Isidore Singer.

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The ritual bath always formed one of the most
important institutions of a Jewish community (.see
Abraiiams, "Jewish Life in the Middle Ages," p.
73). In urgent cases it was permitted even to sell
a sytiagogu(! in order to erect a mikweh (Berlin,
"Mevliib Dabar," ii. 45).
A J. H. G.

MILAN(Lalin. Mediolanum) : ('ajiital of Lom-
i)ar(ly, and tlie largest commercial city of Italy.
Jews .settled tiiere under Roman rule and were per-
secuted even in the early Christian period. Am-

Slxteenth Century.

"Drr Jiulen Badstuli," l.'>".i.)




Miles of Marseilles

brose, the patiou saiut of the city, was their invet-
erate enemy, and hoped to become a martyr by the
destruction of a synagogue. In 388, when the em-
peror Theodosius commanded a bishop to rebuild a
synagogue which lie had bidden some monks to des-
troy, Ambrose called Theodosius a Jew, and attacked
liim so bitterly thatliecoiuitermandedhisortler. An
inscription connnemorates his hatred of the Jews

Jewish Bath of the Sixteenth Century.

(From a contemporary print.)

(Giidini, " ^lemorie Bpettanti alia Storia di Milano,"
vi. 162). The records of the following centuries
mention Jews in Lombardy as large landowners.
At Milan, in the tenth century, there was a mint-
master named Gideon who was probably a Jew.
Dining the period of the great wars and the rapid
rise of the Italian cities the Jews seem to liavc been
excbuled therefrom, yet commerce and banking,
which were in the hands of Jews in other countries,
were so skilfully carried on by the Lombards that
all competition seemed undesirable, especially when
complicated by religious antipathies. During the
great persecutioa of heretics in 1320 the podesta
was obliged to proiuise to e.\pel all Jews, and not
to readmit any to the city or to the bishopric in op-
position to the wishes of the archbishop, nor were
they allowed to return to the territory of Milan be-
fore the tifteenth centiu-y. On Jan.
Expelled 23, 1452, iu consideration of the pay-
in 1320. nient of a large siun of money, the
Jews of Milan received from the pojie,
through the intercession of the duke, permission to
build synagogues, to celebrate their feasts, and to
intermarry, yet the granting of these privileges was
excused in ambiguous phrases, and the Jews were
compelled to wear the yellow badge.

The of the Jews at Trent in 14To
aroused hatred against their coreligionists in the
territory of Milan, and this was fanned by the
speeches of Bicknardinus of Feltre. Although
the dukes tried to protect the Jews, the latter seem
1o have been expelled from the city, so that the
contirmationof the privileges granted by Pope Paul
III. in 1541, the search of the Incpusition for inter-
dicted Hebrew books in 15o4 and lo66, as well as

the repeated decrees of expulsion issued by Philip
II. and Philip III., applieil only to tlie connnunities
in other cities of the dukedom, Alessandria and
Cremona being the most important of these. Then
no Jews were living at Milan, although some did
reside in the neighboring cities of Padua and Lodi.

When .Milan came under Austrian rule in 1714 Jews

seem to have settled there again. They were subject

to the same laws as their coreligionists in JIantua.

The intcidictiou against the forcible

Under baptism of Jewish children, issued in
Austrian 1765 and 176S, and still e.xlant, was re-
Rule, newed by the Austrian laws of 1803
and 1817. The remarkable growth of
Milan after 1848 brought many Jews to the city,
especially from Piedmont, Mantua, and the Papal
States, and the community, which liad formerly be-
longed to Mantua, became autonomous. In 1857 it
niunbered 500 persons, and in 1901 about 2,000, to
whom may be added many Jews who are not pub-
licly known as such.

The following persons may be mentioned among
the prominent Jews of Milan : Joachim B.\sevi (an
eminent lawyer, counsel for Andreas Ilofer), and the
senators Tullo Ma.ssarani and Graziadio Ascoi.i.
Of the rabbis the most prominent have been Moses
Meuahem Coen (Rapoport), who took part in the
dispute regarding the mikweh at Kovigo, and,
iu the nineteenth century, Mose Mazliah Ariaui and
Alessandro da Fano.

Bibliography: Ersch and G ruber, Encyc. s.v. Juden, ii. 27,
147 et xeq.; Educatore Israelita, iii. 107 et set;.

