Copyright
Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

. (page 134 of 169)
Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 134 of 169)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


four elements and their characteristics ;

Joseph ibn for he passes from heat to cold, from

Zaddilf . moisture to dryness. He participates

in the nature of minerals, vegeta-
bles, and animals; he comes into being and passes
out of being like the minerals; nourishes and repro-
duces himself like the plants; has feeling and life
like the animals. Further, he presents analogies to
the characteristics of things: his erect figure resem-
bles that of the terebinth ; his hair, grass and veg-
etation ; his veins and arteries, rivers and canals;
and his bones, the mountains. In addition, he pos-
sesses the characteristics of the animals: he is brave
like a lion, timid like a hare, patient like a lamb,
and cunning like a fox. IMoses ibn Ezra, in his
" 'Arugat ha-Bosem," says that man is called micro-
cosm because he resembles the macrocosm in his
composition, derivation, and creation. With the
spread of the Peripatetic philosophy, in the twelfth
century, the doctrine of microcosm, which entered
Jewish philosophy through the Arabian Neoplato-
nists, and especially through the encyclopedists
known as "the Brethren of Sincerity " (comp. Diete-
rici, " Die Anthropologic der Araber," pp. 41 et scq.).
lost all its significance. Maimonides is concerned
only with the original Aristotelian idea from which
the doctrine evolved, namely, that the wliole uni-
verse is one organic body, and that it has the prop-
erties of a living being, possessing life, motion, and
a soul; but he does not seem to believe in the nice-
ties of the analogy between the human body and
the universe as established by the Neoplatonists
(see " Moreli Nebidcim," i., chap. Ixxii.). However,
the doctrine became prominent in the Cabala. " The
human body," says the Zohar, "is the model of all
the creations; it unites all tlie earthly and celestial

worlds" (iii. 135a). In another pas-
In the sage, it is said: "The human figure
Cabala. unites all that is above and all that is

below; therefore the Ancient of An-
cients has chosen it for His form" (iii. 14113"). In
"Tikkune Zohar" man is regarded as a microcosm,
and, viewed in his relation to the macrocosm, consid-
ered as the great universal ideal man or Adaaf
Kadmon. It is probably through the infiuence of
the Cabala that the doctrine of the microcosm came
into great favor among the philosophers of the He-
nuissance like Bruno, Paracelsus, and others, who
held that in man's nature is found the sum of all the
cosmic forces. He is able to understand the material
world, because he unites in his body the finest es-
sence of all tlie material things; and as an intel-
lectual being of sidereal origin, he has the faculty of
conceiving the world f)f intellectual forms through
the spark of the divine infused into his nature.

BiBMOORAPHV: Fried, Sefer hn-Yesndot, p. 59: Jellinek, edi-
tion of Ibn Zaddik's 'Oiam KaUin, Intro.; Bloch. in Winter
and Wiinsclie, Dif JVulisclle 'Litteratm; ii. 729; Stein-
sclineider, Jlchr. Ucherx. p. 407; Kaufmann, Attrihuteit-
lehrc, p. 5; Miink, GifiVfe <h's Kuan's, i., chap. Ix.xii., note;
Karppe, Etudes sur VOrigiue et la Nature <(« Zohar, pp.
4.52 et see/.; JoiJl, Beitr(i(ie zur Qesch. der Philosnpliie, i. 29.
J. I. Bu.

MIDDLEMAN, JUDAH : English rabbi of
the first half of the nineteenth century. He was the
VIII.— 3o



author of " Netibot Emet," a work written in de-
fense of the traditions of the Talmud against the
attacks, in "Old Paths" ("Netibot '01am"), of the
Rev. Alexander McCaul. Only the first part of
the "Netibot Emet" was published, in 1847, under
the title "Paths of Truth," an English translation
b3' M. II. Breslau appearing in the same year.

Bibliography : Jacobs and Wolf, BihJ. Anglo-Jud. p. 107.
.1. I. Co.

MIDDOT : Treatise in the Mishnah ; tenth in the
order Kodashim. It deals with the dimensions and
the arrangement of the Temple, and is divided
into five chapters containing thirty-four paragraphs
in all.

