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Thenceforth he became wholh' identified with the
French school of opera. On Nov. 21, 1831, his
"Robert le Diable " was produced at the Grand
Opera, Paris; and within a year the libretto had
been translated into nearly everj' European lan-
guage, and performances had been given in every
important city. This opera was followed (Feb. 20,
1836) by "Les Huguenots," an opera which was at
first received with somewhat less favor than " Robert
le Diable," but which ultimately came to be regarded
as greatly its superior.

After the production of "Les Huguenots" at Ber-
lin, Meyerbeer was called to that city by King Fred-
erick William IV. as general musical director; and
there he composed his opera " Das Feldlager in

Schlesien," which, how-
ever, was not successfully
produced until Jenny
Lind, whom Meyerbeer
had introduced to the Ber-
lin public, assumed the
role of Vielka. In the
summer of 1846, at the
request of the Princess
of Prussia, Meyerbeer com-
posed the incidental music
to the drama " Struensee,"
written by his brother
Michael Beer ; and on Sept.
19 following, this work,
the music of which ranks
among his best produc-
tions, was performed at
the Royal Theater, Berlin.
After visits to Vienna and
London in 1847, Meyer-
beer returned to Berlin,
where he produced Rich-
ard Wagner's "Rienzi."
Two years later " Le Pro-
phete," the libretto of
which had been completed
by Scribe in 1842, was
produced at the Grand
Opera, Paris (April IG, 1849), and, like its prede-
cessors, "Robert le Diable" and "Les Huguenots,"
soon made the circuit of the globe.

Despite failing health Meyerbeer produced
"L'Etoile du Nord " at the Opeia Comique (1854),
and four years later "Dinorah ou le Pardon de
Ploermel." Neither of these operas, however, met
with the favorable reception accorded to Meyer-
beer's previous Parisian productions. In 1862 he
represented German music at the opening of the
London International Exhibition with his "Overture
in the Form of a JMarch." Upon his
"Ii'Afri- return to Berlin he resumed his work
caine." upon " L'Africaine," on which he had
been engaged since 1838. For years
the difficidty of getting a satisfactory cast had pre-
vented the production of this opera; and several
other circumstances»hindered its performance dur-



529



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Meyerbeer
Meza



ing the composer's lifetime. In April, 1864. he re-
turned for the last time to Paris, to superintend the
preparatory rehearsals of this opera; but in the
midst of his labors he died, and the opera was not
produced until May 28, 1865. In accordance with
Me)-erbeer's last wishes his body was taken to Ber-
lin for burial; but imposing funeral obsequies were
held in Paris also.

Of Meyerbeer's compositions besides those already
mentioned, the following deserve special notice: the

monodrama "Theveliuden's Liebe,"

Composi- for soprano solo and chorus with clar-

tions. iuet obligato; "Komilda cCostanza"

(1815) ; " La Semiramide Riconosciuta"
(1819); "Emma di Resburgo " (1819); "Margherita
d"An jou " (1820) ; " L'Esule di Granada " (1822) ; seven
sacred cantatas of Klopstock, for quartet unaccom-
panied ; choruses to ^schylus' •' Eumenides " ; " Der
Genius der IMusik am Grabe Beethoven's," for soli
and chorus; "Freundschaft," for 4-part male chorus;
Psalm xci., for eight voices, composed for the choir
of the Berlin Cathedral ; " Fackeltanze," for brass or-
chestra, composed for the weddings of the King of
Bavaria (1846) and of the Princesses Charlotte (1850)
and Anne (1853) of Bavaria; grand march for the
Schiller Centenary Festival, 1859; Coronation March
for King William I. (1863); also a large number
of songs with pianoforte accompaniment, among
which "Le Moine"(for bass) and "Das Fischer-
madchen " are perhaps the most popular.

