Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

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(found also in Bereshit Rabbah, ch. xii. [3]) that con-
cerning the doubling of names ; the latter is similarly
added in Bereshit Rabbah, ch. xl. (3) and is found
alone ib. ch. xxxviii. (12), ending in both passages
witii the words " bisseru she-Yishma'el 'oseh teshu-
bah," which the copyist (j notes as the conclusion
of his abbreviated reference.

The midrash to Ruth published by Buber in the
"Midrash Zuta" (pp. 45-56) is entirely different in
arrangement and execution; it begins with a short
proem by R. Tanhuma and contains a brief exposi-
tion according to the sequence of the text. See
Ruth R.\i?b.\ii.

3. Midrash Kohelet (so called in the editio
princepsand the Venice edition) : The Midrash Kohe-
let, or Ecclesiastes. was divided, probably, accord-
insrto the sedarim of the Biblical book; it contained,
aside from extensiv.e boriowings fi'om Yerushalmi.
proems from Bereshit Rabbah, Ekah Rabbati, Wa-
yikra Rabbah, Pesikta, and Shir ha-Shirim Rabbah,
which make up a large ]iortion of the work. But
the author of the Midrash Kohelet takes many pas-
sages from Babli as well, quotes from the "Sayings
of the Fathers" with the reference " Abot," and refers
to smaller treatises by name, betraying thereby con-
clusively the relatively late date of composition of
this midrash. Zunz designates tliis midiash as "a
work of the laterepoch." But it isdifficult toagree
with him, especially as regards Yelamtnedenu,
when he adds: "Many passages from the above-
mentioned haggadot to Canticles, Ruth, and Ecclesi-
astes have been incorporated in Yelammedenu, De-
barim Rabbah, Pesikta Rabbati, and Shemot Rabbah ;
the}' occupy a middle position l)etween the last-
named and the earlier haggadah." See Kohej.kt
Rahb.mi (in which comp. statement in regard to the
otlier midrash to Ecclesiastes printed in Ruber's
"Midrash Zufa." pp. S3-144\

4. Midrash Megillat Esther (so called in the
editio ijrinceps and in the Venice edition): This
midrash consists of six parashiyyot introduced by
one or more proems, beginning with Esth. i. 1, i. 4,
i. 9, i. 13, ii. 1, and ii. 5.. After this there is hardly
any trace of a further division. As the division is
not carried out systematically, so the exposition ap-
pears to be incomplete. The midrash borrows from
Yerushalmi, Bereshit Rabbah, Wayikra Rabbah,
and from other sources, and has some points of sim-
ilarity with the expositions to Esther in Babli.
Especially noteworthy is the story of Mordecai's
dream and prayer, and of Esther's prayer and her
appearance before the king, recogntzed at an early
date as an interpolation from " Yosip]ion." Bacher's
assumption that the passage is not a later addition,

Midrash Haggadah



but was takt'ii liy the uullior of tlic Midriisli EstluT
from 11 Hebrew uiiocnphon to the Book of Esilief,
can not. be accepted in view of liie literal agieenient
of tliat ))assago with '• Yorsipi^on." In Jkw. Excyc.
V. 241. .■-■./•. EsTiiKit Kaiusaii. aside; from the Mid-
rasii Abl)a (Jorion. another liai^^gadic exposition to
Esther is icfened to, Avhicli was pi'iiited in IJuber's
".Sammlung Auadischer Commentare," etc., ]^\). 5.")-
8'2. Entirely independent of this work is a South-
Arabic midiasii compilation to Esllier, also printed
by Huber(" Agadische Abhandlun<i;en,"etc., Cracow,
1897); this woik borrows especially from Iiabli, the
Pirk(! Rabbi Eli'ezer, and from Alfasi and Maimon-
ides. Tile midrasji to tiie roll of Esiher jirinled at
Constantinople in 151!^ and edited by C. M. lloro
wit/, in his "'Sanunlung Kleiner .Midrascliim" (1881)
is also a later composition. Gaster published still
another midrash, which he considers tiie oldest mid-
rash to Esther, in the Kohut Memorial Volume
(1897, PI). 1G7-177). See Estiieii KAnnAii. The
following are .some passages fiom this midrash.
which has been included in the Kabbot collection;
they are taken from the exposition to Estli. ii. 5
and 7 :