Ch. i. : The night-watches in the sanctuary. The
priests kept guard in three places, the Levites in
twenty-one (^ 1). These watches were controlled
by the captain of the Temple ("ish har ha-ba-
yit"). When this official passed the priest or the
licvite on guard, the latter was required to rise.
If he failed to do so, the captain addressed him ;
and if it became evident that the guard was asleep,
the captain struck him with his staff. The captain
had also the option of burning the sleeping watch-
man's coat. The other guards then jested at the
expense of the sleeper and shouted; "A Levite is
beaten and his clotlies are burned becatise he has
fallen asleep at his post" (^ 2). The gates of the
hill of the Temple. On the eastern gate was a
representation of Susa, the Persian capital, in token
of the Persian supremacy (§ 3). The gates of the
inner- court (ii§ 4-5). In the northeastern part of
the forecourt was a cell in which the Hasmoneans
preserved the altar-stones which were consecrated
during the reign of the Greek (Syrian) kings (§ 6).
The "place of the hearth " ("bet ha-moked ") was
a large hall with an arched ceiling. Around the
walls were stone benches upon which the older
priests rested, the younger ones sleeping on the
floor (§§ 7-8). While a Levite kept watch outside,
a priest within locked the doors, i)ut the bunch of
keys in a place hollowed out for them, and covered
them with a marble slab, on which he lay down to
sleep (i^ 9).

Ch. ii. : The dimensions of the Temple hill: 500
cubits square (§ 1). All who ascended the hill kept
to the right excepting mourners and those under a
ban, Avho walked on the left, that they might be
distinguished from the rest. Those who met the
grief-stricken greeted them with the words, "May
He who dwelleth in this house comfort thee " ; while
to one under a ban they wished reconciliation with
his friends and the consequent removal of the ban
(i; 2). Within the walls of the Temple hill was a
railing wiiich had been broken in thirteen iiiaces by
heathen kings, but had been restored. Height and
breadth of the steps and of the gates of the Temple.
All the doors with the exception of those of the
gate of Nicanor were covered with gold (§ 3). Di-
mensions of the space allotted to women in the inner
court. From this court the men's court was reached
by a flight of fifteen steps, corresponding to the fif-
teen "songs of degrees" in the Psalms (Ps. cxx.-
cxxxiv.); and on these stejis the priests stood while
singing (^ 5). Under tlie forecourt were cells in



Middot
Midiau



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



546



which the Levites kept tlieir musical instruments.
Enumeration of the thirteen gates of tlie forecourt
(§ 6).

Ch. iii. : Dimensionsof the altar of burnt oflferings.
This at first was only twenty-five cubits square, but
was afterward enlarged to thirty-two cubits (i^ 1).
The stones of the altar might not be hewn with an
iron tool or changed in any way. The reason as-
signed for this is noteworthy, and is at the same
time an explanation of Ex. xx. 2.1. The weapon
which shortens human life and causes early death is
of iron, while the altar serves to prolong the life of
man by expiating sin: hence it is not fitting that
this destructive metal shoidd be used on the altar
(§ 4). Arrangement of the place, on the north side
of the altar, for killing the sacrificial animals (§ 5).
The laver between the porch and the altar (i^ 6).
The porch, the golden grape-vine with its golden
tendrils, leaves, and grapes (§§ 7-8; comp. Hul. 90b,
where K. Isaac b. Nahmani remarks tliat this mish-
nah— Mid. iii. 8 — was one of the passages in which
the wise had spoken Avords of exaggeration and
hence were not to be taken literally).

Ch. iv. : Detailed description of that part of the
Temple called "hekal," of its entrances — one of
which, according to Ezek. xliv. 2, was never used
— doors, chambers, steps, and balustrades.

Ch. v. : Description of the inner court and of its
chambers. In this court was a hall built of square
stones and called "lishkat ha-gazit," where the
Great Sanhedrin met and decided all matters touch-
ing the priesthood. One of its chief duties was to
examine the genealogy of each individual priest and
to determine Iiis fitness for service in the Temple.
The i)riest in whom a blemish was discovered
wrapped him.self in black garments and left the
Temple, but he in whom no fault was found clothed
himself in white, entered the Temple, and took his
place among the other priests. Whenever it liappened
that all the priests who were examined on a single
day were without blemish, that day was celebrated
as a holiday. There is no Geniara to this treatise.
See also Temple.

s. s. J. Z. L.

