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pulsion of the Jews from Moscow and a similar ex-
pulsion from the villages and hamlets outside the
Pale. It is estimated that there were expelled in
this manner more than 400,000 persons. This mass
of people rushed to the already overcrowded cities
and towns of the Pale, and naturally enough could
find no room there. As a result of this those who
were expelled by the administration either emigrated
themselves or crowded out others from the Pale, and
the latter in their turn had to emigrate. The aver-
age number of Jewish immigrants to the United
States, by far the greater part of whom were from
Ru.ssia, was in the nineties more than double the
number in the preceding decade. For the single
years the immigration was as follows:


t^ .




X u


From R




From (





























In Russia the emigralion took place from every

part of the Pale and from Poland, but the greater

numbers came from the provinces which are nearest

the boundary, such as Volhynia, Podolia, Kiev,

Grodno, Kovno, Suwalki, etc.

BiBi.iOGRAPHV : VdKkliod; G. M. Price, Russkine Yevrei v
Amerikfic, St. Petersburg, 1893; Alien Iinmigi(itio)i, Re-
ports to tlie Board of Trnile, London, 1S93.
E. 0. L. Wy.

Statistics of the emigration of Jews from Austria
and Rumania are acces.sible for the decade 1890-1900.
These are obtained by subtracting the Jewish pop-
ulation of the former date from that of the end of
the century. The increase in the Jewish popula-
tion of Austria during that period

Austria was 81,594. but the excess of births
and over deaths was 180,352, showing

Rumania, that 104,758 had inigrated from Aus-
tria. The majority of these went
from Galicia; and by the same process it is shown
that 108,949 Jews left that province, some of them
going to other parts of Austria (*' Oesterreicliische
Statistik," lxvi.,pp. xxxii.-xxxiii., Vienna, 1902).

If the same method be applied to Rumania, from
data supplied by J. Jacobs in" The Jewish Chronicle,"
Aug. 21, 1885, and by W. Rambus in Bloch's "Oes-
Icrreichische Wochenschrift," 1902, ji. 678, it would
appear that between 1877 and 1894 the Jewish pojiu-
lation increased 26,919, whereas the excess of births
over deaths for that period ran to 69,193, showing
that in those .seventeen years 42,274 Rumanian Jews
had emigrated. This number must have increased
considerably in the last decade, during which perse-
cution in Rumania has been more severe.

As regards the countries to which emigrants
from Russia, Galicia, and Rumania wend their way,




it must be borne in mind timt most of the Continen-
tal countries rigidly enforce the restrictions forbid-
ding the Jews of eastern Europe to settle within
their boundaries, yet, notwithstanding these restric-
tions, it has been reckoned that nearly 30,000 have
settled in Germany since 1875 (" Ha-Maggid," 1903,
No. 19). Nevertheless, there have been practically
only two asylums for the Jews of the new Exodus,
Great Britain and the United States, though num-
bers have gone to South Africa; but during the
Boer war the emigration to South Africa stopped
on account of the limitations prescribed by the Cape
Parliament against immigration. It is still uncer-
tain at the present time wliether the new law will
actually stop the migration of Jews to South Africa.
A few of the emigrants have been transported by the
Jevvisli Colonization Association to the Argentine
Republic (see Agricultural Colonies).

So far as immigration to England is concerned
there is difficulty in ascertaining the number, as no

statistics of religion are taken tliere.

England A conservative estimate ("Jewish

and United Chronicle," Feb. 7, 1902) reckoned the

States. number of alien Jews in London as

55,000, live-sevenths of whom were
Russian Poles. The total Jewish immigration dur-
ing the past twenty years lias probably not ex-
ceeded 100.000 for all the British Isles, of which
80,000 came directly from Russia.