111 Slnislidii Dinr jra.s a rrrtain Jnr [Yrliuili]. Tlie ex-
pression U'W tfiiclies Unit ^turlle<•ai was as impiiitant in his
time as Moses had been in his time, of wtiom it is said, "Now
the man [w'-X"ii] Moses was very meetc " [Num. xii. 3]. As
Moses stood in tlie l)reu(li, of wliom it is written, "Thei'efore
he said that he would destroy tliein, liad not Moses his chosen
stood before him in tlie breacli " [I's. evi. 2:iJ, so also Mordenai,
of whom it is wiitten, " [He] accepted of the multitude of his
l)i-etliren, seel<inK the wealth of his people" [Esth. x. Ji]. As
Moses taii^rht Israel the I'orali, as it is written, "Behold, I have
taiiirht you statutes and judgments" [Dent. iv. 5], so Mordecai
also, as it is written, " words of peace and truth " [Esth. ix. liO],
aiicl •'truth" means the "Torah," as it is written, " Buy the
truth, and sell it not " [I'rov. xxiii. 213].

ir/ iiaiiic iras Miirdrcai. In speaking of the wicked the
name is placed (list: " Nabal is his name" [I Sam. xxv. 2.">1 ;
"Shel)a, the son of Bicliri liy name" [II Sam. xx. 21] ; but in
the case <pf the pious the word " name " stands llrst : "and his
name was .Maiioah " [.Judges xiii.2] ; "and his name was Kish "
[I Sam. i.\. 1 1 ; "and his name was Saul " [ib. ix. 2] ; "and his
name was Elkanali " [ili. i. 1]; "and his name was Boaz "
[Hiith ii. 1] ; "and his name was Mordecai " ; because they re-
semble their Maker, as it is written, " But by my name Jkiiovaii
was I not known to them" [Kx. vi. '.)].

Vihiiili. Why, since he was a Ben.faiiiite, was he called a
" ^■ehudi " [comp. Ksth. ii. />] > Because he confes.sed the
name of theonetiod before the whole world, as it is written,
" But .Mordecai iKJWed not, nor did him reverence " [Kslh. iii. 2].
Was he quarrelsome and one who transgresses the commands of
the king? No; but when Ahasiierus had commanded that
every one should bow down to Hainan, the latter graved an im-
nge of an idol in his heart, in order that the people might thus
bow down to the idol ; and when tianian saw that Mordecai did
not Imiw before hiin. he was very wroth. But Mordecai said,
" There is a Lord who is aliove all ; how shall I leave Him and
how down to an idol 't " And because he confessed the name of
the f)neGod, he was called " Yeliudi " [i.e., ^-[^rt^ means 'Tn'' —
" confessor of the unity of (iod "]. Others say he was as great
as Al)raham in his time. As our father Al)raham allowed him-
self to Im- cast into the tlery furnace [comp. the story in Bereshil
Italibah, xxxviii,. end], thus leading men to recognize the Holy
(III', praised lie He, as it is written, "and the souls that they
had gotten in Haian " [(ien. xii. '>; according to the midrash
the proselytes who were led liy Aliraham to recognize (iod are
meant; comp. sifre. Dent. 32; (ien. H. xxxix.], so men recog-
nized the greatness of the Holy One, praiseil In* He, in the days
of Mordecai, as it is written, "And many of the people of the land
became Jews" [Esth. viii. IT] Heconfessed the mime of the
One (iod and sanctified Him. therefore hewas<'alled ".lehiidi."

Audhf hrdiniUt iiii Ihnliinxit)!. As the myrtle [n^Tn] is
sweet of smell and l)itter of taste, so Esther was sweet for Mor-
decai and liitter for Hniiuin. For she had neither father nor
mother. U. I'hinehas and 11. Haiiiu b. (iorion. in the nameuf

Rab : " Was she a 'shetukit' [child whose origin must be c.,ii-
cealeil ] '.' No ; but when her mother became pregnant with hei ,
her father died, and when she was born her mother died." K.
I$erechiali, in the name of U. Levi : "The Holy One, |>raised be
He, said to Israel, 'You wee|i and say. Orphans are we, without
father [comp. Lam. \. .1]. By your life, the redeemer, whom I
will send to you out of Media, shall be without father and
mother, as it is written, "For she had neither father nor
uiotlier." ' "

IV. The Remaining Exegetical Midrashim
not Dealing- with, the Pentateuch: Foi ilic
midrashim to Samuel, the Psalms, and Pi-overbs .sec
Sa.\h:kl,, and Phovhhus, Miduasu to.