Meyerbeer received medals and other distinctions
from almost every civilized government. He stead-
fastly adhered to Judaism throughout his life. He
was ever ready to assist his fellow artists irrespect-
ive of creed ; and in his will he made provision for a
similarly beneficeut disposition of his wealth. He
set aside, for instance, 10,000 thalers (the Meyer-
beer-Stiftung), the interest of which he directed to
be used in providing traveling fellowships for prom-
ising students of music.

Bibliography : Hermann Mendel, Giacomo Meyerbeer, Ber-
lin, 1868 ; H. Blaze de B(?ry, Mei/erbeer, Sa Vie, Ses CEuvres
et Son Temps; M. Joel, Worte Gesprochen an der Bahre
Meyerheers, Breslau, 18t>4 ; Grove. Dictionary of Miunc and
Musicians ; Fetis, Biouraphie Universelle des Musiciens.
s. J- So.

MEYSELS, BERISCH (BAER). See Mei-
SELS, Dob BEursii b. Isaac.

MEYTJHAS (onVD): Oriental Jewish family
which gave several rabbinical writers to Jerusalem
and Constantinople.

Abraham ben Samuel Meyuhas : Rabbi in
Turkey in the eighteenth century ; author of " Sedeh
ha-Arez," in three parts, the first two being homi-
lies on the Pentateuch (Salonica, 1784-98) and the
third containing responsa on the four parts of the
Shulhan 'Aruk, collectanea, and Talmudic annota-
tions (Leghorn, 1788). In the preface Meyuhas
asserts that he wrote the following commentaries:
"Digle Ahabah," on Isaac Luria's "Derek 'Ez ha-
Hayyim " ; " Ha-Ma'or ha-Katon," on Hayyim Vital 's
"'EzHayyim"; "Siah ha-Sadeh," on Isaac Luria's
"Sefer ha-Kawwanot." Fiirst ("Bibl. Jud." ii. 347)
ascribes to this Meyuhas the work entitled " Bene
Abraham," responsa and homilies, and "Kontres,"
coivtaining the laws of Gittin (Constantinople, 1773) ;
VIII.— 34



the responsa and homilies, however, are those of
Abraham ben Judah Meyu^ias ; while the
"Kontres" was written by Nathan Meyuhas.

BiBi.iOGRAPHY: Benjacob, Ozar Ua-Scfarim, p. .567, No. 302;
Zedner, Cat. Hebr. Bouku Brit. Mus. pp. 536-537.

M. Sel.

Moses Mordecai Joseph Meyuhas : Son of
Raphael Meyuhas ben Samuel; born 1738; died
1806. He succeeded Yom-Tob al-Ghazi as chief rabbi
of Jerusalem (1801-6). In 1799, on the approach of
Bonaparte's army, which already had taken Jaffa,
Meyuhas assembled the Jews of Jerusalem and de-
livered a patriotic speech, after which he seized a
pickax and commenced to dig a trench, his corelig-
ionists immediately following his example. Hewus
the author of three Hebrew works: "Sha'ar lia-
Mayim," notes on the Shulhan 'Aruk, and responsa
(Salonica, 1768); "Birkot ha-Mayim," novella-, re-
ligious laws, and responsa {ib. 1789); "Mayim
Sha'al," on the same subjects as the "Sha'ar ha-
Mayim " {ib. 1799).

M. Fit.

Raphael ben Samuel Meyuhas : Chief rabbi
of Jerusalem and liead of the yeshibah there; flour-
ished about the middle of the eighteenth century.
He was the author of the following works, all pub-
lished at Salonica: "Minhat Bikkurim,"halakicand
haggadic novellaj on several treatises of the Talmud
(1752); "Peri ha-Adamah," novellfe on the four di-
visions of Maimonides' "Yad" (1752); "Pene ha-
Adamah," homilies on the " parashiyyot " of the
Pentateuch (1752); "Mizbah Adamah," novellae on
the four parts of the Shulhan 'Aruk (1777).

