Isidore Singer.

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the superscription of the book bearing his name. He
was a Morasthite ; that is to say, a native of Moresh-
ethgath (Mic. i. 14) ; and he prophesied iu the days of
Jotham, Ahaz, and Hcze-
kiah,, kings of Judah — a
period covering at the most
fifty-nine years (756-697
B.C.). In tlie above-cited
passage of Jeremiah, how-
ever, only the reign of
Hezekiah is given as the
period of Micah 's ac-

("Opera," ii. 245) makes
Micah an Ephraimite.
Confounding him with
Micaiah, sou of Imlah (I
Kings xxii. 8 et seq.), he
states that Micah, for his
inauspicious prophecy,
was killed by order of
Ahab through being
thrown from a precipice,
and was buried at Morathi
(Maroth?; Mic. i. 12), near
the cemetery of Enakim
('EpaKfi/i, Septuagiut rendering of
According to "Gelilot Erez
"Seder ha-Dorot," i. 118,
was buried in Chesil, a
(Josh. XV. 30).

2. Biblical Data : A resident of Mount Ephraim
Avho, having stolen 1,100 pieces of silver from his
inother, restored them to her on hearing her curses
at the theft. The mother had dedicated the silver
to Yiiwir ; and she accordingly gave 200 pieces to
a founder, who made a molten image which was
placed in Micah's house. Micah thus established a
house of idols with an ephod and teraphim, and
consecrated one of his sons to be his priest (Judges
xvii. 1-5). In the course of time a young Levite
named Jonathan, son of Gershon, happened to come
to the house, and he was appointed by Micuh as ins
priest (ih. xvii. 7-13). The image, together witli
the priest, was captured by tlie Danites, who set it
up at Dan, where it continued to be an object of
worship as long as the Tabernacle was at Sliil<il







fl^B' .

';j|^^^^HI^i< ^m




■^^^"^ 4^^SI^^^ ''


J^^^ .^^^?^^Vv> - *~ ""



Mezuzah Case

(.After Picarl.)

132; ib. i. 10).

Yisrael" (quoted in

Warsaw, 1889), Micah

town in southern Judah

xviii. ; see Jonathan No. 1). In Judges xvii. 1, 4,
the name "Micah " ajipears in the form in^D^D-
s. M. Sel.

In Rabbinical Literature: Micah is idcnti-

ticd by the Rabbis witli Shcba. son of Bichri, and
with Nebat, the father of Jeroboam (Sanh. 101b).
His name, derived by them from "|030nJ, is inter-
preted as meaning "the crushed one," an appellation
due to a miracle which happened to him. According
to a liaggadah, the Israelites, when unable to com-
plete the tale of bricks required from them by the
Eg\'ptians, were compelled to put their cliildren in
the brickwork in place of the bricks that were
lacking. Moses withdrew one child (^licah), already
crushed, and revived him ; but, as God had foretold,
he grew up to be an idolater (Tan., Yelaumiedenu,
Ki Tissa; comp. Rashi to Sauh. I.e.).

The Rabbis all agree that ^Micali was among those
Avho crossed the Red Sea with Moses; but they dif-
fer with regard to his idol. According to Sanh.
103b and Tan., Yelammedenu (/.r.), Micah had the

idol with him ; but accord-
ing to Ex. R. (xli. 1) he
took with him only the sil-
ver of which the idol was
afterward made. A pas-
sage in Pesahim (117a)
seems to support the latter
opinion. There is also a
tradition that it was ^licah
who made the golden calf
in the wilderness, and in
the following manner:
Moses, in order to bring
Joseph's coffin to the sur-
face of the Nile, wrote on a
splinter 11^; ""^y ( = " Come
up, ox " ; Joseph being
compared to an ox ; see
Deut. xxxiii. 17) and
threw it into the water.
Micah found the splinter,
and, later, when Aaron
cast the gold into the fire
(Ex. xxxii. 24), threw the
splinter after it. As a result a calf came out (Tan.,
Yelammedenu, I.e. ; see also Jkw. Encvc. iii. 509a,
s.v. Calf, Golden).