For the United States fuller details can be given,
as records liave been kept at the chief ports of entry
— New Yoi-k, Philadelphia, and Baltimore — since
the great exodus in 1881. Between that year and
1884 74,310 Jews were recorded as reaching the
United States, tliough details no longer exist as to
their provenience. From 1884 to October, 1903, the
United Hebrew Charities recorded the nationalities
of all Jewish immigrants landing at Castle Garden
and Ellis Island, and furnish the following ligures:



c .
o be


25.49 :


2.48 '








Rumanians . .


















Besides these, up to 1903 there have come in at
Philadelphia 50,264 and at Baltimore 28,487, ma-
king a grand total of 775,181 of Jewish immigrants
actually counted since 1881, of whom it may be con-
jectured more than 500,000 were Russians, 180,000
were Austrians, and 50,000 were Rumanians.

Altogether during the quarter of a century from
1881 to 1904 there has probably been a migration
of Jews numbering close on a million souls, of
whom, so far as the imperfections of the records
enable one to estimate, about 850,000 liave gone 1o
America, 100,000 to England, 30,000 to Germany,
and 20,000 have been scattered throughout the rest
of Europe. Of these 200,000 came from Galiciii,
100,000 from Rumania, and the remaining 700,000
from liussia. Apart fiom these great streams of

migration there is a natural ebb and flood of young
men seeking their fortunes in most of the Euro-
pean communities and almost all quarters of the
globe. Their numbers aie somevvhat larger in pro-
portion than those of the rest of the population,
owing to their international relationships; but in the
more settled communities like those of Holland,
France, England, and tlie United States, where there
is no active persecution, there is little tendency
toward emigration.

Among the results of migration of which notice
will have to be taken in all statistical inquiries are
the ages and sexes of the migrants. It has been
reckoned that whereas in Russia persons between
the ages of 14 and 45 form 45 per cent of the Jewish
population, tliey constitute 70 per cent of those who
migrate to America. So, too, while there are 95
Jews to 100 Jewesses in Ru.ssia, there are said to be
134 Jews as against 100 Jewesses among those emi-
grating ("Ha-Zelirah," 1903, No. 62). This is con-
firmed by the records of tlie United Hebrew CJiari-
ties in New Yoik, l)etween 1884 and 1902, which
show that the immigrants consisted of 222,202 males,
155,000 females, and 197,351 children.

This tends to make the death-rate of any popula-
tion consisting of Russian Jewish refugees very
low, owing to the fact that so many of tliem are of
the ages between 14 and 45, and at the same time
renders the marriage-rate ver}' high, as so many of
the Jewisli immigrants are between 20 and 30, the
favorite age for marriage; but it must be borne in
mind that there are three men to two women in the
stream of migration.

s. J.

MIGUES, JOAO. See Nasi, Joseph (Joao


MIHAILENI: Small town in the district of
Dorogoi, Rumania. It was formerly called Vladeni
and Tirgu-Nou, and was founded in 1792 b}' a num-
ber of Jews under an agreement with the proprietor
of the domain. This agreement was confirmed by
a decree of Prince Alexander Constantine Moruzi,
dated May 30 of tlie same year. Besides certain
personal advantages, the founders obtained the right
to use gratuitously the grounds necessary for a syna-
gogue, a bath, and a cemetery.

When the town came into the possession of Prince
Michel Sturza in 1885, he made it the capital of the
district of Dorogoi. Actuated by a desire to change
the terms of the original agreement, lie persecuted
the inhabitants, especially the Jews, cruelly beating
one of their leading men and imprisoning his son.
Later, however, a law was enacted under which all
artisans who should settle in the city were to be
exempt for five years from the payment of rent
for property lield by emphyteusis.