1. Midrash Yeshayah: This midrash is men-
tioned by Abiavanel, Abiahani Portaleone, and the
author of the midrash commentary " Matteiiot Ke-
liunnah" (to AVayikra Kabbah, section 21), tuid lie-
midbar Kabbtih, section 16). But no extract from
this midrash is found either in Yalknt Shi.nOiii or
in Yalkut jMakiri.

2. Midrash Yonah: The midrash to the Book
of Jonah, read on the Day of Atonement as haftaiali
during the Minhah prayer, contains a haggadie ve:-
sion of this prophetical book. In the editions the
work consists of two parts; the second part, in
which the story of Jonah is allcgorically referred to
the soul, beginning with the words " Wa-yomcr
Adonai la-dag," is reprinted la Jellinek, "Bet ha-
iMidrasli " (i. 102 et seq.). This part is merely a lit-
eral translation from the Zoliar (comp. /A. ]). \.\.);
it is not f(uind in the version printed by C. ]\I. Horo-
witz (after a Code.x De Rossi) in the " Samnibing
Kleiner Midrascliim " (Berlin, 1881). The first part,
the midrash lu'oper, is found also in the Yalkut to
Jonah (part ii., gi^ 550-001), with the e.\ce]ition of a
few missing passages and with several variations;
but here the Pirke Rabbi Eli'ezer is given Jis the
source (for some passages, Yerushalmi and Babli).

Jellinek assumes that the first part of the Midiash
Jonah was comiiiled sub.sequently to Yalkut. jjiit
as many jiassages which the Yalkut has in common
with the Midrash Jonah — e.g., the penitential prayer
given in Jellinek, "Bet ha-Midrash" (i. 99) and the
description of Nineveh's grandeur there — are not
found in Pirke Rabbi Eli'ezer; and as, further-
more, the author of the Yalkut probably did not
liud all this material in the Pirke Rabbi Eli c/.er.
he must have taken his quotations from a midiash
wiiich was substantially identical with the ^Midrash
Jonah {i.e., with the first part). The author of this
midrash borrowed nearly the whole of ch. .\. from
the Pirke Rabbi Eli'ezer, aiul borrowed also from
Yerushalmi and Babli. The version of the Code.\
De Rossi begins with the passage which in the Mid-
rash Jonah is found in conne(;ti(in with iii. ii ct
seq. ; the extracts borrowed by the latter from Btibli
and Yeruslialmi and insetted in the course of its
commentary to this passage and later tire missing in
the Codex De Rossi. Then follows tlie end of part
i. of the midrash, into which ch. x. of the Pirke
liabbi Eli'ezer has been interpoliifcd. It concludes
witii the exposition of some ver.scs — Dent. iv. 81,
.Micah vii. 8, and others. It may be noted, finally,
that in a compilation included in the earlier editions
of Tanhuma to the pericope " Wayikra "(ed. Stettin,
ih. ii. 8), which diites from ii later time, ch. x. of the
Pirke Rabbi Eli'ezer was also included.



Midrash Hag-g-adah

3. Midrash lyyob : It can be doulttcd no
longer that tlic old aiiiliors possessed a niidi'ash to
the Book of Job. Extraels with express reference
to the source Midrash lyvol) are found to Job i. 14
(in the Yalkut Makiii to Isa. l\i. 11), to Job i. 6 (in
a MS. commentary of liashi to Job), to Job i. landiv.
12 (ill a ]\IS. ^lahzor commentary; both these com-
nieniaiies are in the possession of Abraham Epstein,
in Vienna: comp. " Ha-Hoker," i. 325). to Job vii. 9
( in the " Kecanati " to Gen. iii. 23), to Job ii. 1 ([?] ;
in tlie "Kecanati" — according to tlie statement in
"Rab JValim," p. 34), to Job iv. 10 (in Yalk. Siii-
moni. ii. 897). The extracts found in the Yal-
kut Makiri to Ps. Ii. 7 and Ps. cxlvi. 4 with the
source-reference "Midrash " and referring to Job iii.
'2 and xxxviii. 1, are, perhaps, likewise taken from
luc ]\Iidrash lyyob. as are many passages in the Job
commentaries of Samuel b. Nissim Masnuth ("Ma'-
yan Gannim," Berlin, 1889) and Isaac b. Solo-
mon (Constantinople, 1545). The extracts and
((notations from Midrash lyyob have been collected
b\ Wertheimer ("' Lekct Midrashim," Jerusalem,
1!)03: comp. also Zunz, "G. V." p. 270; Briiirs
"Jahrb." v.-vi. 99).