Micah, though an idolater, was praised for his hos-
pitality to travelers. Gareb, where his idol was set
up, was three miles distant from Shiloh, where the
Tabernacle stood; and the smoke of tlie two altars
mingled on account of their proximity. The angels
wished to throw down tiie idol; but God said to
them, "Leave it alone; for Micah offers bread to
travelers." Micah is even supposed to have a share
in the future world (Sanh. 103b); it is for this rea-
son that his name is twice writteii " Micaiah " (see
Micah No. 2, Bihi.ical Data), that is, with a part
of the Tetraiz:rammaton, like the names of the just

(Num. R. X. 14).

s. s.
Critical View

M. Sel.
The narrative of ^Micah's idol,
the historical Imsis of which is undoubted, was ap-
parently written with the object of showing the
(///. I oiigiu of the temj^e of Dan (comiL I Kings xii. 29).




At the same time it tlirows nnwh liglit on the state
of the Yhwti cult and of the Levites in the time of
the Judges. The author expressly points out that
Micah was a worshiper of Yinvii, for whose cult he
had his private shrine with a regular priestly service.
Although the laws of Ynwn forbade the erection of
any shrine besides the one in the chosen place and
the making of any image of Him (Ex. xx. 4 cf
passim; Deut. xii. 5 et sec/.), Micah, evidently igno-
rant of the Law, not only set up engraved and molten
images rejireseuting the divinity he worshiped, but
added other idols, the tcraphim for instance. The
narrative further shows that the Levites. being
deprived of a share in the land, had to wander from
place to place, accepting the office of family priest
in order to procure a livelihood.

The account itself presents many difficulties in
regard to its construction. Besides several discre]i-
ancies in the text there are absolute contradictions.
Thus in Judges xvii. 7 the Levite is a young man
who lived in the neighborhood of ^Micah, while in
the following verse he is a wandering Levite. There
is also a discrepancy between verses 19 and 27 of ch.
xviii. and between verses 80 and 31 of the same
chapter concerning the duration of the cult of the
idol at Dan. According to Oort, Wellhausen, and
Kuenen, the text has received many interpolations,
with the object of throwing contempt upon the cult
of Dan. On the other hand, Vatke (" Alttestament-
licheTheologie,"183r). p. 2()S)and Herthau, followed
b}' other critics, recognize two parallel narratives
united by a redactor. Wiiile there is S(mie disagree-
ment as to the component jiarts of tiic two versions,
Budde's division seems to l)e tiie most acceptable:
he holds, namely, that the (ii'st narrative consists of
Judires xvii. 1, 5, 8-lla, 12. beginning, 13; xviii. 1,
part" of 2, 31), 4l)-6, 8-10, part of 11, 12, part of
13, 14, 16, 18a, 19-29, 31; and that the intervening
verses form the second narrative. Budde is of o\nn-
ion that the first narrative belongs to E: but he
does not find sufficient grounds for ascribing the
second to J. Moore thinl<s that the first version
belongs to J. In the second version {ib. xviii. 30)
the cult at Dan is indicated as luiving lasted "till
the day of the captivity of the land." which is sup-
posed by Moore lo refer to tiie deportation ])y Tig-
lath-pileser (734 i:.< .).

Besides tlie al)ove-nientioneii (liserei)ancies certain
points remain unsettled by the ciities. Kimhi e.\-
])lains the discrepancy between verses 3 and 4 of
Judges xvii. by suggesting thai the 200 shekels
were an additional artisan's fee. while the whole
amount of the silver was used in the fabrication of
the idol. Kuenen, liowever, thinks that the autlioi-
intended to show that the mother broke her vow, and
that .Micah desired to throw contempt on the idol
cult of Dan. Further, the critics do not explain
precisely tiie name of Micah's residence, nor tlii'
l)hen()menon of a Levite descended from Judah.
Wellliausen's opinion that the term ^1^ means not a
Levite, but one exercised in the cult of a divinity, is
shown by the context to be an erroneous one. Ha-
levy's theory is that the whole narrative belongs to
one author, whose object was to show the origin of
i)otli temples, tiiat of iJelh-el and that of Dan, and
who twice mentions Mount Epiiraini, meaning

