Isidore Singer.

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ami he will contend with Samael for the liberation




of Israel from Edom or Rome (•' Yalk. Hadasli," " Ga-
lut," No. 11). Samael will be subdued by Michael;
but when the latter asks God to help
Continuous Israel, God will say, " Israel should turn
Guardian- toward Me, be it only as far as the point
ship. of a needle." When Israel turns to-
ward the Lord, his advocate, Michael,
■will plead in his favor (Pesik. R. 44 [ed. Fried-
mann, p. 185a]). According to Ex. R. (xviii. 5),
Michael and Gabriel will have the charge of vindi-
cating Israel against Edom; but Rabbi's opinion is
that Michael alone will act. He will, besides, cleanse
Israel from the wicked people ("Otot ha-Mashiah,"
in Jellinek, "B. H." ii. 61). It was Michael's tight
with Samael (with the devil in Assumptio Mosis,
x.) which gave rise to the well-known legend of Mi-
chael and the dragon. This legend is not found in
JcAvish sources except in so far as Samael or Satan
is called in the Cabala " the primitive serpent "
("nahash ha-kadmoni ").

The idea that Michael Avas the advocate of the
Jews became so prevalent that in spite of the rab-
binical prohibition against appealing to angels as
intermediaries between God and His people, Michael
came to occupy a certain place in the Jewish lit-
urgy. Apart from the word "iJ^JD, which occurs
frequently and which refers to Michael, there are
two prayers beseeching him as the prince of mercy
to intercede in favor of Israel: one composed by
Eliezer ha-Kalir (Bartolocci, "Bibl. Rab. Magna,"
i. 192 et seq.), and the other by Judah b. Samuel
lie-Hasid (MS. De Cambrai No. 946, fol. 110).
But appeal to Michael seems to have been more
common in ancient times. Thus Jeremiah is said
(Baruch Apoc. Ethiopic, ix. 5) to have addressed
a prayer to him. "When a man is in need he
must pray directly to God, and neither to Michael
nor to Gabriel" (Yer. Ber. ix. 13a).

The conception of Michael as an advocate always
interceding on behalf of Israel gave rise to another
idea, that of his being a high priest
Michael making atonement for his people.
as High Ezra recognized the place of the altar
Priest. by seeing there one on which Michael,
the great prince, was in the act of
sacrificing (Zeb. 62a ; comp. Men. 110a). The fourth
heaven is called " Zebul " (^12t) because it con-
tains the heavenly Jerusalem, the Temple, and the
altar on which Michael, the great i)rince, sacrifices
(Hag. 12b). A different statement is given in
"Seder Gan 'Eden" (Jellinek, I.e. iii. 137), which
places Michael in the upper heaven called "'Ara-
bot " (n"l2"iy ; comp. Midr. Abkirin Yalk., Gen. 182).
This idea was afterward greatly developed by the
cabalists. Michael is identified with Melchizedek
("Yalk. Hadash," "Mal'akim," No. 19); and the
words "and the priest siiall i)ronounce him clean"
(Lev. xiii. 23) are explained in the "TikkuneZohar "
(fol. 2b) as referring to Michael, the high priest,
acting as the representative of clemency. Micliael,
the high priest, is the standard-bearer of God (Jo-
seph Gikatilla, "Sha'are Orah." p. 60c). The insti-
tution of tithes is ascribed to Michael (Targ.
pseudo-Jonathan to Gen. xxxii. 2.5) ; and his place
is appointed in the east, with the tribe of Levi
("Midr. Konen," in Jellinek, l.r. ii. 39).

