauen: Ein Lebens- uitd Zeitbdd,
Stuttgart, 1900.
s. F. T. H.



nish operatic singer; born in Copenhagen Jan. 8,
1839; died there March 22, 1899. She made her d^-
but at the Kongelige Theater in Copenhagen on
Dec. 20, 1800, when she, as Nannette in " Den Lille
Kodha'tte," completely won the hearts of her audi-
ence by her sympathetic impersonation of the guile-
less girl. She became "royal actress" in 1866,
and was, on her retirement in 1879, appointed
court singer (" Kongelig Kammersangerinde ").
Her repertoire included: Itosina in "Barberen," Sn-
sanmi in "Figaro's Bryllup," Papagena in "Trylle-
flojten," Amid in " Jnegerbruden," Benjamin in
"Joseph og HansBrbdre," Siebel in "Faust," and
Venus in "Tannhauser."

Bibliography: SaZmojisen's Store Illustrerede Konversa-
s. F. C.

brew scholar and writer; born at Kreinenetz Oct. 13,
1788 ; died there Feb. 12, 1860. His father, Judah
Levin, was a grandson of Jekuthiel Solomon, who
settled in Kremenetz and acquired considerable
wealth, and a son of Isaac, who had married the
daughter of Zalman Cohen, famed for his wealth
and scholarship. Levinsohu's father was a wealth}'
merchant and" was popular among Jews and Gen-
tiles alike. He was a master of Polish, wrote lluent-
ly in classical Hebrew (at that time a rare accom-
plishment), and was a thorough Talmudic scholar.
At the age of three Levinsohn was sent to the he-
der, where he soon manifested unusual aptitude
for learning; and at nine lie composed a cabalistic
work that elicited the praise of scholars and rabbis
("Bet Yehudah," ii. 12G, note 2). At ten he was
versed in Talmudic lore, and knew the 01<1 Testa-
ment by heart. He also studied and mastered the
Russian language, an unusual acliieveuieiit foj- a
Russian Jew of that time. Thanks to ins great
mental i)ower and industry, he rapidlj' familiarized
himself with tlie rabl)inical literature. At eigiiteen
he married and settled in Hadzivilov, supporting
iiimself by teaeiiiiig and translating ; his mariied life,
however, was unhappy, and lie divorced his wife.

Some of Levinsohn 's first literary elTorts were in

the domain of Hebrew ]K)etry. Among others, he

wrote a patriotic po(>m on the expulsion of the French

from Russia, which was traiismilled to

His Verse. I lie minister of the interior by fJcneral
Gicrs, tlie conniiaiulant of the Hadzi-
vilov garrison. Levinsolm himself regai'ded his
verses as nuMe litiiary exercises, did not attempt
to jirint them, and the uncater part of them were
lost. Exces.sive study broimlit on nervous dis-
oiihrs, and Le\'insolm journeyeij to Brody, then the



lievin, Rahel

center of the Jewish Haskaluli, in order to consult
the local physicians. There the future reformer of
the Russian Jews found a congenial atmosphere
in the circle of the Maskilim. lie soon made
the acquaintance of Dr. Isaac Erter, the Hebrew
satirist, and later of Solomon Lob Rappoi^ort.
Though engaged as a bookkeeper in the local bank,
he found time to continue his studies. Before long
he passed the teacher's examinations and was ap-
pointed to teach Hebrew at the gymnasium of Tar-
nopol. There he soon became intimate with the
scholar Joseph Perl, through whose influence he se-
cured an instructorship at the Hebrew college of

Levinsohn's new position brought him into close
relations with Nachman Krochmal of Zolkiev, an
authority on all questions of rabbinical learning and
Jewish custom. In 1817 he submitted
His to Krochmal his first critical studies,

Writings, entitled "Ha-Mazkir," and Krochmal
was so favorably impressed with the
work that he offered to contribute toward the ex-
pense of publication. Unfortimately, it was never
printed, and only a part of it was incorporated in
" Te'uddah " and"" Bet Yehudah. " In 1820 Levinsohn
prepared, for the benefit of the Russian youth, the
first Ilelirew grammar, entitled "Yesode Lashon
Russiya." The necessary means being lacking, this
was never published and the manuscript was lost.