thereby Beth-el (comp. Josh. xvi. 1). Thus
Beth-el, having previously been the place of a pri-
vate shrine which was subsequently transported to
Dan, became, like Dan, the place of a public tem-
ple. The Judah from whom the Levite was de-
scended (Judges xvii. 7) was not the patriarch, but
the ancestor of a Levite family (comp. Neli. xii. 8;
in Ezra ii. 40 rfmn may be an anagram of min^)-
The residence of a Levite at Beth-lehem, which was
not among the cities allotted to the Levites, shows
that a temple of Yiiwii with a Levitical service ex-
isted there (comp. Judges xix. 18). The author
points out that the Levite was of the tribe of Levi,
namely, a descendant of Moses, in Avhose name; a sus-
pended "nun" was interpolated by the Masorites
out of respect for the lawgiver (see Jonathan No.
1). With regard to the apparent discrepancy be-
tween verses 30 and 31 of Judges xviii., the word
y\iir] in 30 was corrected to pxn by Kimhi,
then by Havernick, Ilengstenberg, and Bleek, the
passage thus reading "till the deportation of the
Ark," referring to the capture of the Ark in the bat-
tle with the Philistines described in I Sam. iv. 4, 11.
This renders possible a perfect agreement between
the two verses.

Bihliographv: J. Halevv, in R. E. J. .Nxi. I-W-^IT ; Moore.
Jiuhicx, pp.366 et xcq.\ idem, Judi/rs-, notes to cli. xvii. -xviii.,
in PoUiclirame Bible, Eng. eA.

f< M. Ski,.

3. Son of Merib-baal (I Chron. viii. 34, 35; ix. 40.
41) or Mephibo.sheth (II Sam. ix. 12; A. V. "Mi-
cah"; B. V. "Mica"), and grandson of Jonathan.
4. Head of the Uzziel branch of the Kohathite Le-
vites in the time of David (I Chron. xxiii. 20;
xxiv. 24,

5. A Beubenite; ancestor of the

prince of that tribe, Beerah, whom Tiglath-pileser
carried into captivity {ib. v. 5-6). 6. Contempo-
rary of Josiah, and father of xVbdon, one of Josiah's
messengers to Iluldah (II Chron. xxxiv. 20). In
the parallel account of II Kings xxii. 12 he is called
" Micaiah," and his son's name is given as " Achbor. "
7. A Levite of the family of Asaph whose descend-
ants lived in Jerusalem (I Chron. iv. 15; Neh. xi.
17, 22). 8. A Simeonite: father of Ozias, one of
the rulers of Bethulia (.ludith vi. 15).

K. o. II. M. Ski,.

MICAH, BOOK OF. — Biblical Data: The

sixth book in the collection known as "The Twelve
.Minor Prophets"; it is ascribed to Micah the
.Morasthite (see Micah No. 1). It consists of seven
chapters, the contents of which are as follows: Ch.
i. : Tiie idolatry of Samaria and Jerusalem are de-
nounced: the proi)liet laments their fall and exhorts
the people to mouining. Ch. ii. : Denunciation of
oppression: prediction of the iiunishment of the
peojtle therefor: the restoiation of Israel foretold.
Ch. iii. : The i)i(>pliet reproves lirst the jirinces for
tlii'ir cruelty, tiien the false |)rophets, who an; the of all the evil, lie again reproves the princes
tor their opitression. wiiich. he says, will cause the
rinn of .leiusaleni. Ch. iv. : In jxM'tical language
the restoration of Jerusalem and of the glory of the
house of the Lord and the victory of Israel over
the other nations are foretold. Ch. v.: Prediction
that a iiowerful king of Judah will vaiu|uish the
other nations, particularly .\'^hur. and will destroy




idolatry. Cli. vi. : Israel is reproved for its sins,
particularly its injustice ; its punishment is prophe-
sied. Ch. vii. : The lack of righteous men and the
corruption of Israel are lamented ; the prophet com-
forts Israel, promising that it will be restored to its
land and will triumph over its enemies.

Critical View : With rcgai'd to the period of

Micah's activity, it has been remarked under Micah
(No. 1) that there is a difference between the super-
scription of the Book of Micah, where it is said that
]\Iicah began his prophetical career in the days of
Jotham, and Jer. xxvi. 18, where his prophecies are
confined to Hezekiah's reign. But a closer exami-
nation of the prophecies themselves may lead to the
acceptance of a period between the two; for it is
evident from Mic. i. 2 it seq. that Micah prophesied
before the fall of Samaria, which, contrary to II
Kings xviii. 10, took place under the reign of Ahaz,
as may be inferred from a comparison between II
Kings xviii. 18 and the cuneiform inscriptions (see
PIezekiaii, Cuitical View). Hence it may be
concluded that ]\Iicaii prophesied as early as the
reign of Ahaz; but nothing in his prophecies shows
that they were pronounced earlier than that period.
It does not follow, however, that the above-cited
passage of Jeremiah really conflicts witli this view;
for it may be that Hezekiah's reign is mentioned
alone eitlier because it was more important than
that of his predecessors or because the redaction of
Micah's prophecies possibly took place during the
rule of that king.