BIBLIOGRAPHY : Azulal, Shem ha-GedoUm, il., s.v. Mizbah
Adamah; Furst, Bihl. Jud. ii. 317; Zedner. Cat. Hebr.
Books Brit. Mtis. p. 536. ^^ ,,

M. Sel.

Samuel Hayyim Meyuhas : Chief rabbi of
Constantinople from 1836 to 1839; died some years
after the latter date. He was the author of a vol-
ume of responsa entitled "Shemen ha-Mishhah"
(Constantinople, 1840).

Bibliography: Azulai, Shem ha-Gednlim; Kazan, Ha- Afa-
'a7o( li-Shelomoh ; Franco, Histoire des l^aelites del Em-
nire Ottoman ; Walden, Shem ha-Gedolim he-Hadash.
3. M. Fr.

MEZA (MESA): A family of Amsterdam distin-
guished for the number of its members that filled
rabbinic offices.

Abraham Hayyim de Jacob de Solomon de
Meza : Member of the Talmud Torah 'Ez Hayyim
in Amsterdam, and author of a sermon, delivered in
Portuguese on the day of solemn devotion, "SermSo
Moral . . . na Occasiao de Hum Dia Solemne de
Ora<;ao ... em 4 Nisan 5507 = 15 MarQO 1747,"
Amsterdam, 1747.

David de Abraham Hayyim de Jacob de Sol-
omon de Meza : Son of Abraham de Meza ; died in
Amsterdam after 1793. He published : " Sermao da
Liberdade, Pregado na K. K. de Talmud Torah em 28.
Yjar 5527," Amsterdam, 1767 ; " Sermao Moral, Preg.
... em S. Emor, 13 Yjar 5532," ib. 1767; "Sermao
Moral Sobre o Pezo do Peccado, Preg. em S. Qui
Tets6 9 Elul 55i6." ib. 1786. He prepared also a
new edition of " Paraphrasis Caldayca en los Can-
tares de Selomoh como Tambiea los Apophthegmas



Meza
Mezuzah



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



530



de Abotli," lb. 1766. Several Hebrew songs of liis
are to be found in ■'lie collection of poems "Shir
Enmnini," edited by Moses de Piza, ih. 1793.

David de Jacob de Meza: Son of tiie editor
Jacob de Meza ; member of the Talmud Torah ' £z
Hayyim. Many of his responsa are contained in the
compilation "Peri 'Ez Hayyim," lb. 1741.

Solomon de Isaac de Meza : Physician and
hakam; born at Amslerduni; died there in 1742.
He was a disciple of Solomon de Oliveyraund David
de Pina, the latter of whom initiated him in the
science of medicine. He was a member of the ral)-
binate of the Spanish-Portuguese community in
Amsterdam. In conjunction with his colleagues
Solomon Ayllon, David Mendesda Silva, and others,
he signed the famous rabbinical decision in favor of
the ShabbethaianNeliemiah Hayyun (1711). A year
after his death the catalogue of his library was jiub-
lislicd (Amsterdam, 1743). He wrote under the title
"Shuihan Shelomoh " an luiimiiortant dis(iuisition
cimcerning the Sabbath-day's journey from a vil-
lage near Amsterdam {ib. 1725). After his death
appeared his " Meditayoens Sacras ou Sermoens
Varios " (part i., ib. 1764).

Bibliography : Kayserling, mhh Esp.-Port.-Jitd. p. 71 ; Car-
nioly, Histdirc dcs Mi'(lcchi!< Juifn, p. :i2n : D. Henriques de
Castro, CataliHjue de Vente, p. 118 ; (initz. (jcsch.x., p. xciii.:
Zedner, Cat. Hebr. Bunks Brit. Mns. p. 537.
G. M. K.

MEZA, CHRISTIAN JACOB THEOPHI-
liUS DE : Danish physician and author ; born in
Copenhagen Nov. 20, 1756; died there April 6, 1844.
He was a son of the piiysician Christian de ]Meza,
together with whom he embraced Christianity in
1783. In the same year he graduated as ]\I.D. from
the University of ('ojjenhagen, and became a mem-
ber of the Koyal Medical Society. From 1784 until
his death he practised medicine in Elsinore.