About this time he wrote a satire on the Hasi-
(Hni entitled " Dibre Zaddikim." Returning to Kre-
menetz in the same year, he began his "Te'uddah
be-Yisrael," a work destined to leave an indelible
iniin-ession on a whole generation of Russian Jews.
It was finished in 1823, but was not published until
1828. The book attempted to solve nianj' problems
of contemporary Jewish life in Russia. It urged
the study of the Scriptures before the Talmud, and
the necessity of studying secular languages, partic-
ularly that of the Fatherland. It urged also the
study of science and literature, and the great impor-
tance for the Jews of engaging in agricultural and
industrial work. It strongly counseled the abandon-
ing of petty trading and of other uncertain sources
of livelihood.

Levinsohn's good advice, however, did not please
the Hasidim, who opposed him in many ways and so
cnibiltcred his existence ^

that he was comjielled to
leave Kremenetz. Re-
jiaiiingto Berdychev, lie
became i)ri\ ate tutor in
the family <if a wealthy
Jew, and, gathering
about himacii'clc of pro-
gressive friends, he or-
ganized a society f(ir tiie
piomotion o'f culture.
Regarding it as liis spe-
cial iiiission to carry en-
liglitennient tot lie young
generation, lie resided
successively in Oslrog,
Nemirov, and Tulchin.
named jilace Ijevinst)hn
estate of Prince AVitgenstein, the Russian rieM-mar-

Isaac Haci' l.iviiiMilin.

On his \\ay to the last-
stop]ied at Kaminka, the

shal. When the prince heard of Levinsohn's arrival
he invited him to his house, assigned him a suite of
rooms, and kept him there through the entire sum-
mer. The field-marshal liked to pass his evenings
in conversation with the learned Jew, and often fol-
lowed the latter's advice.

In 1823 Levinsohn was compelled by failing health
to return to Kremenetz. Soon after his arrival there
he was confined to Ids bed by a sickness that kept
him bedridden for twelve years. Notwithstanding
this he never resigned himself to mental inactivity,
and during these long years of suffering lie made
himself familiar with Arabic, Greek, and Syriac,
and studied the classics, political economy, and phi-

In 1827, a year before the appearance of "Te'ud-
dah," Levinsohn presented the manuscript, with an
explanatory statement, to the Russian government,
which accepted it with much favor, and awarded
Levinsohn, on the representations of D. N. Bludov,
a thousand rubles "for a work in He-
Questioned brew having for its object the moral
by Prince education of the JewLsh people." In

Iiieven. the same year the minister of public
instruction, Prince Lieven, submitted
to Levinsohn thirty-four questions on Jewish religion
and history, among them the following: " AVhat is
the Talmud?" "Who was the author of itV"
" When, where, and in what language was it writ-
ten ? " " Have the Jews other books of such author-
ity';'" "Is there anj^thing sensible in the Talmud?
It is stated that it is full of improbable legends and
fables." "How could the autliors of the Talmud
permit themselves to add to, or detract from, the
commandments of the Torah, which forbids that?"
" What is the object of the numerous rites that con-
sume so much useful time?" "Is it true that the
Jews are the descendants of those Pharisees whom
the lawgiver of the Christians had accused of lying
and superstition? " "Is it true that the Talmud for-
bids the Jews the study of foreign languages and
science, as well as the pursuit of agricultural occu-
pations?" "What is Hasidism, and who was its
founder?" "In what towns mainly do the Hasi-
dim reside?" "Do the Jews possess schools or
learned books?" "How do the Jewish masses re-
gard their schools?" "Can the condition of the
Jews be improved? and, if so, by what means?"
"What Messiah is it that the Jews are expecting? "
"Is it true that the Jews expect to rule the entire
world when the IVIessiah arrives, and that members
of other religions will be excluded from partici-
pation in the after-life?" "How can a Jew be ad-
mitted into Christian society and be accorded full
civic rights when he keeps himself aloof from the
Christians and takes no interest in the welfare of
the country where he resides? " Levinsohn referred
the minister to his "Te'uddah " and to other works
in various languages, transmitted to him concise
answers to his questions, and promised to write a
book in which tliese questions would be discussed
in detail.

In 1828 " Te'uddah " saw the light. " It was not the
yearning for fame," says Levinsohn in the preface,
" that impelled me to write this book. . . . Friends
seeking truth and light asked me to point out to

Lievirate Marriage



them the true way of life; they wish to know what
learning, aside from tlie Talmud and its commen-
taries, it is necessary for a Jew to acquire for the
perfection and refinement of his nature as a man
and a Jew."