With regard to the nature of the offerings which
Michael brings to the altar, one opinion is that they
are the souls of the just, while according to another
they are fiery sheep (Tos. to Men. 110a). The former
opinion, which has become prevalent in cabalistic
writings ("Seder Gan 'Eden,";.r. ; "Yalk. Hadash,"
"Neshamot," No. 31; "Reshit Hokmah," ch. iii.),
explains the important position occupied by Michael
in Jewish eschatologj\ The idea that
Michael Michael is the Charon of individual
as Guide souls, which is common among
of Souls. Christians, is not found in Jewish
sources, but that he is in charge of the
souls of the just appears in many Jewish writings.
In the Testament of Abraham (Robinson, "Textsaud
Studies," ii. 2, Cambridge, 1898), which is Jewish, it
is said that Michael was ordered by God to bring
Abraham's soul to Him. He had a discu.ssion with
Samael over the soul of Moses (Dent. R. xi. 6 ; " Midr.
PetiratMosheh," in Jellinek, I.e. vi. 75 et seq. ; comp.
Jude 9). According to the Zohar (Gen., col. 303),
Michael accompanies the souls of the pious and
helps them to enter the gates of the heavenly Jeru-
salem. In " Midr. ha-Ne'elam " (" Zohar Hadash," p.
19c), however, it is said that Michael and his host are
stationed at the ga>es of the heavenly Jerusalem and
give admittance to the souls of the just. Michael's
function is to open the gates also of j ustice to the j ust
(comp. Baruch Apoc. Ethiopic, ix. 5). David was not
admitted there till the Temple was built by Solomon ;
then he was introduced by Michael (" Yalk. Hadash,"
"David," No. 18). At the resurrection Michael will
sound the trumpet, at which the graves will open
and the dead will rise ("Otot ha-Mashiah," in Jelli-
nek, I.e. ii. 61-62; comp. Dan. xii. 1). It is in this
sense that the Falashas mention Michael in their
prayer ("Prieres des Falashas," ed. J. Halevy,
pp. 48-49, Ethiopic text). There is another hag-
gadah to the effect that when the Messiah comes
Michael and Gabriel will place themselves at the
entrance of paradise and in the name
Michael's of God greet the just (Jellinek, I.e. vi.
Mount. 148). Michael's residence will be in
a range of seven mountains, sur-
rounded by a grove of fragrant trees, among which
one will be particularly distinguished for its beauty.
The highest of the seven mountains will be the seat
of the Lord, and the most fragrant tree, which will
be inacces-sible to any human being till the Daj' of
Judgment, will be given to the pious (Enoch, xxiv.-
XXV. 5). Contrary to Dan. xii. 2, it is said in " Oti-
yot de-R. 'Akiba," s r. f333"lT(in Jellinek, I.e. iii. 28),
tliat at the advent of the Messiah, God will give the
keys of hell to Michael and Gabriel, who will bring
the souls of the wicked into paradise.

It is quite natural that, owing to his position
with regard to the Jews, Michael should be repre-
sented in the Ilaggadah as the most prominent of
the archangels. He is called by Daniel (Dan. xii. 1)
"the great prince," and his greatness is described at
length in later Jewish writings. He was one of the
seven archangels first created (Enoch, xc. 21-22;
Targ. Yer. to Deut. xxxiv. 6 gives only six), but
among these seven four excel, and Michael is the
chief of the four. Both he and Gabriel are called
"great princes"; but Michael is higher in rank than




Gabriel (Ber. 4b; Yoma 37a). He is the viceroy of
God, who rules over the world (Euoch, Ixix. 14 et
seq.), and wherever Michael appears the Shekinah
also is to be found (Ex. R. ii. 8). Michael is on the