MIDDOT : THE SEVEN, OF HILLEL. See

TAi.Mti) IIi;i<Mi:NKrTu s.

MIDDOT, SHELOSH-'ESREH: The thirteen
forms of mercy, enunieratcd in Ex. xxxiv. G-7,
whereby God rules the world. According to the ex-
jilaiiation of Maimonidcs (" Moreh Ncbidiim," i. 52).
which is confirmed l)y the Sifie (Dent. 49 [ed. Fricd-
mann, p. 8")]), these middot must not be regarded as
(|ualities inherent in God, but merely as so many at
tributes of His activity, by which the divine govern-
ance ai)pears to the human observer to be controlled.
In tli(! Sifrc, however, these attrii)utes are not called
"miildot," which may mean "(juality" as well as
•'rulc"and "measure" (comp. Ab. v. 10-15), but" dera-
kim" (ways), since they are the ways of God which
Mnses prayed to know (Ex. xxxiii. 13), and wliicli
God, according to the traditional exi)lanation of Ex.
xxxiv. 6-7, proclaimed to him. The number thirl ecu
isadopted from the Taliiiudic and rabbinic tradition,
while the Karaites count only nine, ten, or eleven
middot (comp. Aaron b. Elijah, " Keter Torah."
lul hic., Eupatoria, 18(50). The rabi)inicai school in-



deed agrees that the middot number thirteen and
that they are contained in Ex. xxxiv. 6-7, but with
which word they begin and with which they con-
clude are moot questions. According to Tobiah ben
Eliezer, Midrash Lekah Tob, ad ^wc.,ed. Buber, Wilna,
1884; R. Jacob Tam, in Tos. R. H. I7b, catchword
"Shelosh-'Esreh Middot"; Abraham ibn Ezra in his
conunentary, ad loc.\ Asher b. Jehiel; and Kalon} -
mus, "Meshoret Mosheh," ed. Goldenthal, p. 14,
Leipsic, 1845, the thirteen middot begin with the first

" Adonai," in verse 6, and end with the
Division, word " we-nakeh" in verse 7. The

single attributes are contained in the
vei'ses as follows :

(1) '•Adonai," compassion before man sins; (3) "■ Adonai,"
compassion after man has sinned (comp. K. H. 17b); (13) "El,"
mighty in compassion to give all creatures according to their
need; (4) " Rahum," merciful, that mankind may not be dis-
tressed ; (5) '■ Hanun," gracious if mankind is already in dis-
tress; (6) " Erek appayira," slow to anger; (7) " Rab hesed,"
plenteous in mercy : (8) " Emet," truth ; (9) " Nozer hesed la-
alaflm," keeping mercy unto thousands (comp. the explanation
of Samuel b. Meir in " Da'at Zekenim," ad foe); (10) "Nose
'awon," forgiving iniquity; (11) "Nose pesha'," forgiving
transgression; (12) " Nose hata'ah," forgiving sin ; (13) "We-
nakeh," and pardoning.

According to R. Nissim (quoted in Tos. R. H., I.e.),
Isaac Alfasi, and others, the thirteen middot begin
only with the second "Adonai," since the first one
is the subject of "wa-yikra" (and he proclaimed).
To secure the number thirteen, some count "nozer
hesed la-alafim " as two (Nissim in Tos. I.e.), while
otliers divide "eiek appayim " into two, since for-
bearance is shown both to the good and to the
wicked (comp. the gloss on Tosafot, I.e. and Ibn
Ezra, I.e.), and still others end the thirteenth mid-
dah with " lo yenakeh " (lie does not pardon; Mai-
monides, "Pe'er ha-Doi-," p. 19b, Lemberg, 1859),
this being considered a good quality, since through
punishment man is moved to repentance, after
which he is pardoned and pure (comp. Yoma 86a;
Aaron b. Elijah, l.r.\ and " 'Ez ha-Hayyim," ch.
xcii.). Others term " we-nakeh lo j'enakeh " a sin-
gle middah, the thirteenth being, in their opinion,
" poked 'awon abot 'al-banim " (visiting the iniquity
of the fathers upon the children), " this being re-
garded as compassionate since the transgressor is
not punished inunediately" (Maimonides, I.e. ; Aaron
b. Hayyim, I.e. ; comp. also " Da'at Zekenim ").