Levinsohn now undertook his larger work, " Bet
Yehudah," which was "to expose to Christian eyes
the world of Jewish spiritual life founded on the
principles of highest morality, a world
Scope of tlun unknown to Russian Christians."
His " Bet He wished, also, to make his work of
Yehudah." educational value to the Jewish peo-
ple, so that uninslructed coreligionists
wotild see Judaisih in its true light. At the same
time he found himself obliged to exercise great care
in the treatment of the subject in order to avoid
creating undue antagonism. Levinsohn presents in
his " Bet Yehudah " a wonderfully clear and logical
exposition of Jewish religious philosophy. Accord-
ing to him the Jewish religion may be summed up
in two principles of belief: faith in one God, which
involves the negation of idol-worship ; and love of
one's neighbor. He shows by numerous citations
that the latter means the love not only of one Jew for
another, but the love for any neighbor, irrespective
of faith. He presents a history of the various Jewish
sects, enumerates the contributions of the Jews to
learning and civilization, and at the end suggests a
plan for the reorganization of Jewish education in
Russia. He urges the necessity of founding rabbin-
ical seminaries fashioned after the German institu-
tions, training the Jewish youth in religious and
secular learning, opening elementary Jewish schools
throughout the Pale, abolishing the institution of
melanunedim, and establishing agricultural and in-
dustrial schools.

"Bet Yehudah " exerted a powerful influence on
the Jews of Kussia and gave a plan of action to the
progressive elements in the Russian Jewry. The
book accjuired renown outside of Russia also. It
was translated into I'olish, and the scholar Geiger
read several chapters of it before an audience in the
Breslau synagogue. But though " Bet Yehudah "
was completed in 1829, it remained unpubli-shed
until 1838.

About this time the Jewish commimity of Zasiavl
in Volhynia was accused of ritual murder; many
families were imprisoned, and the en-
Refutes tire community was in despair. Lev-
Charges insohn's opponents then laid aside
of Blood their enmity and turned to him as the
Accusation, only man capable of proving the fal
sity of the accusation. In spile of his
sickness Levinsohn began hi8"Efes Danunim," in
defense of the accused Jews. But the necessary
means not being fortiicoming, he was obliged to
spend his own money in collecting material and in-
formation. "The i)urpose of my book," says Lev-
insohn, "is to acquit the Jews before the eyes of
Christians, and to save them from the false accusa-
tion of using Christian blood." "Efes Dammim " is
written in the form of a dialogue between a patri-
arch of the Greek Cliurch in Jerusalem. Simias, and
the chief rabbi in the Jewish synagogue there. Tiie
book sliows tlie remarkable dialectic talent of the
author. It was completed in 1834, published in

1837, republished three times, and was translated
into English at the time of the " Damascus Alfair '"
in 1840, at the instance of Sir Moses Montefiore and
Cremieux. It was tninslated also into Russian
(1888) and German (1884; another German edition
appeared in 1892). In another polemical work,
" Yemiu Zidki," Levinsohn proves the absurdity of
the accusations against Judaism and the Talmud.
This work was left by him in manuscript.

Other polemical works written by Levinsohn are
"Ahiyyah Shiloni ha-IIozeh " (Leipsic, 1841) and
" Ta'ar iia-Sofer " (Odessa, 1863). " Ahiyyah Shiloni
ha-Hozeh " is directed against the work of the Eng-
lish missionary McCaul entitled " The Paths of tlie
World " (London, 1839), and constitutes an introduc-
tion to Levinsohn's larger work "Zerubbabel," com-
pleted in 1853. This latter work was published, in
part, by his nephew David Baer Nathansohn (Leipsic,
1863) ; the entire work was published later in Warsaw
(1876). This work, which occupied twelve years,
and was continued through sickness and suffering,
was not only a defense of Judaism, but also an ex-
position of the value of traditional law in the Jew-
ish religion, and of the great wisdom and moral
force of its expounders and teachers. The "Ta'ar
ha-Sofer " is directed against the Karaites.