MILCAH (riD^O) : 1- Daughter of Haran, and
wife of her uncle Nahor (Gen. xi. 29). She bore
eight sons, the yoiuigest of whom was Belhuel,
father of Rebekah (ib. xxii. 21-23). Ibn Ezra
commentary on Gei\ xi. 29) thinks that Haran,
INIilcah's father, was a different person from Haran,
Abraham's brother, and consecpu'utly that Milcah's
husband was not her uncle. 2. Fourth daughter of
Zelophehad (Num. xxvi. 33).

E. G. II. M. Sel.

MILCOM. See Moloch.

Barbaveira) : Provencal physician and philoso-
]iher; born at Marseilles 1294. In some manuscripts
he is designated by the name "Bongodos," the Pro-
vencal equivalent of "Ben Jiulah." From early
youth he devoted himself to the study of science
and philosophy. While still young he left his na-
tive place for Salon, where he studied astronomy
under the direction of Abba Mari Senior Astruc de
Noves. In 1322 he is met with at Bcaucaire as a
prisoner together with other Jews in the tower of
Uodorte. Later he sojourned successively at Mur-
cia, Tarascon, Aix, and Montelimar.

Miles became known through his Hebrew transla-
tions from the Arabic of scientific and philosophical
works. These include: (1) "Ha-She'elot ha-Dibriy-
yot meha-Deru.shim Asher le-Filusufim," transla-
tion of questions or dissertations concerning some
obscvire iioints in the commentary of Averroes on
certain parts of the '"Organon," finished May 8,




1320; (2) translation of the Middle Commentary of
Averroes on Aristotle's "Ethics," completed at
Beaucaire Feb. 9, 1321 ; (3) translation of the com-
mentary of A%'erroes on Plato's "Republic," fin-
ished Sept. 3, 1321, at Beaucaire, in the tower of
Rodorte; (4) translation of the compendium made
by Averroes of Aristotle's "Organon," completed at
Tarascon Dec. 13, 1329; (5) translation of the text
of the figures 30 and 31 of the treatise of Euclid on
the five bodies (in completion of the tran.slation of
Kalonymus, where these figures are wanting), fin-
ished Aug. 23, 1335; (6) commentary on the "Al-
magest," parts i.-iii. ; (7) translation of a compen-
dium of the '* Almagest " by Abu Mohammed Jabar
ibn Aflah, translated from the Arabic into Hebrew
by Jacob ben Machir and corrected by Miles, finished
Dec. 17, 1335, at Aix ; (8) " Ma'amar Alexander ha-
Firdusi," treatise of Alexander of Aphrodisias on the
sold, translated from the Greek into Arabic by
Ishak ibn Hunain, finished July 4, 1340, at Monte-
limar; (9) translation of the astronomical works of
the vizier Al)u Abdallah Mohammed ibn Mu'adh of
Seville, in two parts: (1) treatise in seven chapters
on the eclipse of the sun July 3, 1079; (2) "Iggeret
be-"Anunud ha-Shahar, " treatise on the aurora; (10)
"Ma'amar be-Tenu'at ha-Kokabim ha-Kayyamim,"
treatise on the movement of tin; fixed stars by Abu
Ishak al-Zarkala.

BiBLiOfiRAPHY: Zunz, G. S. iii. 189: Munk, MilnnQes, p. 489;
Neubaiier, in R. E. J. ix. :il5 : Kiiufmanii, (7). xiii. 300 tl
seq.; Renan, Avernx'x et VAveri'imme, p. 191 : Renan-
Neubauer, Lc!< Errioaiiis Juifrf F7an<;nis. pp. 207 et seq.;
Steinschneider, Hehr. Ueben<. pp. 131, 138, 152, 2 - ':J ; Gross,
OalUa Judaica, p. 379.
G. I. Bu.

also Joseph Moscat) : French scholar and liturgical
poet: lived at (.'arpentras in the second half of the
eighteenth century. He was the author of a work
entitled " Ozerot Yosef " (Leghorn, 1783), a com-
mentary on Rashi's and Elijah Mizrahi's commen-
taries on the Pentateuch, and of a poem recited at
Avignon at the circumcision ceremony. Zunz ("'Z.
G." p. 470) says that "Joseph of >[ilhau of the eight-
eenth century " composed several liturgical poems;
and, indeed, the ]\Iahzor of Avignon contains other
pieces of his. But in Josts " Annalen, " i. 341 , Zunz
attributes those jioems to the Joseph of Milhau
who in 1751 was a member of the rabbinical college
and who was ajiparently another person than the
subject of this article.