right of God's throne, while Gabriel is

Michael on the left ("Haggadat Shema' Yis-

and rael," in Jellinek, l.r. v. 166; Targ. to

Gabriel. Job xxv. 2; Euoch, xl. 9). Four

armies of angels sing in praise of tlie
Lord, the first being that of Micliacl at the right
hand of God (Pirke^R. El. iv. : "Ilekalot," in Jelli-
nek, I.e. ii. 43-44). A similar tradition is given in
"Seder Gan 'Eden" (I.e. p. 138): Michael's place is
by the first river, Pison, while Gabriel's is by the
second, Gihon. It is Michael who, on account of his
occupying tlie first place near God, receives the pray-
ers of men from the angels and jiiesents them to God
(Baruch Apoc. Slavonic, xii.). His position makes
him the companion of Mkt.\thox (Zohar, i. 149b).
As an angel of nature, Michael is represented as
of the element of water, on account of which he is
the prince of water, while Gabriel is the prince of
fire ("'Anmiudeha Sliib'ah," p. 49c; "Berit Menu-
hah," 3.7a; and elsewhere). This is probably the
origin of the haggadah tliat when Solomon married
Pharaoh's daughter, Michael drove into the bed of
the sea a stick around which slime gathered and on
which, later, Rome was built (Cant. R. i. 6). In
Sanh. 21b and Shab. 56b, liowever, this is ascribed
to Gabriel, owing to a confusion which occurs also
in Targ. to Job xxv. 2, where Michael is called the
prince of fire. Michael is really the prince of snow,
which is the element of water (Dent. R. v. 12) ; and he
is also tlie angelof silver, while Gabriel is the angel
o.f gold (" Yalk^ Hadash," "Marakim," No. 75). Mi-
chael presides over the planet Mercury and conse-
quently over Wednesday (Abraham Avenar, in
Mlinster, " Calendar Hebra-orum, " Basel, 1527). The
same statement is given in tiie Hebrew manu-
scripts Paris No. 602 (fol. 142a) and No. 603 (fol.
125a), both containing cabalistic formulas. But it
would more befit Michael to preside over Saturn and
be the angel of Saturday ; and this position is
ascribed to him in "Sefer liazi'el," pp. 8a, 17b. He
presides over the second solar period ("tekufali")
and over tlie soutli wind, wiiich blows during that
season (ih. 7a; Paris MS. No. 602, fol. 122a). He
is the third of the "figure equivalents" (•' Keneh
Biiiaii," p. 19a); and in enchantment his name is
pronounced to charm reptiles ("Sefer Razi'el," p.
4a). See Angelologv.

BIBI.IOORAPIIY : A. Kohiit. jn(U''c)ir Aii(iel'>h)(iic. pp. 24 ct
sr(i., in AhlKiiiilhiniii'ii f Mr die Knnth- di'x Mi))yeiiliiutlcs,
iv., No. H; W. Liikeh, Micliail, (iiHtlnjren. 189S ; M. Sobwab,
Vncalndnire de VAngelolngie, s.v. '^nj'C, Paris, 1897.
.T. M. Sel.

In Arabic Literature : Michael is called in Ar-
abic literature "Mika'il " or (in the Koran) " ]\Iikal."
He is one of the four archangels, and, according
to Arabic tradition, he occupies a similar position
among the Jews to that o('(U])icd by Gabriel among
tiie Arabs; that is to say, he is their ijcculiar guard-
ian. In the Koran Michael is mentioned oner only,
in sura ii. 02. In his eoinmeiitary on verse 91 of
that sura, Baidawi rehitesthat on oneocca.sion Omar
went into a Jewisli school and in(|uired concerning
Gabriel.. The pupils said lie was tlnir fnemy. but

that Michael was a good angel, bringing peace and
plenty. In answer to Omar's question as to the re-
spective positions of Michael and Gabriel in God's
presence, they said that Gabriel was on His right
hand and Michael on His left. Omar exclaimed at
their untruthfulnes.s, and declared that whoever was
an enemy to God and His angels, to him God would
be an enemy. Upon returning to Mohammed, Omar
found that Gabriel had forestalled him by revealing
the same message, which is contained in verse 92.
The commentators state with reference to sura xi.
72 that Michael was one of the three angels who
visited Abraham.

In Arabic tradition Michael always appears as
second to Gabriel. Wlien God is creating Adam
He sends first Gabriel and then Michael to fetch the
clay out of which man is to be formed. Both are
restrained by the earth's protests; only Israfil pa}'s
no heed to them. When Adam and Eve are expelled
from paradise, Gabriel is sent to the former, and
Michael to the latter, to impart comfort. On his
death-bed Mohammed stated that Gabriel would be
the first and jVIichael the second to pray over him.

It is unusual for Michael to be sent independently,
as in the story of St. George, where Michael is com-
missioned to destroy the brazen statue in which St.
George is to be burned alive (Zotenberg, "Chro-
nique d'Abu Djafer . . . Tabari," 1 30, 73;
ii. 61; iii. 213, Paris, 1867-71). At the last day
Michael will be one of the four angels who will
survive after every other creature has been des-

Bibliography: The commentaries of Balcjawl and Zamakh-
shari on tbe Koran ; Hughes, Did. of Mam, s.v.; Mas'iidl,
Les Prairie.* d'Or. ed. Barhler de Menard, Index ; Weil, Bih-
Ucal Legends of the Mus!<ulmans, p. 37, New York. 1846.
.T. M. W. M.