According to Zunz, there are also evidences of
the existence of mitlrashim to Ezra and Chronicles
{ih. p. 271). For the Midrash al Yithallel, to
Jer. ix. 22 and to the Hallel Midrash, see Midkashi.m,


V. Special Hagg'adic Works : 1. Pirke (de)
Rabbi Eli'ezer : This work, consisting of tifty-
tourchapters, is quoted by the ancient authors either
under this name or — especially by the author of the
•• Aruk" — as Baraita de Rabbi Eli'ezer. It is
not an exegetical orhomiletical midrash like the mid-
rashim di.scussed so far, although it contains occa-
sional exjiositions, as to Jonah i. and ii. (in ch. x.)
and to passages in Esther (in ch. xlix. and 1.); but
it describes in lucid Hebrew, often having recourse
to Biblical jiliraseology and poetic diction different
from that of most of the other midrashim, the inost
important events of the Pentateuch — the works of
God as revealed in the Creation and in the ancient
history of Israel. The plan of the work, as Weiss
has hajipily stated ('Dor." iii. 290), is outlined in
the words whieh the author puts into the mouth of
R. Eliezcr b. Hyrcaiius — whose fortunes and the
recognition he received from R. Johanan b. Zakkai
are related in the introductory chapters, i. and ii.
— at the beginning of the discourse: "'Who can
utter the niiglity acts of the Lord? who can shew
forth all his i)raiseV' [Ps. cvi. 2]. Is there one in
the world able to utter God's mighty acts and to
proclaim His praise? Even the angels are not able
to do so. We may speak only of one part of His
deeds, namely, what He has done and will do, in
Older that the name of the Lord ma}' be glorified
by His creatures," etc.

In ch. iii.-xi, the creative acts of the several days
are treated haggadically. Ch. iii. begins with tlie
things created before the world — the Torah, hell,
paradise, etc. ; ch. iv. deals with the "bayyot" and
the angels; in ch. vi.-viii. the author connects with
the creative acts of the fourth day details in regard
to the planets, the signs of the zodiac, caleudric
science, and intercalation; ch. ix.. on the creative

acts of the tilth day, eoiuiects with the above-men-
tioned chajiter on Jonah, who tied before God on
the tilth day.

The liaggadah on the creation of man in ch. xi.
connects with ch. xii.-x.xi., dealing with Adam and
his descendants (note particularly ch. xiii.,onthc
envy of the angels at the creation of man; Hi. and
part of ch. xiv., on Samael; ch. xiv., on the angels
wiio warn man from the path of evil; ch. xvi., on
the deeds of love which God showed to Adam ; ch.
xvii., on comforting the mourning; ch. xviii., on
Sid)batli rest; cii. xx., on Adam at the end of the
first Sabbath and on Halidalah). Ch. xxiii. and
xxiv. deal with Noah, his sons and descendants; ch.
xxv.-xxxi., with Abraham; ch. xxxii.-xxxv., with
Isaac; ch. xxxvi.-xxxvii., with Jacob; ch. xxxviii. -
xxxix.. with Joseph (ch. xxix., on circumcision,
and eh. x xxiii., on benevolence and resurrection) ; ch.
xl.-xlvii., with Closes, the revelation of the Law,
the Exodus. Amalek, and the golden calf (comp.
ch. xiiii., on penitence, and ch. xlvi., on the Daj' of
Atonement). Connected with these chapters, prob-
ably, are ch. xlviii., on the release from Egypt and
on Moses; ch. xlix. and 1., on Amalek 's descendants,
Haman, and Titus (together with conmients to the
Book of Esther); and ch. Ii., on future redemption.
Ch. Iii. deals with seven divine miracles; ch. liii.
and liv. deal with the sin of the evil tongue — slan-
der and calunuiy. Aaron's and Miriam's calumny
against ]\Ioses (Num. xii. 1 et seq.) is also mentioned
here; the last chapter of the work closes with
the account of Miriam's punishment.