The general usage is based on the view of Lekah
Tob, R. Tam, and Ibn Ezia, and the various reci-
tations of tlie thirteen middot begin with the first
"Adonai" ;ifler "wa-yikra," and conclude with

"we-nakeh." They must not be re-
Liturgical cited ])y only one; person in prayer
Usage. (Sluillian Aruk, Orah llayyim, 5()r),

•■)), but by an entire congregation,
which must consist of ten peisons at least (" miu-
yan "). They are recited on every holy day — not on
the onlinai-y Sabbaths — when the Torah scroll is
taken from the Ark, and it is also customary that on
tlie fast-days on which Ex. xxxii. 11-14 and xxxiv.
1-10 are rgad, the rcailer stops at the word "wa-
yikra" in order that the congregation may recite the
thirteen middot, after which he continues his read-
ing. The thirteen middot are very frequently re-
cited in penitential piayers, in some of which they
have even been hyposlatized and are invoked, as



547



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Middot
Midian



inferior celestial beiugs, to aid the prayers of Israel
aiul to present them before God. This is esperially
tlie case in tlic selihali of the eve of the Xew-Year,
wliich is repeated at the niorninjr service on the
Day of Atonement, and which begins -witli tlie
words "Shelosli 'esreh niiddnt," and in the pizmon
of Amittai b. Shephatiah for tlie fifth day of re-
pentance, wincli is recited also at the evening serv-
ice on the Day of Atonement, and in which the
"middat ha-rahainim" (compassion) is particularly
invoked. On fast-days as well as during the week
before the New-Year (the so-called selihot days),
and on the days between the New-Year and the
Day of Atonement, called the days of repentance,
many penitential praycrs(" selihot") are recited in ad-
dition to the usual daily prayers. After every such
petition tlie thirteen middot are recited with their
introductory prayer, the well-known "ElMelek
yoshcb," wliich runs as follows: "Almighty King,
sittest on the throne of mercy, showing forth Thy
compassion, and forgiving the sins of Thy peoj)le
by ever taking away their former guilt, ofttimes
granting pardon unto sinners and forgiveness to the
transgressors, making manifest Thy goodness botli
to body and to soul, nor punishing them according
to their iniquity ; Almighty One, as Thou hast
taught us to recite the tliirteen [middot], so remem-
ber now the thirteenfold covenant, as Thou didst in
former days proclaim it to tlie modest one [^Moses],
even asitis wa-itten . . ." (then follow the verses Ex.
x.xxiv. 5-7a and 9b). The importance attributed to
the thirteen middot in this prayer and the potency
ascribed to the recitation of them in the penitential
prayer are based upon an overlitcral and partially
erroneous interpretation of a passage from tlie Tal-
mud, which runs as follows (R. H. 17b): "After
God liad proclaimed the tliirteen middot to IVIoses,
lie told him: 'As 6f ten as Israel sliall offend, thus
shall they do in 'My presence, and I will forgive
them. ' Rab Judah says that a covenant was made
that the thirteen middot should not be without
effect." The phrase " thus shall they do" was under-
stood as requiring the recitation of the thirteen mid-
dot in the .same way as God had proclaimed them to
Moses, while the words of Kab Judah were inter-
preted to imply that even the mention of the thir-
teen middot in prayer should not be without effect.
In reality, however, the first sentence does not read
"yomeru," recite, but "ya'asu," act, and, according
to the correct explanation of R. Lsaiali Horowitz in
" Shene Luhot ha-Berit " (Amsterdam, 1698, p. 333a),
the passage means that if one acts according to the
pattern of these middot and shows himself compas-
sionate, merciful, and forgiving toward his fellow
creatures, God also will be compassionate and mer-
ciful toward him and will forgive his sins (comp.
the aphorism of Raba, R. II. 17a, and the remark in
Si Ire, I.e., that tlie middot are the ways of God. in
which, according to Deut. \i. 22, mankind should
walk). In like niiinner. the words of Rab Judah
really denote that if llie thirteen middot are the rules
of life and conduct, not mere formulas, they will not
be inefficacious. The exercise and practise of these
virtues cause God to treat man with mercy and
compassion, for according toliuiimu iU'tions, both in
degree and in kind, divine recompense is measured



(Sotah 8b). If this correct interpretation of the Tal-
mudic passage in question be adopted, the impor-
tance attributed to the recitation of the thirteen mid-
dot lacks all justification.

s. J. Z. L.