MICHAEL HASID. See Jeihel Michael

liibliographer; born at Hamburg April 12, 1792;
died there June 10, 1846. He showed great acute-
ness of mind in early childhood, had a phenomenal
memory, and was an indefatigable student. He
studied Taimudicsand received also private instruc-
tion in all the branches of a regular school educa-
tion. He was a bom bibliophile, and began to col-
lect valuable works when still a boy of twelve.
With his progress in Hel)rew literature his love for
books increased also, the result of which was his
magnificent library of 860 manuscripts and 5,471
printed works, covering all branches of Hebrew lit-
erature. There were few books in his collection
which he had not read; and he undertook the prep-
aration of a full catalogue of it. As far as he ac-
comi)lislied this task, it was the foundation of the
"Ozerot Ilayyim, Katalog dcr ^Sliehaerschen Biblio-
Ihek," llaminirg, 1848.

Michael took an interest not only in Jewish liter-
ature, but in all the intellectual movements of tiie
da}', as is shown bv the large numl)er of contempo-
rary books and leafiets found in his library. He
never wrote directly for publication; but many
scholars applied to liim for information, and this he
never withheld. His corresiiondeiice with Leopold
Dukes, Franz Delitzsrli, Wolf Heidenheim, liapo-




port, Luzziitto, Goseiiius, Lebrecht, Akiba, Eger,
and Leopold Zuiiz is of great literary interest,
^lichael's only independent work was "Or lia-
Hayyim" (Fiankfort-on-the-Main, 1891), a compre-
hensive bibli()grai)liical and literary-historical dic-
tionary of rabbinical literature, edited by his son,
witli preface by A. Berliner; it covers, however,
only a few letters of the alphabet.

BiBi.iocjRAPHY : Zunz. Z. G. p. 244, Berlin, 1845 ; Ozernl Jiay-

yim. Preface, Hauibiirg, 1848; AUo- Zcit. des Jiul. 1846,
p. 224.
p. I. War.

MICHAEL, ISAAC : German laryngologist;
horn at Hamburg Nov. 16, 1H48; died there Jan. 7,
1397. He studied at the universities of Heidelberg,
Leipsic, Berlin, and Wiirzburg (M.D. 1873), became
assistant at the throat, and later at tlie ear, dispen-
sary of tlie University of Vienna, and in 1876 re-
turned to Hamburg, where he practised until his
death. His works include "Gesang-und Register-
bildung" (Hamburg, 1887) and "Gesch. des Aerzt-
lichen Vereins von Hamburg " {il>. 1896). He trans-
lated ^Mackenzie's "Hygiene of the Vocal Organs "
{i/j. 1889).;i:ArirY : I'iijrel, liimjiaiiliisclicx Lcrikmi.

^, F. T. H.

MICHAEL JESOFOVICH: Senior of the Jews
of Lithuania under King Sigismund I. of Poland;
born at Brest-Lilovsk about the middle of the fif-
teenth century ; died tliere between 1530 and 1533.
]\Iiehael, like his brothers Abraham and Isaac, was
among the most prominent tax-collectors and lease-
holders in Lithuania during the last quarter of the
fifteenth and the first quarter of the sixteenth cen-
tury. E.xiled with the other Jews of Lithuania by
Alexander Jagellon in 1495, he emigrated with his
brothers to Poland. His brother Abraham embraced
Christianity and soon returned to Lithuania; i)ut
Michael remained true to his religion, and did not
again set foot in liis native city until 1503, when
permission to return was given to the expelled Jews.

King Sigismund 1., by a decree dated W"ilna, Feb.
27, 1514, apiiointed Michael to the newly cieated
seinorship over the Jews of Lithuania. In his capac-
ity as senior he not only was to serve as mediator
between tiie Jews and the king, but was also em-
powered to judge and to the Jews, in keep-
ing with the rights granted to them, and to im-
pose a fine or even a term of emprisoun.ent on the
guilty. ]\[ichael evinced his piety by attempting
to force the Karaite Jews of Lithuania to conform
to the doctrines of rabbinical law ; but the Karaites,
who possessed a charter of privileges granted them
by Grand Duke Witold, refused to acknowledge
Michael's authority, and the matter was decided in
their favor by the king.