The law of 1838, framed by a commission which
included seven representatives of the Jewish com-
munity, provided that the large synagogue and
two small ones, an oratory, and the bath should be
exempt from rent. Because of such measures the
Jewish population gradually increased. The num-
ber of .Jewish taxpayers increased from 60 in 1803
to 129 in 1820; the census of 1831 reported 747 Jews
and 72 Christians; and that of 1859 showed 2,473




Jews aud 1,812 Christians. The Jewish population
readied its maximum in 1880, when there were 2,855
Jews as compared with 1,075 Christians. The city
was, however, neglecteti by the authorities, and
began to decline. In spite of an excess of births
and the fact that many Jews expelled from neigh-
boring villages took refuge in Mihaileui, the number
of Jews continued to diminish. According to the
census of 1899 there were onl}- 2,446 Jews in Mihai-
leni ; and this number has decreased considerably on
account of emigration since 1900.

ment), the traditional intonation of which is much
later in style than that of any of the other services
of the uortheru Jews. It dill'ers from them very
notably in its tonality also, which is that of the
ordinary modern major mode, while the other
services utilize scale- forms, surviving only in the
early medieval plain-song of the Churcli, or in the
folk-song of eastern Europe. This penitential set-
ting is accordingly designated when "Mi-Kamo-
kah " is itself quoted as an ancient melody ; and it
is given in the accompanying transcription.

mf Mdestoso.




Mi - ka - mo - kah ba - e - lim A - do - nai,

mi - ka - mo - kah ne - dar bak -


The income of tlie Jewish community, which
amounts to 18,000 francs annually, is derived from
a tax on meat, poultry, unleavened bread, and from
certain other fees, inchuling those from the bath.
The Jews support a rab])i and four shohetim. The
Talmud Torah of former years has been transformed
into a modern school; but ten hadarim have been
closed. In addition to the large s^'nagogue, built
when the city was founded, there are eleven small
synagogues or oratories, and the communitj' pos-
sesses also a benevolent association and a Zionist

IMbi.kmjkaphy: T. Corln'scu. UricnrnUviii. 1.52, i.x. 13; Bvlc-
fiiud M<ihl)>rt-i, March Iti, 1839; N. Filipescu-Dubau. DictUnia-
nil (irogiatir nl J}u\etnhii Dorohoi, p. 218; Fraternita-
tin. 1882, p. .'J4."); Cale.iuland larndit-UUistrat pe f>56U, Bu-
charest, 19();i ; M. Schwarzfeld, Ercursiuni Critice Asiipra
Ixtariei Evreilor, ib. 1888, pp. 16-17.

<:. E. Sd.

MI-KAMOKAH ("Who is like unto Thee?"):
Opening words of the verse Ex. xv. 11, which,
with verse 18 of the same chapter ("Adonai Yim-
lok,"etc.), is regularly employed as a response in
the evening and morning services between the
Shema' and the Siiemoneh 'Esreh. Normally, as
on week-days and ordinary Sabbaths, these verses
are chanted to the melody-type in the free employ-
ment of which the particular service is intoned
(cotnp. H.\zzan'Ut). In one case, indeed, the setting
of " Mi-Kamokah " may have itself determined the
intonation of the whole of the service in which it
tinds a olace. This is the evening service of the
Days of Penitence (New-Year to Day of Atone-

To the use of "Mi-Kamokah" as a response is
due also the introduction of tiie more recent custom
into the northern liturgies according to which certain
melodies, usually of post-medieval adoption, sung
in the synagogue or in the home on special occa-
sions, have come to be utilized as representative
themes, and chanted as such not only with "Mi-
Kamokah" aud the opening verses of Ps. cxviii.
(see Hai.lel), but also with other passages utilized
on previous days as anticipatory references to the
occasion. As an exami)le may be cited the practise
customary on the last Sabbath in the month, when
the day of the ensuing new moon is announced to
the melody representative of any festival or fasc
which may occur in the approaching month.

The first such melody utilized as a representative
theme was probably that of Ma'oz Zuk, the domes-
tic hymn on the festival commemorating the tri-
umph of the Maccabees, whose name, it was
traditionall}' held, was itself compounded of the
initial letters of the response "Mi-Kamokah ba-
elim Adonai " ; so that the introducer of the cus-
tom saw an eponymous connection between the
text of the response and the melody.