In addition to these, Levinsohn wrote on Hebrew
etymology and comparative philology. In this fleld
he published "Bet ha-Ozar," the first
Levinsohn and second jiarts of which appeared in
as a Wilna in 1841 ; the first part is entitled

Philologist. " Shorashe Lebanon," and includes
studies of Hebrew roots; the second
part comprises articles on various subjects, and
" Abne Millu'im," a supplement to "Bet Yehudah."
After Levinsohn's death Nathansohn published
" Toledot Shem ".(Warsaw, 1877) and " Ohole Shem "
(Warsaw, 1893), both containing philological studies
arranged in alphabetical order, and also corrections
of Ben Zeb's"Ozar ha Shorashim," which was re-
published by Letteris. Levinsohn left a number of
works in manuscript, including " Hotam,"
on the period of the Canticles; " Yizre El," miscel-
laneous essays; "Be'er Yizhak," correspondence
with contemporary scholars; "Eshkol ha-Sofer,"
letters, poetry, and humorous papers.

Levin.sohn labcM'cd assiduously for the w^ell-beiug
of his coreligionists in Russia. He worked out and
submitted to the government various projects for
the amelioration of the condition of the Jews, such
as the plan he submitted to the crown prince Kon-
stantin in 1823, his memorandum to the minister of
education in 1831, his project iu regard to the cen-
sorship of Jewish books in 1833, and his plan for
the establishment of Jewish colonies in 1837. Nicho-
las I. gave the last careful consideration. It is
known, also, that the emperor wrote Levinsohn a
personal letter iu regard to this plan, but its contents
are not known. The establislmient of Jewish agri-
cultural colonics in Bessarabia in 183S-39 and Liter
and the organization of Jrwish educational institu-
tions undo>ibtedly owed nuich to Levinsohn's sug-
gestions. The government ap|)reciatcd his services,
and, besides monetary rewards, offered liim impor-
tant positions, which he declined. The failure of
his health compelled him to decline also appoint-



Levirate Marriagre

ment as member of the Jewish commission that sat
iu St. Petersburg in 1843, and in 1853 he again re-
fused an appointment as member of the special com-
mission on Jewish allairs. Tiie following words
were inscribed, at liis own request, on Ids tomb-
stone: "Out of notlnng God called me to life.
Alas, earthly life has passed, and I shall sleep again
on the bosom of Mother Nature, as this stone testi-
fies. I have fought the enemies of God not with
the sharp sword, but with the Word. That I have
fouglit for truth and justice before the Nations,
'Zerubbabel' and ' Efes Damim ' bear witness."
Levinsohn iias been called " the Mendelssohn of

Bibliography : Fuenn, Keneset Yi^rael, p. 633, Warsaw. 1886;
Zinberg, />aac Baer Leviiisohu, in Galcreya I'cvieiskiklt
Dyeyatelci, No. 3, St. Petersburg, 19U0 ; Nathansohn, Bio-
graphical Notes (111 LeviiiKoJni ; Hausner, 7. B. Levius'iliii ;
Alabin, in Ritsskatia Staj-ina, 1879, No. 5.

H. R.

YXJLYEVICH : Russian geologist ; born 1861. He
graduated from the physico-mathematical faculty
of the University of St. Petersburg in 1883, was
placed in charge of the geological collection in 1886,
and was appointed privat-docent at St. Petersburg
University in 1889. In 1892 he became professor,
and the next year dean, of the physico-mathemat-
ical faculty of Yuryev University. Aside from his
work on petrography lie published also essays in
other branches of geology, the result of scientific
journeys throughout Russia. In various period-
icals more than thirty papers have been published
by him, the most important being the following:
" Olonetzkaya Diabazovaya Formatziya" (in " Trudy
St. Peterburgskavo Obschestva Yestestvovyede-
niya," xi.x.); "O Fosforitnom Chernozyome " (in
" Trudy Volnoekonomicheskavo Obschestva," 1890) ;
"O Nyekotorykh Khimicheskikh Tipakh Izvyer-
zhonykli Porod " (in "Vyestnik Yestestvoznaniya,"
1890) ; " Geologicheskiya Izslyedovaniya v Guberlin-
skhikh Gorakh " (in " Zapiski Mineralnavo Obschest-
va"); "Die Variolite von Yalguba" ("Tscherm.
Mineral. Mitt." vi.); "Die Mikroskopische Beschaf-
fenheit des Jordanalit" (ib. ix.); "Etudes sur le
Porphirite de Deweboyu " (in "Bulletin de Societe

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 13 of 169)