BrBMOORAPnv : (Jross, Onllin Jnilnicn. p. 34.T ; Steinsohneider,
Cat. Jtnill. col. l.')13; Ziinz, in Allg. Zrit. ilesjiul. iii. ti82.

s. M. Ski,.


Fiencli scholar and poet ; lived at Carjjentras in the
second half of the eighteenth century. Moses Mil-
hau seems to have been the father of Joseph b.
Moses MiMi.w, as may be concluded from the gen-
ealogy given by the latter in Ins work. Milhau
was the author of : " Mishpat Emet," a philosophical
essay on Job, a kind of theodicy ; " Matteh Mosheh,"
a rimed paraphrase of Ruth, with philosophical re-
fiections; and "Iggeret ha-Xcliamah," a rimed work
purposing to console the reader in his sadness; all
three works being pul)]ished at Leghorn in 1787.
A poem entillfd "Mi/iiior Shif Ic-Napoleon " (Paiis,

1806) was composed in honor of Napoleon I. by a
Moses Milhau, who is identified by Zedner (" Cat.
Hebr. Books Brit. Mus." p. 544) with the subject of
this article ; but if the latter was the father of Jo-
seph of Milhau, it is not likely that he was still
living in the beginning of the nineteenth century.

BinLiOfiRAPHV: Fiirst, Bihl. Jud. ii. 378: Gross, Gallia Ju-
daica, p. 34.5.
s. M. Ski..

MILHAUD (Latin, Amiliavum; Hebrew,
aX^^'D, 2^"'"'0X) : Village in the departn.eut of
Gard, France. In Renan-Neubauer, " Les Rabbins
Fran^ais," p. 665, its name is given as QpxX. It has
been erroneously confounded with .'Millau (the an-
cient .^milianum or Amilbanum) in the department
of Aveyron, where there probably never was a Jew-
ish community. There are nodocmnents to indicate
the status of the Jewish community of ^lilhaud in
the Middle Ages. Whatever it may have been, the
Jews established there were expelled in 1300. They
sought refuge in the Comtat-Venai.ssin, chiefi}' at
Carpentras, where many of their descendants were
living in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and ei-hteenlh
centuries. The name " ]SIilhaud," " Milhau." or " Mil-
liaud"is still a common one among the Jews of
southern France.

The scholars of Milhaud include: Don Dieulosal;
Abraham ben Reuben ben Joseph ben Joshua Anu-
labi (14th cent.); Moses "3X^10; Gabriel ■'2X"^''Cin,
translator and commentator of the medical woik
"Tabula Super Vita Brevis," by Arnauld de Ville-
neuve; Jbxesti'e Boncnfant or Hezekiah of Mil-
haud, author of the medical work "Gabriel " (16th
cent.); Immanuel ben Gad; Joseph of Milhau,
member of the rabbinical college of Carpentias;
David of Milhau; Moses ben Michael ; and Jo.seph
of Milhau (called also "Joseph ^Muscat"), author of a
commentary on Rashi entitled " Ozerot Yf)sef " (18th

BiBLiOGl?APHY : Zunz and Cannoly, in Israel H inch e Aiiiialcii.
18:59, pp. 19t;, 341 ; Zunz, Kit^is der .S'i/Ha(/'"7C v<>n Aciu)i<i)i,
in Alli). Zeit. de!< Jud. 1839, p. 178ti: idem, Z. G. p. 470;
R. E. J. ix. 216, xii. 197-220 ; (iross. Gallia Judaica. pp. -W-
34<i ; Renan-Neubauer, Lcs EcrivaiJis Juifs Fr'niirai.-<, pp.
.577, 762.
<;. S. K.

MILK (Hebrew, "halab"; Aramaic, "heli)a"i:
A common article of food among the ancient Ib-
biews.— Biblical Data: Palestine is praised in the
Bible asa '" land tlowing with milk and honey " (Kx.
iii. 8 et nl.), milk representing the common necessi-
ties of life, and honey referring to luxuries. In I><a.
Iv. 1, milk is coui)led with wine to denote a sinular
idea (comp. Ezek. xxv. 4). The Israelites u.sed the
milk of goats (Dent, xxxii. 14) and the milk of sheep
(Prov. xxvii. 27). Cows' milk is rarely mentioned
(comp. Deut. I.e.), probably because of its scarcity
owing to the unsuitability of the moimtainouscoun-
try of Palestine for pasturing large cattle. ^lilk
was received in buckets (Job xxi. 24) and kept iu
skins (Judges iv. 19), and was used as a refreshing
drink at meals (Gen. xviii. 8).