This a]ilK)intment, while it shows the favorable
attitude of Sigismund toward his Jewish sui)jecls,
Avas actuated in the main by his desire to insure a
thorough and promiU collection of the taxes im-
]»osed on the Jewish conuniuiities, and to reward
the valuable services rendered to the crown l)y
]\Iichael and his brother Abraham. On the whole,
however, the ollice of senior was honorary and nom-
inal, since the concentration of the powers of the
several conuniuiities in tlii- hands of one ])crson of

the same religion was antagonistic to the traditions
of the Lithuanian Jews. While it is true that soon
after his appointment Michael excommunicated
Itzko and Berek, two Jews of Brest, as traitors
against God and the king (the said Jews having been
sentenced to excommunication with Prince Michael
Krinsky), and ordered the excommiuiication "to be
announced by trumjiets," it does not follow that
Michael was invested with extraordinary judicial
powers, since he was merely carrying out an order
of the king, and similar excomnuniications had
been proclaimed before (Bershadski, "Litovski}'e
Yevrei," p. 358). The fact that Michael was author-
ized by the king to employ a doctor (rabbi) shows
that he himself was not a rabbi, and was not privi-
leged according to Jewish law to assume the func-
tions of one. Dociunents of a later date no longer
refer to him as the senior, but apply to him the title
of "fiscal agent to the king."

Michael's commercial enterprises covered a period
of almost half a century, and were intimately con-
nected with the prosperity of the country. He took
an active part in the affairs of his brother Abraham
even before the expulsion of the Jews
His Com- from Lithuania, and formed in 1487
mercial with his brother Isaac a partnership
Activity, which continued for forty years. In
documents of 1516 and of subsequent
date Michael is mentioned as collector of the king's
taxes of Lithuania and as farmer of the salt- and
wax-taxes of Brest. In 1520 he Avas granted the
farming of the customs duties of Vladimir and Lutsk ;
and in 1522 he farmed the wax- and weights-taxes
in Moghiief. Soon after this he leased the inns of
Vitebsk for a period of three years, and a year later
he leased the inns and farmed the taxes of Brest,
Dorogitz, Grodno, Byelsk. Lutsk, and Vladimir.
In 1524 he farmed, in partnership with Michael
Slipis, the cu.stoms duties of the entire duchy of
Lithuania. From 1525 to 1529 he extended his oper-
ations to the farming of the taxes of Minsk and
Novgorod. Aside from the collection of taxes and
duties, Michael carried on also an extensive business
in various articles of merchandise, sucli as cloth.
Not content with all this, he with the king's con-
sent advanced money and goods to the king's offi-
cers, protecting himself by liens on their salaries,
while the king received for his good offices a certain
share of the profits ("DokumenTy i Hegesty," No. 1,
vol. viii.). The extremely valuable services ren-
dered by Michael to his sovereign and the infiticnce
of his immense financial interests finally led the king
to raise him to the hereditary nobility Avith the coat
of arms of Leliva, formerly belonging to Gecrge
Gyebovich, regent of Smolensk (///., No. 96).

The extent of Michael's property may be gath-
ered from a document which refers to the division
in 1527 of the estate, real and personal, belonging
to him and to his brother Isaac, and which enu-
merates their respective po.ssessions (ih.. No. 119).

After Michael's death his sf)n Abraham was con-
lirmcd (March 15, 1533) in the privileges granted to
the former ("Regesty," No. 261).

IJini.incjRAPiiv: Jivnaho-Yrvreixki Arhliiw vol. ii., pai<sim :
Bershadski. Litorskiue IVrni. p. ;5-')8 : Krausliar, HiMorya
Zjiduv ir I'lilscc. ii. 49; (Jriitz. (icscfi. Hetirew ed.. vii. 313.

H. R.




MICHAEL, MAX: German painter; born in
Hamburg Marcli 23, 1823 ; died at Berlin Marcli 24,
1891. He studied art first at the Kunst-Akademie
in Dresden, then for five years at Paris, after wliicli
he spent twenty years at Rome and Venice. In
these cities he produced his first worlv, " Country
Girl Writing" (1866), now in the Ravene Gallery,
Berlin. In 1870 he returned to Berlin, and five years
later was appointed professor of painting in the
Royal Academy. He held this office until his death.
Other works of his are: "Girls' School in the Sabine
Mountains," in the Kunsthalle, Hamburg; "The
Visit of the Cardinal to the Monastery " ; "Job Dis-
puting with His Friends"; "Bertini Painting an
Altar-Piece in the Monastery of the Camaldolites. "