MIDDOT : THE THIRTEEN, OF R. ISH-
MAEL. See T.xi.Mii) IIekme.neltus.

MIDIAN AND MIDIANITES : Midian was
the son of Abraham and Keturah. His five sons,
Ephah, Epher. Hanoch, Abidah (R.V. " Abida"), and
Eldaah, were the progenitors of the Midianites(Gen.
XXV. 1-4: I Chron. iT 32-38). The term "Midian"
(piJD). which seems to be derived from the Arabic
root I'T (=" place of iiulgment "), denotes also the
nation of the Midianites, the plural form, D^jno,
occurring only in Gen. xxxvii. 28, 36 (in the latter
l)ass;ige D^JID seems to be a scribal error for
D'J'ID) and Num. xxv. 17, xxxi. 2. Their geo-
graiihical situation is indicated as having been to
the east of Palestine; Abraham sends the sons of his
concubines, including Midian, eastward (Gen. xxv.
6). But from the statement that Moses led the fiocks
of Jethro, the priest of Midian, to Mount Horeb
(Ex. iii. 1), it would appear that the Midianites
dwelt in tlie Sinaitic Peninsula. Later, in the period
of the Kings, Midian seems to have occupied a tract
of land between Edom and Paran, on the way to
Egypt (I Kings xi. 18). Midian is likewise described
as in the vicinity of Moab : the Midian-
Geograph- ites were beaten by the Edomite king
ical Hadad "in the field of Moab" (Gen.

Position, xxxvi. 35), and in the account of Ba-
laam it is said that the elders of both
Moab and Midian called upon him to curse Israel
(Num. xxii. 4, 7). Further evidences of the geo-
graphical position of the Midianites appear in a
survey of their history.

In the time of Moses the Midianites are first men-
tioned as having had a priest by the name of Reuel
or Jethho, who became afterward Closes' father-in-
law. Toward the close of the forty years' wander-
ing of the children of Israel in the wilderness, the
Midianites were allied with the Moabites in the at-
tem]jt to exterminate the Israelites. For this reason
Moses was ordered by God to punish the Midianites.
Moses, accordingly, despatched against them an
army of 12,000 men, under Phinehas the pries.t; tliis
force defeated the Midianites and slew all their
males, including their five kings, Evi, Rekem, Zur,
Hur, and Reba. It may be noted that these five
princes of Midian are called by Joshua (xiii. 21) the
vas.sals of Sihon, the king of the Amorites. It is pos-
sible that Sihon liad previously conquered Midian
and made it a dependency, and that after his death
the Midianites recovered their independence. The
Israelitisli soldiers set on fire all tiie
Wars. cities and fortresses of the Midianites,
carried the women and children into
captivity, and seized their cattle and gooils. Tiie
Israelites were afterward ordered by ]Moses to slay
every ]\Iidianite male child and every woman, sparing
only the female cliildren (Num. xxxi. 2-18). It ap-
pears from the same account that the Midianites were
rich in cattle and gold. The narrative shows that each
of the five ^lidianite tribes was governed by its own



Hidian
Midrash



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



548



king, but that all acted together against a common
enemy; that while a part of each tribe dwelt in
cities and fortresses in the vicinity of Moab, another
part led a nomadic life, living in tents and appar-
ently remote from the seat of the war. For, after
the Midianites had been "exterminated" by the
army of Phinehas, they reappear some hundreds of
years later, in the time of Gideon.