Milk was supposed to give whiteness lo the teeth
(ih. xlix. 12). and was employed as a simile for the
whiteness of the human body (Lam. iv. 7; comp.
Cant. v. 12). Deborah refers lo milk ("hem'ah" in
]iarallelism to "halab ") as "a cup of the nobles"




(Judges V. 25) ; and in several other texts it is spoken
of as one of the most delicious beverages (comp.
Cant. iv. 11, v. 1). Ben Sira counts milk among
"the principal things for the whole use of mans
life" (Ecclus. [Sirach] xxxix. 26). The abundance
which the Israelites will enjoy in ]\Iessianic times is
pictured in tlie figure that the hills of Palestine will
tiow with milk (Joel iv. |A. V. iii.] 18; comp. Isa.
vii. 22). Cream or butter (" hem'ah ") is also used
as a figure denoting abundance (Isa. l.c.\ Job xx.
17), and is frequently mentioned with milk (Gen.
xviii. 8; Deut. xxxii. 14; Judges v. 25; Prov. xxx.
33; et al). See Cheese; Food.

s. J. II. G.
In Rabbinical Iiiterature : Although re-
garded as a pleasant beverage (Ket. Ilia; " Agadat
Shir ha-Shirim," ed. Schechter, p. 187, note, Cam-
bridge, 1896), milk was probably used more by the
poorer classes of the community than by the rich
(Hul. 84a; Yalk., Prov. 961). It was especially used
as food for infants (Seder Eliyahu Zuta, ed. Fried-
mann, p. 195, Vienna, 1903; comp. ileb. v. 12; I Cor.
iii. 2; t Peter ii. 2). A mixture of milk and honey
was regarded as a delicious drink (Cant. R. iv. 22).
One is counseled against drinking beer or wine after
milk (M. K. 11a). In a figurative sense milk was
used to denote whiteness and purity (Gen. K. xcviii.
15; Cant. K. V. 10). One who wishes his daughter
to be fair shoidd feed her in her youth on young
birds and on milk (Ket. 59b). ^lilk is one of the
five things (three, in Yalk., Isa. 480) to which the
Torah was compared (Deut. R. vii. 3; comp.
Kimhi's commentary on Isa. Iv. 1). On this ac-
count some maintain that the custom arose of eating
food prepared with milk on the festival of Shahu'ot
("Kol Co," 52; comp. Shulhan 'Aruk, Orah Hay-
yim, 494. 3, Isserles' gloss; see Sn.\Bu'oT). He who
devotes himself to the study of the Law will be
greeted in the future world Avith sixty cups of milk,
besides many other delicious beverages ("Agadat
Shir ha-Shirim," p. 84, note).

The permission to drink milk was regarded by the
Rabbis as an exception (" hiddush "), since it was held
that the milk of mammals is derived
Halakah. from decomposed blood (Nid. 9a), and
is furthermore sometliing separated
from a living animal and therefore to be included in
the general proliibition against eating anything that
comes from the living ("dabar niin ha-hai " ; Bek.
6b). The milk of an unclean animal is forbidden in
accordance with the general rule, " that which comes
from the imclean is unclean ; from the clean, clean "
{ib. 5b; comp. Gen. xxxii. 16). It is forbidden also
to use the milk of an animal suffering from a visible
malady which the animal to be ritually
unfit for food ("terefah"), or that of an animal
found, after the ritual slaughtering, to have suffered
from such a disease as late as three days before its
death(Hul. 112b; comp. ib. 11a, Tos., s.r. " Atya "' ;
Maimonides. "Ya<l," Ma'akalot Asurot, iii. 16;
Shulhan 'Aruk, Yoreh De'ah, 81).