Bibliography: Jew. Chron. April 3, 1891, p. 9; Singer, ^U-
gemeines KUnstler Lexikon, Frankfort-on-tbe-Main, 1899.
s. F. T. H.

tinian rabbi and liturgist; lived at Jerusalem in the
seventeenth century. He wrote "Moreh Zedek "
(Salonica, 1655), an index to the laws contained in
the Shulhan 'Aruk, Hoshen Mishpat, showing
where they may be found in other works of the
Posekim as well as in the responsa of later rabbis.
There is also ascribed to him anotlier work, " 'Et
le-Heneuah" (Venice, 1708), prayers to be recited at
the western wall of tlie ancient Temple, with addi-
tions by the author's son Moses. According to Nepi-
Ghirondi ("Toledot Gedole Yisrael," p. 228), how-
ever, Michael only revised and edited that work.

Bibliography : F. Delitzsch, Gesch. der Jlldi'<clien Poesie,
pp. .56-57; Fiirst, Bibl. Jmi. 1. 183; Steinschneider, Cat.
Bodl. No. 3271 ; idem, Jewish Literature, p. 242.
A. M. Sel.

merchant and capitalist; born Aug. 15, 1862, at Jef-
ferson, Ga. At an early age he graduated as B.E.
from the University of Georgia with highest honors,
and shortly afterward entered with his brother Si-
mon upon a commercial career at Athens, Ga. Here
he has amassed a fortune in the dry-goods trade.

Michael has been an influential factor in the de-
velopment of northeastern Georgia, having been
identified with a number of large industrial enter-
prises. He holds the rank of lieutenant-colonel in
the state militia, and was aide-de-camp to Governor
Candler during his administration. He is a mem-
ber of the Democratic executive committee of tlie
Eighth Congressional District, and a potent factor
in the councils of the party.

For a number of years Michael has been superin-
tendent of the Jewish Sabbath-school at Athens,
which he makes his peculiar cliurge.

A. 11. E. C.

also Magister Zematus) : Rabbi of Rome in the
sixteenth century. In u (Iccisiou of I.IHD his signa-
ture reads "Michael b. Shabbethai L3t3T " the last
word being the name of a place in Africa whence
probal)ly Michael's ancestors originated, and becom-
ing when Latinized "Zematus." Michael was a
prominent cabalist and as sucli was the teacher of
.^gidius of Viterbo and of Widiiianstadt (I'erles.
"Studieii." pp. 186. IS!)). Klijuh di Nola fl.").').-))

speaks of Michael as the possessor of an excellent
collection of cabalistic works (Perlcs, I.e. p. 217).

Bibliography : Vopelstein and Rieger, Gesch. der Juden in
Rom, ii. 9:2, 99, 360.

K. M. Sel.

BALBO (called also Michael Cohen of Crete) :
Greek scholar, Hebrew poet, and preacher; born
March 27, 1411. A manuscript preserved in the
Vatican (No. 305) contains several works of his,
namely : a poem composed in 1453 on the occasion of
the capture of Constantinople by Mohammed the
Conqueror and the cessation of the war; another
poem (1456), lamenting his father's death ; a homi-
letic commentary on Ps. xxviii. ; and three sermons
preached by Michael in Khania in 1471, 1475, and
1477 respectively. Vatican MS. No. 254 contains
an account of a disputation ("wikkuah") between
Michael Cohen and Moses Cohen Ashkenazi on met-
empsychosis ("gilgul"; Zunz (" Additamenta," jj.
320) is doubtful whether to identify the former
with Michael b. Shabbethai or with Michael b.
Elijah Cohen, copyist of Vatican MSS. Nos. 345 and
346 (fourth part). Steinschneider doubts the cor-
rectness of the name Michael b. Elijah. According
to Assemani, the commentary on Averroes' com-
mentary to Aristotle's "Physics" (i.-vi.), con-
tained in the former mantiscript, was made by a
pupil of Michael Cohen of Crete. Wolf ("Bibl.
Hebr." i., No. 1413), however, ascribes the com-
mentary to Michael Cohen, calling him a disciple of
Averroes. Wolf thinks also that the author of the
account of the disputation is Michael b. Moses ha-
Kohen, who, in collaboration with Abraham Samuel
of Sofia, wrote the "Moreh Zedek."

A work entitled " Sha'are Rahamim " (Vatican

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 132 of 169)