As the opening words of the book, "Hear, all ye
people ! " are the same as those terminating the
prophecy of Micaiah, the son of Imlah (I Kings xxii.
28), it may be that the latter was ideutitied with
Micah by the compiler of the Book of Kings, as he
was later by pseudo-Epiphauius (see Micah No. 1).
The teiiniuation of Micaiah's prophecy with the
identical words of the beginning of the Book of
;Micah seems to indicate in the former an allusion to
tlie latter (comp. end of 11 Chron. with beginning
of Ezra). Hengstenberg (" Christologie des Alten
Testaments," i. 475) and Keil ("'Lehrbuch der His-
torisch-Kritischen Einleitung in die Schriften des
Alton Testaments," §§92, 93), however, suppose that
the words of Micaiah in I Kings (^.f.) were added
later, in the eighth centur}' v..c.

With regard to the division of the contents mod-
ern critics do not agree. Some divide them into
three parts, ch. i.-ii. ; iii.-v. ; vi.-vii. ; others, into
two main divisions: proplictic-political, ch. i.-v. ;

and reflective, ch. vi.-vii. The ques-

Contents tion arises whether the whole of the

and Unity, book was written by Micah. It is

generally accepted that the first three
chapters, apart from ii. 12-13, belong to him. lie
begins witii announcing the divine judgnient \\\ton
Samaria and Juduh (ch. i), and then states tiie rea-
son for that judgment (ii.-iii.). The two verses ii.
12-13 are considered by Stade and Kuenen as of tlic
exilic, and by Wellhausen as of the post-exilic, i)erio<l ;
and Micah's authorship of them is denied by all the
critics. Ch. iv.-v., which refer to the iMessianic
lime, seem to liave emanated from some other liand.
for the following reasons: (1) the contrast of these
chapters williiii. 12; (2)1]ic natureof certain verses—

for instance, "and thou shaltcome to Babylon" (iv.
10) — shows clearly that they were not pronounced by
3Iicah (comp. Hartmann, " Das Buch Micha Neu
Uebersetzt und Erklart," 1800); (3) the ideas set
forth in certain passages {e.g., iv. 11-13, v. 9-13)
were not current in the time of Micah. Ch. vi.-vii.
6. representing Yhwh's controversy with Israel, the
denunciation of the corruption of the people, and
the prophet's lament over the decay of the Israelites,
might from their contents proceed from ^licah; but
vii. 7 and the following verses are considered by
most of the critics as spurious, inasmuch as the fall
of Jerusalem, which is foretold in the preceding
chapter, is here stated as having alread}' taken place
(comp. Driver, "Introduction," pp. 310 et seq.).

Other theories concerning the composition of the
book are advanced, among whicli that of Elhorst,
in his " I)e Profetie van Micha" (1891), is the most
peculiar. He thinks tiiat, owing to a misunder-
.standing on the part of tiie transcriber, the arrange-
ment of the chapters is a confused one, and that the
true order should be: i. ; ii. 1-5; iii. 1-5; ii. 6-11;
iii. 6-11; ii. \'i,etseq.\ iii. 12; vi. 1-5; vii. 1-6; vi.
G-16; vii. 13,7-12, 14-20; iv. 1-8; v. 1-7; iv. 9-14;
V. 8-14. He admits, however, that iv. 9-14 and v.
8 are post-exilic. This arrangement is plausible to
a certain extent, but the location of iii. 12 after ii.
13 and of vii. 13 l)efore vii. 7 is impossible. Finally,
it may be remarked that the words of iv. 1-3 are
identical with those of Isa. ii. 2-4, and that most
probably they were interpolated later by the tran-