]\Iilk bought from a non-Jew is forbidden, the ap-
prehen.sion being that the non-Jew in his carelessness
or from a desire to improve it may have mixed with
it some forbidden ingredient. If, however, a Jew
has been present at the milking, the milk may be

used. Different customs prevail with regard to the
use of butter bought from a non-Jew ; and even
with regard to milk and cheese later authorities are
more lenient ('Ab. Zarah 29b, 35b; " Yad," I.e. iii.
12-17; Yoreh De'ah, 115; see Cheese). The process
of curdling milk was effected in Talmudic times
either by rennet ("kebah," 'Ab. Zarah, I.e.) or by
the juice of leaves or roots ('Orlah 1. 7).

Milk is one of the three beverages which, if left
uncovered overnight, should not be used, because it
is possible that a serpent may have left its venom
therein. In places where serpents are not found,
this api)rehension does not exist (Ter. viii. 4, 5;
Yalk., Judges, 45; "Yad," Rozeah, xi. 7; Yoreh
De'ah, 116, 1; comp. "Pithe feshubah," ^<fi loe.).
Milk is also one of the seven beverages that make
articles of food liable to receive impurity (Maksh.
vi. 4; see Pliutv).

The Rabbis did nothesitate to admit their inability
to assign a reason for the prohibition against eat-
ing meat with milk ("basar be-halab"), and they
accordingly labeled it as "hiildush,"
Milk and an exception, a unique law (Pes. 44b;
Meat. Hul. 108a; comp. Rashi and Tos. ad
hic). Maimonides says in this con-
nection: "Meat boiled with milk is undoubtedly
gross food, and makes overfull. But I think that
it was probably prohibited because it was somehow
ccmnected with idolatry, forming perhaps part of
the services at a heathen festival." This latter
theory he supports by the fact that in Exodus the
prohibition against seething a kid in its mother's
milk is mentioned twice in connection with the
festivals (" Moreh," iii. 48).

Basing their opinions on an ancient tradition, the
Rabbis explained the thrice-repeated prohibition
against seething the kid in its mother's milk (Ex.
xxiii. 19, xxxiv. 26; Deut. xiv. 21) as referring to
three distinct prohibitions — (1) against cooking meat
and milk together; (2) against eating such a mix-
ture; and (3) against deriving any benefit from such
a mixture (Hul. 115b; comp. there the various at-
tempts made to find Biblical support for the prohi-
bition against eating meat with milk). It is curious
to note in this connection that Onkelos, a most lit-
eral translator, renders the passages in all the three
places by "ye shall not eat meat with milk" (K?
3^n2 ")C>2 p^^'D; comp. LXX. to Ex. xxxiv. 26).
The expression "kid " was accepted to be a generic
term including all manunals and, according to some,
even- birds (Hul. 113a). The prevalent opinion,
however, is that the prohibition against eating
poultry with milk is of rabbinic origin merely
(Maimonides, "Yad," Ma'akalot Asurot, ix. 4;
Shidhau 'Aruk, Yoreh De'ah. 87, 3). Fish and lo-
custs as well as eggs are excluded from the prohi-
bition (Hul. 103b, i'04a; Bezah 6b).

The prohibition against eating meat with milk
was extensively elaborated by the Rabbis, -who
provided for every possible occurrence. Not only
was the eating of meat witii milk forbidden, but
also the eating of meat that had a taste of milk, or
vice versa; for "the taste of forbidden food is for-
bidden as the food itself" {'\\)''V'2 DVLD; Hul. 98b,
108a; Pes. 44b; 'Ab. Zarah 67b; etal). If a piece
of meat that had become forbidden as food because




it had absorbed milk to an extent which made tlie
taste of the latter appreciable in it was cooked with
other meat in a pot, all that the pot contained was
forbidden, unless the contents were sixty times as
_great as the prohibited piece. It was not sutiicient
that there should be in the pot sixty times as much
meat as the quantity of milk absorbed in the piece of
meat ; for with regard to meat and milk the principle
was that the forbidden piece became in itself a "car-
cass," i.e., a forbidden object ; and when it could not
be recognized, it was necessary tiiat the taste of it
should be annihilated (H^nj JT'l'^yj r\yr\n ; Yoreh
De'ah, 92, 4; comp. Isserles' gloss, where tlie prin-
ciple is extended to all kinds of forbidden food).