According to recent practise, " Mi-Kamokah " and
the accompanying passages are chanted on special
occasions to the following melodies, considered as
representative of the respective occasions, viz. :
Festivals (including intermediate Sabbaths) :

Passover Addik Hu.

Pentecost AKn.XMir orelse YEZin Pitgam.

Tabernacles. . ."Lulab " chant (see Hallel).




Feast of Dedication

(Hanukkah) Ma'oz ZlH.

Sabbaths in the

'Omer weeks. . Lekah Doui of same.

Sabbaths between

ihe fasts of Tam-

Muz and An 'Ei.i Ziyyon.

At a circumcision.. A melody specially introduced

l)y the mohei into the morning

service at references to " the

covenant. "

l?iiiLH)i;UAPiiv : The tnuiilioiia! melodies are collected in Baer,
lia-al TctiUah, Nos. :itj, :is, :iU, 4!Sb-.)l, ;}84-;i9t<, .'kW-r)^-), Tllj-
"45. 974-977. 1().")0-1052, Frankfort-on-the-Main. 1H8:5; Cohen
and Davis. Vaire iif Frdiier (uul Praise, Nos. 25, 50, 132-
134, 189, 292 and 294, Loudon. 1.S99.
A. F. I.. C.


David iv.s Meuwax al-Mi ka.m.mas.

MIKWA'OT (•' Baths": called Mikwot by the
Geoniin, in the^'Aruk," and in the Mishnah, ed.
Lowe): Treatise in the Mishnah and the Tosefta in
the order Tohorot. The legal code of the Penta-
teuch prescribes a bath for lepers (Lev. xiv. 9) and
for persons suffering from certain other diseases {ib.
xv.). The bath, according to the rabbinical inter-
pretation of Lev. xiv. 9, must hold at least forty
scabs (=2G8. 29 liters), and must be of such a size
that the person who is to be cleansed may immerse
his whole body (Hag. 11a). The water may be from
a spring or a river, or it may be rain-water, but it
must not be drawn. The treatise Mikwa'ot deals
with a more exact definition of the rules upon these
subjects. In most of the editions of the Mishnah as
well as in the Tosefta this treatise is the sixth in the
order Tohorot; but in the edition of the Babylonian
Talmud it is the seventh, and in the editions of the
Mishnah of 1559 and 1606 it stands first in thisordei-.
It is divided into ten chapters, containing seventy-
one paragraphs in all.

Cli. i. : There are six grades of bodies of water

so far as cleansing and purification are concerned.

The lowest in value is water from a

Kind of pond, ditch, cistern, or cavern, as well

Water. as standing water which has flowed
from a mountain. These waters,
under certain circumstances, cause uucleanness, but
they may, nevertheless, be lawfully used for wash-
ing the hands and also for making dough (§^ 1-5).
Water still fiowiug from a mountain is a grade
higher, for it can never become unclean : and it
may therefore be used in preparing the priestly
heave-offering of dough (sj; 6). Next in ascending
order is a body of water which contains forty seahs,
and is therefore suitable for ritual baths and for
the purification of vessels. Still higher in grade
is a spring to which other water drawn from some
source is added, and which in certain respects resem-
bles a body of water and in others a spring (^ 7).
A yet higher grade of water is that from a mineral
spring, which cleanses even while flowing; and the
highest of all is pure spring-water, which may also
be used for the ritual sprinkling (§ 8; comp. Lev.
xiv. 5-6: Num. xix. 17).

Ch. ii. : When one has bathed and is uncertain
whether he has performed the ceremony correctly,
or when he is in doubt as to the size cf the mikweh.

or when, on being measured, the bath is found to be
of insufficient size, the person bathing is not consid-
ered clean (§^ 1-2). When drawn water renders the
mikweh unclean, even tliough it is doubtful whether
it fell into the bath (^i H). Three
Impurities, logs of water diawn intentionally ren-
der the nukweh untit, but if uninten-
tionally di-awn they do not have this effect, even
though such water has been preserved in a vessel
(^ji 4-9). Regulations concerning a mikweh of
water and clay, and the degree of fluidity of the
clay which requires that the latter be taken into
account (^ 10).