Meza pul)lislK'd in the medical journals numerous
essays, of which the following may be mentioned :
" De Graviditate jMi.xta Observatio," in "Acta Regise
Societatis Med. Hafnien.sis," i. 442-450; "Relatio
Febris Tertians Intermittentis Epidemic;e Anno 1784
Grassantis," in "Observationes Medico-Practiciv
Quinciue," ii. 197-213; "En Sjadden og Abnormal
Tvillingfodsel," in "Bibliolhek for Liuger," 1821, i.\.
41-43 (appeared afterward in "Bulletin des Sciences
Medicales,"Jan., 1830. and in "American Journal of
the Medical Sciences," No. 12, 1830).

Meza wrote also a drama, " Dormon og Vilhel-
mine," which was jjroduced at the Royal Theater,
Copenhagen, in 1796.

Meza's son. Christian Julius de Meza (1792-

1865), was a general in command of a division of the

Danish army during the war with Germany (1864).

Bibi,io(;raphv : C. F. Brirka. Da)isk Biografisk Lcricon ; Kr-
Klew''x Forfatter-Le.cicDti.
<;. ' F. C.

MEZA, CHRISTIAN JULIUS FRE-
DERIK (SOLOMON) DE : Danisli i)hysician ;
born in Amsterdam Sept. 4. 1727; died in Cojien-
liagon June, 1800. Meza, who was the son of a
Portuguese rabbi, Abraham de Meza, studied medi-
cine in Amsterdam, and later at the University of
U recht (M.D. 1749). After further study in ifam-
burg lie went (1753) to Copenhagen, where he took
up the practise of medicine.



In 1769 Meza published in French a treatise on
hygiene entitled " De I'Education des Ent'ants taut
Phy.sique que Morale." Another work of Meza's,
entitled "Tentamen Historiae Medicuj " (1795), was
severely criticized in Germany.

In 1773 he became a member of the newly founded
medical society of Copenhagen. He was popu-
larly called " Jodedoktoren," and was generally re-
spected in Copenhagen, where he was for a long
time the only Jewish physician. In 1783, after the
death of his wife, Meza, together with a sou and a
daughter, embraced Christianity.

Bibliography: C. F. Bricka, Dan.<<h Binqrafish Lexicon;
Natlianson, Jndernes Stilliiio i Danmark, Co])enhageD,

1870.

s. F. C.

MEZEI, ERNEST : Hungarian deputy and
journalist ; boiii at Satoralja-Ujhely, Hungary, in
May, 1851. He completed his school career partly
in his native city and partly in Kaschau, and then
took a course in law and piiilosophy at the Univer-
sity of Buda])est. AVhile still a student he entered
upon a journalistic career, contributing leaders to
the "Elleiior." In 1874 he became one of the found-
ers of the "Egyetertes, " the I'epresentative organ of
the extreme opposition, the so-calknl Iiideiicndent
party ; and he has been on its editorial stalf ever
since. In 1878 he was nominated as (lejiuty for the
district of Gyoma, being warmly recommended iiy
Louis Kossuth, but failed to secure election. In
1881 he was elected deputy for the city of Miskolcz.

During this period spiang up the celebrated
Tisz.\-EszLAH blood accusation, which gave rise to
an intense anti-Semitic agitation. Mezei made the
affair the basis of an interpellation addressed to the
minister of justice, which called fortli exciting scenes
in the House of Deputies. During tlie considera-
tion of the bill on mixed marriages between Chris-
tians and Jews he made several pointed speeches
against the anti-Semites.