It is hardly probable that this is the original end-
ing of this haggadic work, which evidently was
planned on a very large scale, "since a writer who
goes so extensively into all the details of the Penta-
teuch will hardly have laid down his pen with the
story of the leprosy of Moses' sister " (comp. Zunz,
" G. V." pp. 271 ct seq.). The incompleteness of the
work, or the failure to carry out the original plan,
is evident from other facts also. Ch. xxvii., xxxiv.,
XXXV., xl., and xliii. end with the final sentences of
the first five of the Eighteen Benedictions respect-
ively ; the endings of ch. xl vi. , Ii. , liv. correspond with
the three following benedictions of that prayer.
This seems to point to the existence of a connective
thread, which is broken at the end of the work. In ch.
xiv. the liaggadah of God's ten appearances on earth
is recounted (comp. Mekilta to Ex. xix. 11; Sifre,
Num. 83; Gen. R. xxxviii. and xlix. ; Ab. R. N., ed.
Schechter, pp. 96, 102), and the same subject is
treated in detail in ch. xxiv., xxv., xxxix., xl., xli.,
xlvi., liv. ; while the eighth appearance is discussed
only in the last chapter. But it can not be demon-
strated from the quotations which are found in the
works of old writers, especially R. Nathan, that
the midrash ever extended any further; it probably
remained incomplete (comp. Zunz, I.e. p. 273).

No further proofs are required now to show that
R. Eliezer b. Hyrcanus was not the author of the
work. Aside from many indications recalling the
productions of the geonic period, the interesting
passage in ch. xxx., omitted in some editions, ex-
plicitly referring to the building of the mosque on
tiie site of the Temple, and the allu.sions to the
deeds of the califs, clearlv indicate that the author

Midrash Hag-g-adah
Midrash Halakah



lived under Arabic rule. According to Zunz, the
work can not have been composed before the eighth
century. It \va.s used by Kalir, is mentioned by K.
Nissim (c. 1030), and is oi'teu (juoted since Rashi and
the"'Aruk." The author was doubtless a Pales-
tinian. Tiicre are various other versions of the
story of K. Elie/cr b. Ilyicanus narrated in ch. i.
and ii., namely, in Gen. R. .\iii. ; Ab. R. N., recen-
sion A, ch. vi. ; leccnsion R, cii. .xiii. ; Tan., Lek
Leka, 30 (ed. Ruber); and elsewhere (comp. the list
in Horowitz, "Ribl. Haggadica," i., ]S'o. 1. pp. 1 et
scq. ; Pirke Rabbi Eli'ezer, ch. .\xi.\.-xli., is printed
after a Codex De Rossi, ///. No. ii., pp. 21-2r)).
An extract or a revision of the Pirke Rabbi Eli-
"ezer, ch. iii.-vi., iias been published by Horowitz,
after a codex in the Rritish Museum, in the collec-
tion "Sanimlung Kleiner IVIidraschim " (pp. iv.-x.,
Beilin, 1881). On tlie important chapters vi.-viii.
(on calendric science) compare Zunz, "G. S." iii.
242, and Epstein, "Beitrjlge zur Jiidischen Alter-
thumskundc," ]ip. 21 ct fteq.

2. Seder Eliyahu, or Tanna debe Eliyahu :
This woik derived its name, its division into Seder
Eliyahu Rabbah and Seder Eliyahu Zuta,
and perhaps more or less of its contents, from an old
work mentioned in tlie Talmud (Ket. 10.6a), where
it is said that it was revealed to Ral) Anan, a pujiil
of Rab in tlie third century, by the prophet Elijah,
and that it included Seder Eliyahu Rabbah and
Seder Eliyahu Zuta. Seven of the nine halakic and
liaggadic passages mentioned in different treatises
of the Talmud with the formula "Tanna debe Eli-
yahu" are found in the Seder Eliyahu. Tlie work
as now known was coiviposed in the second half of
the tenth century; this is evident from the dates
(which must not be regarded as interpolations or as
having l)een changed) in cii. ii., vi., and xxxi. of the
Seder Eliyahu Rabbah (ed. Friedmann, pp. 7, 37,
and 1G8 resjiectively). The purpose of the book is
clearh' expressed in the haggadic interpretation to
Gen. iii. 24 at the beginning of the work ("Let man
guard the way [of lil'ej and the tree of Hie [the
Torah] "— tiiat is, let liim glorify the Torah and
study the Law) as well as in the exhortation to
practise all virtues and jiious works, which the au-
tlior understands the term "derek ercz " to denote.
To this are added some expositions and interpreta-
tions — in part very extended— of the statutes, which,
in a measure, transform the Seder Eliyahu into an
exegetica! midiash.