Ch. iii. : Additional regidations concerning drawn
water. How a mikweh made unfit by drawn water
may be rendered fit again (^^ 1-2). The method of
reckoning drawn water derived from several vessels,
and other methods of reckoning considered in con-
nection therewith (^t^ 3-4).

Ch. iv. : How rain-water may be led into a
mikweh and not be considered drawn water (gt^ 1-3).
On the mixing of rain-water and drawn water be-
fore they reach the mikweh (5~ 4). Cases in which
a conduit of stone is considered a vessel, so that the
water in it is regarded as drawn water. Of the
conduit of Jehu at Jerusalem (^ 5).

Ch. V. : Cases in which a spring resembles a mik-
weh, its water having cleansing properties when
collected in a pool ("ashboran"), but not while it
flows (§§ 1-3). Whether the sea may

Flowing be considered a mikweh and whether,

Water. even while flowing, it cleanses (§ 4).
Flowing or dripping water, and what
objects may be used to stop the flow (§ 5). Regard-
ing a wave of the sea which contains forty seahs,
and other bodies of water (§ 6).

Ch. vi. : Of holes and rifts connected with a mik-
weh (§ 1). Of dipping several objects at once (§ 2).
Of reservoirs lying near one another (t^ 3). Cases in
which drawn water does not make the mikweh un-
fit («^ 4). Of large vessels standing in the mikweh
or in the sea (?§ 5-6). Of the connection of mik-
wa'ot with each otiier (^§ 7-9). Of pipes fixed in
bath-houses (§§ 10-11).

Ch. vii. : Things which may make up the measure
of forty seahs, such as ice, snow, and hail, and
things which may not, although they do not make
the mikweh unfit (t;§ 1-2). Cases in which the mik-
weh becomes unfit tlirough a change of color in the
water (§5^ 3-5). Of bathing in a mikweh which
contains exactly forty seahs (^§ 6-7).

Ch. viii. : The baths in the land of Israel, even in
its heathen cities, are clean and fit for use: but the
heathen baths in other lands are to be considered
clean only in one respect (§ 1). The bathing of
those who have certain diseases, and how such per-
sons are to bathe (§^ 2-5).

Ch. ix. : Enumeration of things which, if they

touch the bather, render the bath inef-

Use of fectual (g§ 1-4). Things which have

Mikweh. a similar effect with regard to the bath
in case they come in contact with ob-
jects dipped in the water (§§ 5-6).

Ch. X.: Detailed regulations concerning the dip-
ping of objects which are to be cleansed (§§ 1-5;
comp. Num. xxxi. 23). Regarding the purification


Hiles of Harseiltes



of water by contact C'hashakali ") with the water of
the batli (5^ 6). Of unclean foods and drinks which
defile and of tlie method of reckoning them (i-^ 7-8).

In the Tosefta the treatise Mikwa'ot is divided into
seven chapters. Especially interesting in the To-
sefta are the discussions between R. Tarfon and R.
Akiba concerning the bath of Jabueh. Noteworthy
also is the discussion between Jose the Galilean
and Akiba in which R. Tarfon expressed his respect
for Jose (viii. 11).

6. J. Z. L.

MIKWEH (rabbinic Hebrew, mil^wah; plural,
mikwa'ot): Literally, a "collection," a "collected
mass, " especially of water (Gen. i. 10 ; Ex. vii. 19 ; Lev.
xi.36;comp. Isa. xxii. 11). Becauseof the use madeof
this word in connection with ritual purification (Lev.
xi. 36), it has become the term commonly used to desig-
nate the ritual bath. In all cases of ritual impurity it
was necessary for the person or object to be im-
mersed in a bath built in accordance with the rules
laid down by the
Rabbis (see Ablu-
tion; Baths; Pu-
kity). Since the Dis-
persion the custom of
observing the laws
of purity has on the
whole fallen into des-
uetude, except in
the case of the im-
pure woman (see NiD-
dah). With regard
to her tlnj laws are
still observed in most
Orthodox communi-
ties, and therefore
the ritual mikweh
is still a necessary in-
stitution there. Some
observant Jews, espe-
cially among the Ha-
sidim, immense them-
selves in the mikweh
other than niddah.