Micah's language is classical. With regard to
rhetorical peculiarity he stands betw'een llosea and
Isaiah, but nearer to the latter than to the former;

for although, like the former, he is
Style. sometimes abrupt, he is similar to the

latter in the mingling of mildness and
strength, of gentleness and elevation. Another
point of similarity between Micah and Lsaiah is the
frequent use of paronomasia (comp. Mic. i. 10-15,
ii. 4), with the difference that Isaiah's scope is
greater than that of Micah, who in his prophecies
lingers among the towns of the maritime plain,
wherein Avas his birthiilace. As to his message,
Micah, like Isaiah, attacks the false prophets {Hi. iii.
6-8; comp. Isa. xxix. \(iet seq.), but he goes even fur-
ther than Isaiah in warning against the overvalua-
tion of sacrifices (Mic. vi. 6-8; comp. Isa. i. 11 et
seq.),ixnd in showing that the family of David must
lose the throne before the most perfect scion will be
born (Mic. v. 1 et seq.;comp. Isa. xi. 1 ct seq.).

Bibliography: Baudissin, Ein1r\tuf>o i'l (Uc BUchrr dcx
Alten Testaments. 1901, sections 132 rt se<i.; Cornill, Khi-
IritiiiKi. section 2, pp. 182 rt s'-<i.: Nowjick. KrMilrniuj ihs
Zn-i)lf]i>ii)ihitcnhHvhes, in Hnudkownuuitdr zum Allen
Test(M,)e)it. 1897; G. .\. Smith. The Ticelve Min<n- Pniiiliets,
in The Ernositur's liihie.

s. M. Ski..

MICHA (ND"'D): 1- Son of Mephibosheth (see
]\Ii(Aii No. 8). 2. One of the Levitcs who .seak'd
tiie covenant with Nehcmiaii (Neh. x. 11).

K. C. II. ^I. SeI..

MICHAEL (fjxnvo) : One of tiie archangels
(■'one tit tlic cliiet |)rinccs "' ; Dan. x. 13), wlio is also
icprcsentctl as tiie tutelary prince of Israel (///. x.21.
xii. I). Tlie signification of tlie name (= " Wlio is




like El "?) Avas recognized by the Talmudists, who
found an allusion to it in Ex. xv. 11 (HDOD ""D) and
in Deut. xxxiii. 26 6nd px), combining the first
word of the former passage with the second of the
latter (Num. R. ii. 9). According to Simeon b. La
kish, however, the names of the angels were brought
by the Jews from Babylon (Yer. R. H. 54d; Gen. R.
xlviii. 9). Upon the basis of the above-cited pas-
sages from the Book of Daniel (where Michael is
represented first as helping Daniel in his dispute
with the angel of Persia and then as helping Israel
in time of trouble— that is, in the Messianic time—
and where he is styled "your prince") Michael is
specially designated in early Jewish writings and
very frequently in the Book of Enoch as " the prince
of Israel " (^NIK'"' ^C' Ul^), and in later
Israel's Jewish writings, particularly in caba-
Advocate. listic works, as " the advocate of the
Jews." It is for this reason that
he is represented as the angel of forbearance and
mercy (Enoch, xl. 3) who taught Enoch the mys-
teries of clemency and justice (ib. Ixxi. 2).

Being the prince or advocate of Israel, Michael
had to fight with the princes of the other nations
(comp. Dan. x. 13) and particularly with Samael,
Israel's accuser. His enmity with Samael dates from
the time when the latter was thrown down from
heaven. Samael took hold of the wings of Michael,
whom he wished to bring down with him in his fall;
but Michael was saved by God (Pirke R. El. xxvi.).
The Rabbis declare that IMichael entered upon his
role of defender at the time of the Patriarchs. Thus,
according to Eliezer b. Jacob, it was Michael who
rescued Abraham from the furnace into which he
had been thrown by Nimrod (Gen. R. xliv. 16).
It was Michael, the " one that had escaped " (Gen.
xiv. 13), who told Abraham that Lot had been
taken captive (Pirke R. El. I.e.), and who pro-
tected Sarah from being defiled by Abimelech
(ib.). He announced to Sarah that she would
bear a son (comp. Gen. xviii. 10); and he rescued
Lot at the destruction of Sodom (B. M. 86b;
comp. Gen. R. 1. 2). Michael prevented Isaac from
being sacrificed by his father by substituting a ram
in his place (" Talk. Reubeni," section "Wayera"),
and saved Jacob, while yet in his mother's womb,
from being killed by Samael (Midr. Abkir, in Yalk.,
Gen. 110). Later Michael prevented Laban from
harming Jacob (Pirke R. El. xxxvi.). It was
Michael, too, who wrestled witli Jacob and who
afterward blessed him (Targ. pseu<lo-Jonathan to
Gen. xxxii.2r); Pirke R. Ei. xxxvii.).
Wrestles The Midrash Abkir {I.e. 132) thus
with. graphically describes ihc scene of the