Among the stories included those are most charac-
teristic of tiie work in which the author speaks
tlirougli the mouth of tlie i)n)pliet Elijah; further-
more, many jiarables, maxims, ))rayers, and exhor-
tations enliven tiie discourse. The uni)rejudice(l
etliics of tiie wnrk ami the attitude of the Israelites
toward tin; non-Israelites appear in
Liberal the sentence, " I call heaven and earth
Character to witness ilial, whether Israelite or
of the non-Israelite, wiiether man or woman,
Work. wiiethir male or female slave, the
Holy S|)iiit rests upon man according
to liis deeds" (|). 4M), and in many other tine pas-
sages, as ])p. 30, (j."), 81, 88, 140 (comp. Theodor in
"Monatsschrift," 1000, ])p. r).-)4, 5.-)8). The work is
■written in juire Hebrew, the diction of many pas-

sages is notably beautiful, and the style is fluent
though frequently; it is not always easy to
follow the train of thought and to find the real con-
nection between the several passages. The division
into cliapters is frequently merely an external one,
and the several chapters vary greatly in length. R.
Nathan says in the '"Aruk" (s.r. -no |3]) tliat the
Seder Eliyahu Rabbah has three "gates" and thirty
chapters, and the Seder Eliyahu Zuta twelve chap-
ters; but there is no quotation from the work in
the "'Aruk." In the Venice edition of l.-)98, which
was printed from a codex of the year 1180, the tirst
part contains thirty-one chapters and the second
part twenty-tive chapters ; Zunz, however, has
shown ("G." V." p. 117) that ch. xv.-xxv. of the
Seder Eliyahu Zuta are a later compilation. In the
Friedmann edition (Vienna, 1902), after a Vatican
manuscript of the year 1073, part i. has been care-
fully divided into twenty-nine cliapters, while
part ii. closes with ch. xv. of the Venice edition.
The last chapter may be recognized as spurious. In
a Codex De Rossi ]iublislied by Horowitz (/.c i..
No. ii., pp. 3-19), Eliyahu Zuta has only twelve

The two editions of the entire work, the numer-
ous extracts from it in Yalkut Shim'oni, and the Seder
Eliyahu Zuta according to tl^ Codex De Rossi vary
in many points, appearing in parts to be different
versions. The work fared badly in the edition ])ub-
lished by R. Samuel b. Moses Heida, with a jiiolix
cabalistic commentary (Prague, 1677). This edition
goes bej'ond all attempted reconstructions of modern
midrash criticism; the text has been worked over,
interpolated, and interspersed with entirely extrane-
ous elements, and is designated as a " new revision "
("nusha hadasha"), destined to supplant the text of
the Venice edition, the chapters of which, printed
in stualler type, head the chapters of this edition.
See Tanna dkije Ei,ivahu.

For a number of special haggadic works, w hich
vary greatly in content and which constitute, in
part, a distinct class of literature, such as Seder
Rabbah di-Bereshit, Midrash Konen (Cinon-
icles of Moses, the midrash relating to the death
of Moses, and that to the death of Aaron), Midrash
Eleh Ezkerah, etc., Midrash Ma'ase Torah,
Pirke Rabbenu ha-Kadosh, Midrash Haserot
we-Yeterot (on the reasons for defective and full
writing), Midrash Temurah, etc., as well as for
the collections of similar works, see MiiutAsiiiM,

VI. Yalkut Shim'oni, Yalkut ha-Makiri,
and Midrash ha-Gadol: A brief reference to
these three W(uks, more fully discussed under their
respective titk'S, may here be given. As in the case
of the entire midrash literature, the autiior of the
Yalkut Shim'oni — a broadly planned inidrashic the-
saurus to the twenty-four books of tlie IJible. com-
bining all tiie products of the ]Miiirasli, Halakaii,
and Haggadah, and which could easily furnish
material for midrashic com]>endiums to the several
hooks of the Bible— is unknown, or, ratiier, tiie iden-
tity of the Simeon after whom tlie midrasii is called
iias not yet been delinitely determined. The words
"Sefer Yalkut ha-Nikra Shim'oni" occur on the
title-page of the fust ]iart of the work in the editio



Midrash Hag'g^adah
Saidrash Haiaicah

princeps (Salonica, 1526-27; part ii., ib. 1521). At
the end of the first part, iu the editio princeps only,
is a vahiable appendix, introduced by the remark
that K. Hinieon ha-Darsliau edited it after having
composed the work.

According to tiie statement on tlie title-page of
tlie Venice edition, 1566, " Rabben\i Sliimeon, the
head of the ' Darslianim ' of Frankfort, " composed

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