The Biblical account of the battle between the
Midianites and Gideon (Judges vi.-viri.) asserts that
the Israelites suffered at the hands of the Midianites
for a space of six years. The Midianites seem to
have been then a powerful and independent nation ;
they allied themselves with the Amalekites and the
children of the East, and they oppressed the Israel-
ites so severely that tlie last-named were obliged to
seek refuge in caves and strongholds ; they destroyed
their crops and reduced them to extreme poverty
{lb. vi. 1-6). The allied army of Midianites and
Amalekites encamped in the valley of Jezreel {ih.
vi. 33) after having crossed the Jordan. Gideon
with his army encamped by the fountain of Harod,
the Midianite army being to the north of liim.
With 300 men Gideon succeeded in surprising and
routing them, and they fled homeward across the
Jordan in confusion {ib. vii. 1-24). A point worth
noting is that here only two Midianite kings, Zebah
and Zalmuna, and two princes, Oreb and Zeeb, are
mentioned {ib. vii. 25 ; viii. 3, 5, 10, 12, 18, 21). This
would show that only two tribes bore the name " Mid-
ianites," while the remaining three probably were
merged with otiier Arabic tribes, their kinsmen, and
perhaps partly with the Israelites also. Midian is
stated to have been "subdued before the children
of Israel, so that they lifted up their heads no
more" {ih. viii. 28). In fact, aside from allusions to
this victory (Ps. Ixxxiii. 10, 12; Isa. ix. 4, x. 6;
Hab. iii. 7), Midian is not mentioned again in
sacred history except in Judith ii. 16, where the
term " Midianites " seems to be a mistake for
" Arabians. "

The first recorded instance of a Midianite tribe
surrendering its identity by attaching itself to an-
other people appears in Judges i. 16. In this in-
stance, which occurred in the period of the Judges,
the Kenites, descendants of Jethro the Midianite, at-
tached themselves to the Israelites in the wilderness
of Judah, south of Arad. Later, in the time of
Tiglath-pileser (745-727 B.C.), a tribe, called in the
cuneiform inscriptions " Hayapa " and identified by
Friedrich Delitzsch ("Wo Lag das Paradies?" p.
304) with the tribe of Ephah, is said to have dwelt
in the northern part of the Hejaz. Isaiah (Ix. 6)
speaks of Midian and Ephah as of two distinct peo-
ples. The second son of Midian, Epher, is identified
by Knobel with the Ghifar, an Arabic tribe which, in
the time of Mohammed, had encampments near
Medina. Traces of tlie Midianites existed in post-
Bil)lical times. Ptolemy ("Geography," vi. 7) men-
tions a place called Modiana, on the coast of Arabia;
according to his statement of its position, this place
may be identified with the Madyan of tlie Arabic
geographers, in tiie neighborhood of 'Ain 'Una, op-
posite the extremity of tlie Sinaitic Peninsula, and
now known under the name of " Maulia 'ir iSlm'aib "'
(= "the caves of Shu'aib" [" Jelhn. •]).



bibliography: Cheyne and Black, Encyc. BihL; Sir Richard
Burton, Tlie Gold Miiitx of Midiati, London, 1878; idem,
T)ie Land of Midian Revisited, ih. 1879.
S. M. Sel.

MIDBASH (Jjmo, from the root c>'-n, "to
study," "to investigate"): A term occurring as
early as II Chron. xiii. 22, xxiv. 27, though perhaps
not in the sense in which it came to be used later,
and denoting "exposition," "exegesis," especially
that of the Scriptures. In contradistinction to lit-
eral interpretation, subsequently called "peshat"
(comp. Geiger's "Wiss. Zeit. Jud. Theol." v. 244),
the term "midrash" designates an exegesis which,
going more deeply than the mere literal sense, at-
tempts to penetrate into the spirit of the Scriptures,
to examine the text from all sides, and thereby to
derive interpretations which are not immediately
obvious. Tlie Talmud (Sanli. 34b) compares this
kind of midrashic exposition to a hammer which
awakens the slumbering sparks in the rock. The
divergence between midrash and peshat increased
steadily; and, although the consciousness of this
divergence may not have increased in a proportion-
ate degree, contrary to the view of Geiger {I.e. pp.
53 et seq. , 234 et seq. ; comp. Weiss, " Dor Doi-, "
i. 167 et seq.) and others, it was never wholly ob-
scured. The confession of Rab Kahana (Shab. 63a),
that although he knew the entire Talmud by the
time he was eighteen, it was many years later be-



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 134 of 169)