Jacob. wrestling: "At the break of day
companies of angels came, saying,
' Michael, the hour of singing in praise of the Lord
has arrived.' Michael began to implore Jacob to
cease wrestling, saying lie was afraid the angels
might burn him (Michael) for omitting to take
l)art in the heavenly chorus. When Miciiael tinaily
struck Jacob's thigh he was blamed by God for
liaving caused a blemish in God's i)riest. Michael
applied to his companion Raphael, wiio jiealed
Jacob's wound. Then God appointed Michael to be
the (IctVndcr of Israel" (comp "David," No. 13,

"Yalk. Hadash," where it is said that Michael's
appointment took place when Solomon had built the
Temple). Michael saved Asenath, daughter of
Shechem by Dinah, from being killed by Jacob's
sons (Pirke R. El. xxxviii.), and Tamar from being
burned (Targ. pseudo- Jonathan and Targ. Yer. lo
Gen. xxxviii. 23).

Michael exercised his function of advocate of
Israel at the time of the Exodus also, when Satan ac-
cused the Israelites of idolatry and declared that
they were consequently deserving of death by
drowning in the Red Sea (Ex. R. xviii. 5). But ac-
cording to Midr. Abkir (Yalk., Ex. 241), when 'Uz/a,
the tutelar angel of Egypt, summoned Michael to
plead before God, Michael remained silent, and it was
God Himself who defended Israel. Michael led the
Israelites during their forty years' wandering in the
wilderness (Abravanel to Ex. xxiii. 20). Legend
makes him the teacher of Moses; so that the Israel-
ites are indebted to their advocate for the supreme
good of the Torah. This fact is alluded to in Deut.
R. xi. 6 in the statement that Michael
Teacher of declined to bring Moses' soul to (lod
Moses. on the ground that he had been Moses'
teacher. It is clearly stated in Apoc.
Mosis, i. that Moses received the two tables through
the mediation of Michael. In the Book of Jubilees
(i. 27, ii. 1) the angel who is said to have instructed
Moses on Mount Sinai and to have delivered to him
the tables of the Law is most probably Michael.

Michael destroyed the army of Sennacherib (Ex.
R. xviii. 5). He endeavored also to prevent Israel
from being led into captivity by Nebuchadnezzar
and to save the Temple from destruction; but the
sins of the people were so great that he was power-
less to carry his purposes into effect. "Michael, thy
nation has sinned," God said. "Save them for the
sake of the good men which they still have," Mi-
chael answered. "I will burn Israel with his good
men," God replied (Yoma 77a; comp. Zohar, Ex.
col. 414). According to Yalk-, Lam. 1009, Michael
and Gabriel pleaded for the Israelites, who, however,
were doomed, and the two angels were themselves
compelled to set the Temple on fire. In later wri-
tings Michael is represented as refuting also on this
occasion the accusations of Samael (Zohar, Mish-
patim). There is a legend which seems to be of
Jewish origin, and which was adopted by the Copts,
to the effect that Michael was first sent by God to
bring Nebuchadnezzar against Jerusalem, and that
Michael was afterward very active in freeing his
nation from Babylonian captivity (Amelineaa,
"Contes et Romans de I'Egypte Chretienne," ii. 142
etseq.). According to most of the rabbis, IMichael
saved llauaniah and his companions from the fur-
nace (Gen. R. xliv. 16). Michael was very active in
the time of Esther: "The more llaman accused
Israel on earth, the more Michael defended Isra<'l in
heaven " (Esth. R. iii. H). It was Michael wiio re-
minded Ahasuerus tiiat he was Mordecai's debior
(Targ. lo Esth. vi. 1); and there is a legend tiiat
Michael appeared to the high priest Hyrcaiius,
promising him assistance (com]). Josephus, "Ant."
xiii. 10, ii 3).

Michael will continue his advocacy to the very end ;

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