Mezei is active also in the literary field, having pub-
lished many scattered poems and sketches of travel,
as well as " Olasz Bolyonga.sok " (1877), a narrative of
rambles through Italy. Occasionally he contrib-
utes to the periodicals articles on current questions
relating to the Jews. In a lecture entitled "Zio-
nismus als Nationale Idee," delivered before the
Hungarian Jewish Literary Society, he took a firm
stand in opposition to the attempt to place over
against the religious world-mission of Judaism a
Jewish national propaganda.

s. G. W.

MEZEI, MORITZ : Hungarian jurist and dep-
uty; born at Satoralja-L'jhely Jan. 17,1836. He
studied law in Budapest, and even as a student took
an active part in theelTorts to restore the Hungarian
constitution and emancipate the Hungarian Jews.
He was the chief founder of the National Juda>o-
Ilungarian Society in 1H61, and edited its journal,
the "Izraelita Kdzlony." The spirit of Hungarian
nationalism which pervaded his Avritings caused
him to be court-martialed by the governor, Count
Moritz Palffy ; but for a royal proclamation of
amnesty issued on the occasion of the recovery of
Queen Elizabeth he would have been condemned.
He was obliged, however, to resign his editorial



531



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Meza
Mezuzah



position. In 1864, by the permission of the king,
he began tlie practise of law at Budapest, al-
though the legal profession had not hitherto been
opened to the Jews. Three years later he Avas able
to resume his journalistic advocacy of Jewish eman-
cipation, and in 1868 was appointed secretary of the
congress convened by IJaron EiJtvos for the regula-
tion of Hebrew communal affairs. In 1892 he was
elected president of the organization which secured
recognition of the Jewish religion in Hungary, and
in 1893 he was elected to the Hungarian Parliament
by the Jewish district of Budapest (Leopoldstadt).
Mezei is also vice-president of the Hebrew congre-
gational district
of Budapest.

Bibliography:
Venetianer, A
Zsidoxay Szervc-
zete, p. 498; Pal-
las Lc.r.
S. L. V.

ME Z E Y ,
FRANZ : Hun-
garian jurist and
author; born at
Acsad Feb. 5.
1860. His pai-
entshad destined
him for a rabbin-
ical career, but
after reaching
maturity and be-
coming a thor-
ough Hebrew
scholar, he took
up tlie study of
jurisprudence
and was admit-
ted to the bar
at Budapest. As
a writer and
speaker his abil-
ities were de-
voted to the
cause of Juda-
ism even in his
student days.
In 1883 he was
the mainstay of
the defense in
the TiszA-Esz-

LAR affair as the representative of the Hungarian
Jews, and for the past two decades, as secretary of the
Jewish chancery (" Landeskanzlei "), he has been
their chief source of inspiration toward advancement
in religious and educational matters. He was one of
the founders of the Hungarian Jewish Literary Soci-
ety, and, with Wilhelm Bacher, edited its year-book ;
from 1891 to 1895 he was coeditor of the "j\Iag-
yar Zsido Szende " with Lud wig Blau. He has also
contributed to tlie "Nemfeti Ujsag" and the "Tog-
tudomany i Kozlony." Mezey is (1904) secretary
and attorney of the hebra kaddisha of Budapest,
which has attained, under his management, a mem
bership of 10,000.

Bibhography: Pzinnvei, -Ifnr/i/nr /n'Wf.

6. '' ^



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'TiTis *^-^r?s~'"l ^V>^ni ^inn^Dfii Vip^ts^ rs-M'

B^->r^t< o^nSs ar^nisVi Bn->w nsaab rtng^ t9
7-it^ -^^Vi B3i nit^* :^^ r^-^i^) "air: onnt^r^^rti