A pot in which meat has been cooked should not

be used for cooking milk, and vice versa. If such

a pot be so used within twenty-four

Cooking- hours after it has been used with milk

Vessels. or meat respectively, everything that
is in it becomes ritually unfit, unless
the contents of the pot are sixty times as much
as the pot itself. If the second cooking takes place
twenty-four hours or more after the first, the con-
tents of tlie pot are permitted for use; for the food
which the pot has absorbed in the first cooking has
by that time lost its agreeable taste, and the general
ride is that any vessel which conuuunicates an of-
fensive taste (DJq!? Dyta iniJ) does not render food
ritually unfit for use. The pot itself, however,
siiould not be used either with meat or with milk
(Yoreh De'ah, 93, 1 ; comp. SHaK ad loc).

Food prepared with milk and food in which meat
is an ingredient should not be eaten at the same
meal. The general custom is to wait six hours be-
tween a meal at which meat has been eaten and one
at which food prepared with milk is to be eaten,
although custom varies in this particular, some per-
sons waiting one hour only. There is no need to
wait at all after eating food prepared with milk; it
is necessary only to see that tliere is none of the food
left on the hands, and also to wash the mouth be-
fore partaking of meat. It is forbidden to place
meat upon the table at the same time with food pre-
pared with milk, lest by mistake both be eaten to-
gether. In tlie houseiiolds of observing Jews not
only are there two separate sets of dishes and of
kitchen utensils, but different table-cloths are used
for meals consisting of food prepared with milk and
those at which meat is eaten (Yoreh De'ah, 88, 89).
As bread is eaten with meat it is not permitted to
prepare it with milk unless the form and size of the
loaf or cake are ditferent from those of ordinary
bread (ib. 96). See DiKT.\iiv Laws; Food.

A. J. H. G.


BERT : French joiniialist and playwright; born
at Paris in 1836; died there Oct. 23, 1892; son of
MoTse MiLL.\UD. Wiien only eigiiteen years of age
he published a volume of poems wiiich met with
considerable success. In 1869 he joined the staff of
the "Figaro," for which he originated the style of
feuillctonism which it has since adopted. To the
"Figaro" he contributed a number of witty and
sarcastic poems and sketches, published under the

Bibliography : Jew. Chnni. Jan. 9, 188.j


pseudonyms "Baron Grimm" and "La Bruyere."
Later these were published collectively under the
title "Petite Nemesis."

For the stage Millaud wrote, often in collabora-
tion with others, a great number of excellent pieces,
mostly m a sarcastic vein, the leading roles of wliicli
were plaj^ed generally by Madame Judic. Of
plays the following may be mentioned: "Madame
TArchiduc" (1874); " Niniche " (1878) ; " La Femme
a Papa" (1879); "Lili" (1882); "Mam'zelle Ni-
touche" (1883); " Le Kemords d'Anatole " (188")).
In his younger days Millaud, together with Abel
Auerbach, foundetl the " Revue de Poche," and later
the " Gazette deHollaude," but neither of these ven-
tures proved successful.

Koumau Lamusse

F. C.

MILLAUD, EDOUARD : French barrister and
statesman; born at Tarascon, Bouches-du-Khone,
Sept. 27, 1834; educated at Lyons, and there ad-
mitted to the bar in 1856. Taking an active part in
politics, he was an opponent of the imperial govern-
ment and became attorney-general for Lyons after
the overthrow of Napoleon III. He resigned in
1871 ; but in the same year he was elected to the
Assembly as a member of the Extreme Left, was re-
elected in 1876 and in 1877, always belonging to the
Republican Union, of which political club he was
one of the founders. In 1880 he was elected to the
Senate, and in 1891 and 1900 was reelected. Being a
good speaker, Millaud has taken a prominent part
in the debates of the Upper House and has been a
member of several commissions. In 1886 he became
secretary of public worksin the cabinet of Freycinet,
and in the followingyear in that of Goblet, resigning
in 1887.

Millaud has written several essays on jurispru-
dence, including medical jurisprudence, in the pro-
fessional journals, and is the author of: "Etude sur
rOrateur Hortensius," 1859; " De la Reorganisation
de TArmee," 1867; " Devons-Nous Signer la Paix'^ "

BinLionR^Piiv: Curinier, Diet. Nat.; Nouveaii Larousite H-
s. F. T. H.

journalist and banker; born at Bordeaux Aug. 27,
1813; died at Paris 1871. The son of a poor Jew-
ish tradesman, he received but a meager education,
and entered a bailiff's oliice as clerk. He applied
himself to literature from his youth, and at the age
of twenty established a small newspaper, " Le Lu-

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 146 of 169)