In order to 1)e ritually fit f(}r Hse, the mikweh
must contain sufficient water to cover entirelj^ the
body of a man of average size. The Rabbis esti-
mated that the mikweh should be 3 cubits long, 1
cubit wide, and 1 cubit deep(= 44,118.875 widths of
tlie tiiunvb; Shulhan 'Aruk, Yoreh

Size and De'ali, 201, 1), containing 40 se'ahs of
Contents, water ('Er. 4b; Yoma 31a; et al.\
comp. Pes. R. 82b). The se'ah is de-
scribed as a measure holding 144 eggs (Num. R.
xviii. 17), i.e., 24 logs(= 24i)ints = 3 gallons approx-
imately ; see Weights and Measuues), so that the
mikweh must contain at least 120 gallons of water.

The water of the mikweh must come from a nat-
ural spring or from a river that has its source in a
natural spring (Sifra to Lev. xi. 36). A tank filled
by the niin may be used as a mikweh, although
some authorities forbid the useof a pool which is full
of water in the rainy season and diied \ip in the sum-
mer (Maimonides, " Yad," Mikwa'ot, iii. 1-3; Yoreli
De'ah, 201,2, Lsserles' gloss). A mikweh derived
from snow, ice, or hail is regarded by the author-

Jewish Batb of the

(From Philipp von All^ndorf,

in cases also of impurity

itics as ritually fit for use, although there is a differ-
ence of opinion with regard to the manner of melt-
ing tlie snow (Mik. vii. 1; Yoreh De'ah, 201, 30;
comp. SHaK and " PitheTeshubah," ad loc. ; see also
"Hatam Sofer" on Y'oreh De'ah, 200, 213).

The water contained in the mikweh must not have
passed through a vessel of such a form that it can
hold objects placed in it. Pipes open on both
sides aie not regarded as vessels in the accepted
meaning (Mik. iv. 1; "Yad,"^.c. vi. 1, 2). In large
cities, where the water-supply comes tiu-ough
underground pipes and where water is measured
by meters, many points Involving legal techni-
calities must be observed in the construction of
a mikweh. In order to observe these the follow-
ing is the process followed by some ral)bis in the
building of a mikweh in a large city : A small mik-
weh, with a capacity of 40 se'ahs, is built near a
large tank, and a conduit is made from the smaller
tank that leads to an opening in the larger.

The small t a n k

^^^^^^^^^\ or mikweh is first
filled with snow
or ice ; when the
snow or ice fills it to
the brim the ajierture
leading into the large
tank is opened, and
water is poured over
the ice or snow and
passes into the large
tank. Thus the
original mikweh is
made from snow or
ice, about the ritual
fitness of which there
is no doubt, and then
as much water is
added as is needed
(Yoreh De'ah, 201,
31 ; Caro," AbkatRo-
kel," pp. 50,51, 50; "Noda' bi-Yehudah." 2d series,
Yorth De'ah, 136, 137; "Hatam Sofer," ih. 198,
199, 203, 204, 206; Berlin, "Meshib Dabar," ii. 38).

If three logs (= pints) of water be poured into
a mikweh which does not have the prescribed meas-
ure of water, the mikweh becomes unfit for ritual
use, even though the 40 .se'ahs are later completed
in a legitimate manner. In such a case, tiienu'kweh
has to be emptied and then refilled in the prescribed
way. If, however, the mikweh has the reipiired
measure, water fi-om other sources may be poured
into it without imjiairing its ritual fitness (Mik. iii. ;
"Yad," I.e. v.; Y'oreh De'ah, 201, 15 et seq.).

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 145 of 169)