n:h ]Tii ^^ir* "»^>t r^s^sn y-^^ri^vta rt-^r^ts or.'issi

II^bSbi "^tt'3s 'inaTi ns ->3-?S bb^js rs^t b:^s

■^rr^a TntiTraSv nnsi^Di -jfl^pBi -jbbw^ "p*^'^

■^D^^tT S*; BB^itJ ^n*i DB>p^ i^-s^ tV«^ t"'^^^^

tf !^Vh >«^D Tiih TTPiS BB'r?35iS ^in^ ^B^i-^ji^ti



MEZUZAH (nnro : lit. "door-post"): Name
given to a rectangular piece of parchment inscribed
with the passages Dent. vi. 4-9 and .\i. 13-21, writ-
ten in twenty-two lines according to the same rules
as those for the Torah and tefilliu. The parchment
is rolled up and inserted in a wooden or metal case or
tube. This is atfi.xed, in a slanting position, to the
upper part of the right-hand door-post, so that the
upper part is inward and the lower part outward,
and about a handbreadth from the outer edge of the
door-post. On the outer side of the top of the parch-
ment is inscribed the name of God, n::^ ; and an
opening is left in the case opposite tliis word,

which opening
is protected by
a piece of glass.
The material on
which the me-
zuzah may be
written is as
carefully pre-
scribed as is that
for a scroll of tlie
Law (Massek.
Soferim i. 1 ;
Aslieri to Alfasi,
"Sefer Torah";
Shulhan 'Aruk,
Yoreh De'ah,
271 : Yer. Megil-
lah i. 9; Shab.
108a; MS. Mezu-
zah, ed. Kirch-
heim, i. 1); but
while a scroll
must always be
written from a
copy, the mezu-
zah may be writ-
ten from mem-
ory (:>[en. 32b).
Both selections
mentioned above
must be con-
tained therein ;
and if even one
letter is missing
the mezuzah
may not be used
(Men. 28a). Gen-
erally the text is written in twenty-two lines
equally spaced. The pious touch and kiss this
part of the mezuzah as they pass through the
door. The mezuzah is obligatory for every building
used as a residence; and its fastening to the door-
post is accompanied by the \isual formula of benedic-
tion: " Blessed art Thou our God, King of the world,
who hast sanctified us by Thy conunandments and
hast commanded us to fasten the mezuzah." On
entering and leaving the house the pious touch the
mezuzah (at "Shaddai ") with the hand, and recite
the prayer: " >Iay God keep my going out and my
coming in from now on ami ever more."

The mezuzah brings blessings to him that touches
it; but it must not be touched with unclean hands.
It is inspected from time to time to make sure of its



Mezuzah Scroll.



Mezuzah
Micah



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



532



correctness. It may not be given to a non-Jew,
lest it be not treated with due respect (see Men. iii.

7, 33b; Maimonides. "Yad," Tetilliu, i., v., vi. ;
Yoreh De'ab, 285-291).

The obligation of the mezuzah is derived from the
words: "And thou shall write them on the door-
posts of thy house and within thy gates." The
Rabbis considered the mezuzah of equal importance
with the tetillin and zizit (Men. 431);
Origin and Pes. 113b; comp. Shab. 23b, 32b).
Signifi- The antiquity of the mezuzah is at
cance. testedbyJosephus(r. 37-100 c.k.), avIio
speaks of its employment ("Ant." iv.

8, § 13) as an old and well-established custom. In-
scribed with passages of the Torah which emphasize

the unity of God, His
])rovideuce, and the
resulting duty of man
toward Him, the me-
zuzah is an emblem-
atic representation of
Israel's belief and
practise. Thus Jo-
sephussays in speak-
ing of the mezuzah
(I.e.): "The greatest
benefits of God are
to be written on the
doors ... in order
that His benevolent
providence may be
made known every-
where"; and Mai-
monides adds
("Yad," Tetillin, vi.
13); "By the com-
mandment of the me-
zuzah man is re-
minded, when com-
ing or going, of the
unity of God, and is
aroused to the love
of Him. He is awa-
kened from his slum-
be r and his vain
worldly thoughts to
the knowledge that
nothing endures in
eternity like the
knowledge of the
Rock of the World.
This contemplation
brings him back to
himself and leads
him on tlie right
path."
In Talmudic times a protective power, especially
in warding off evil spirits, was attributed to the
mezuzah. This appears in such anec-
Supersti- dotes as those of Artaban and Abba
tious Con- Arika (see Aktab.\n Y. ; comp. Yer.
ception. I'eah i. 1, 15d ; Gen. R. xxxv. 3) and of
Onkelos ('Ab. Zarah 11a; comp. also
Targ. to Cant. viii. 3; Men. 32b, 331)). In the Mid
die Ages, imder the influence of the Cabala, not only
passages from the Bible treating of God's watchful-




Wooden Case for Mezuzab.

(la the possession of V. DiivlJ, Cauel.)



ne.ss over His people (Ps. cxxi. 7 et seq.), but also
various names of angels were added to the orig-
inal contents of the mezuzah. >ntj> was explained
to represent the initials of (niin) Din^l iniB'
^KIC'V after a cabalistic interpretation of Job xxii.
17, 25 (comp. "Kol Bo," 101. 4). At the bottom of
the blank side the words ITI^ TDDIOn ITI^ arc written,
wiiich, according to nj"3X. i-e-, every letter stand-
ing for the next preceding, reads: mn^ 1JM7X mnv
Some, when leaving
home on business bent,
invoke God by the mys-
terious words " Kozo
bemuksaz Kozo,"
declaring that in His
name they are about
to go forth, and peti-
tioning for success.
Against the additions
to the mezuzah Mai-
monides raised his
voice. He says
("Yad," Tetillin, v. 4):
" There is no harm in
writing "'ILJ' on the out-
side; but those who
write on the inside the
names of angels, oi
holy names, or verses,
or other formula, are
of those who will have
no share in the future
world. For these fools
not only defeat in this
manner the fulfilment
of a great command-
ment which has for its
end the remembrance
of the unity of God,
and the love of Him
and worship of Him.
but turn it into an
amulet for their selfish
interest, believing in
their foolish hearts that
it can be made to serve
the preservationof tran-
sitory worldly goods."
Maimonides' view pre-
vailed, and the addi-
tions were eliminated.

The Mohammedans likewise place over the doors
and windows of their dwellings as well as of their
shops the name of God, or their profession of faith,
or some maxim, or a verse of the Koran, or a short
invocation (comp. Lane, "Account of the Manners
and Customs of the Modern Egyptians," 3d etl., i. 7,
22, 320); and a similar custom seems to liave pre-
vailed among the ancient Egyptians (comp. Wil-
kinson. " Manners and Customs of the Ancient
Egyptians," 1878, i. 361; and Huetius, "Demon-
st ratio Evangelica," p. 58).

I'.iiu.ior.RAPiiY: Dassorius, Dc Ritilms MeziizcB, In Upolino,
Tlnxnuru,\ xxi. ; Bodenscliatz, Kirchliche Verfnssunn der
Itndmn Juilcn, iv. 19-24; Leopold Low, Gisammelte
U'crke, ii. 81-84. t ^r n




Glass Cylinder Containing
Mezuzah.



533



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Mezuzah
Micah



MHTJSHILKAR, REUBEN EZEKIEI. :

Beui-Israel soldier. He enlisted iu the rjtli Regi-
ment Native Infantry Jan. 15, 1849, was made jem-
idar Oct. 1, 1861, and promoted subahdar Jan. 1,
1870. He was present at the battles of Multan,
Gujarat, the Punjab (awarded medal and two
clasps), Rajghur, Mungrowlee, Sindwah, and Kurai
in central India (medal); served in Afghanistan from
1878 to 1880 (medal and clasp) ; and retired March
6, 1881.
.1. J. Hy.

MICAH (n^'IO) : !• Prophet; author of the
sixth book in the collection known as "The Twelve
Minor Prophets" (ilic. i. 1). The name of the
prophet appears to be a shortened form of n^D^O,
"Micaiah" (=:"Who is like Yhwh?"), and is so
written in Jer. xxvi. 18 (comp. also Micah No. 2).
The only data concerning IMicah are those given iu



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