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tin." In 1836 he went to Paris and founded " Le
Gamin de Paris," the first newspaper to be sold at
the doors of theaters, and "Le Negociateur," con-
cerned entirely with commercial matters. Although
neit'ier was financially successful, lie gained val-
u.tble training from them. In 1839 he founded
"L'Audience," devoted exclu.sively to the news of
the law courts, which was very prosperous until
1845; and he was the leading competitor of the " Ga-
zette des Tribunaux." On Feb. 24, 1845, he estab-
lished "La Liberie," which strongly supported the
cause of Prince Louis Napoleon. After the insur-
rection of June the paper was suiipressed. To



593



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Milk
UiUet



getber with Mikes, his compatriot, he started an
industrial and financial sheet, "Le Journal des
Chemins de Fer," which became a power in matters
of speculation and tiuauce. Availing themselves of
the popularity of Lamartine, the two collaborators
establislied the paper "Le Conseiller du Peuple,"
and founded the two banking institutions Caisses
des Actions Reunies and Caisses des Chemins de
Fer, from which Millaud retired in favor of Mir^s
in 1853, after each had cleared 3,000,000 francs.
The Caisse Generale des Actionnaires and the pur-
chase of the rights of Girardin in " La Presse " proved
less fortunate than the two preceding ventures.
In 1863 he conceived the idea of starting a daily
paper at the price of 5 centimes, and established
"Le Petit Journal," which was a signal success.
He was the founder also of "Le Journal Illustre,"
"Le Soleil," and "Le Journal des Voyageurs."

In 1859, in collaboration with Clairville, Millaud
made his first essay in dramatic literature, and pro-
duced a three-act light comedy, "Ma M^re et Mon
Ours," which had a great success. During the Second
Empire, Millaud gave superb entertainments; but
finally he lost the greater part of his large fortune.

Bibliography: La Grande Eiicyclopedie ; Nnuveau La-
rnusae Ilhmti'e.
s. J. Ka.

MILLENNIUM: The reign of peace, lasting
one thousand years, which will precede the Last
Judgment and the future life. The concept has as-
sumed especial importance in the Christian Church,
where it is termed also "chiliasm," designating the
dominion of Jesus with the glorified and risen saints
over the world for a thousand years. Chiliasm or
the idea of the millennium is, nevertheless, older
tiian the Christian Church; for the belief in a period
of one thousand years at the end of time as a pre-
liminary to the resurrection of the dead was held in
Parseeism. This concept is expressed in Jewish
literature in Enoch, xiil., xci. 13-17; in the apoca-
lypse of the ten weeks, in Apoc. Baruch, xl. 8 ("And
his dominion shall last forever, until the world
doomed to destruction shall perish ") ; and in II
Esdras vii. 28-29. Neither here nor in later Jew-
ish literature is the duration of this
Messianic Messianic reign fixed. It is clear.
Period an however, that the rule of the Messiah
Interreg- was considered as an interregnum,
num. from the fact that in many passages,
such as Pes. 68a, Ber. 34b, Sanh. 91b
and 99a, Shab. 63a, 113b, and 141b, a distinction is
made between n'B'Dn niO' and X3n D^IJ?, although
it must be noted that some regarded the Messianic
rule as the period of the fulfilment of the prophecies,
while others saw in it the time of the subjugation
of the nations.

There are various views regarding the duration of
this kingdom, and there is considerable confusion in
traditional literature on this point, one and the same
opinion being often quoted as held by different au-
thorities. According to the two baraitot in Sanh.
99a, the Messianic kingdom is to last for 40, or 70,
or 365, or 400, or even for 7,000 years. In the opin-
ion of others its period is to equal the time from the
creation of the world, or else from Noah, to the
"present" day. Similar statements, often merely
VIII.— 38



ascribed to other authors, are found in Yalk. 806.
Sanh. 97a quotes Abaye and an old baraita, which
is found also in 'Ab. Zarah 9a, to the effect that the
Messianic period comprises two of the six millen-
niums of the world, while R. Ketina and a baraita
make the interesting statement that the 6,000 years
of the world will be concluded by the seventh thou-
sand of the Messianic kingdom. In the passage in
Yalkut already quoted, this same view is ascribed
to two tannaim of the second century. Both of
these chronologies are based en the calculation found
in Ps. xc. 4 (" For a thousand years in thy sight are
but as yesterday "), a comparison of which with the
account of Creation formed the basis for the 6,000
years of the duration of the world, while the Sab-
bath corresponded to the seventh thousand, that of
the Messiah.

The calculation of 6,000 or 7,000 years is found,

according to Lagarde ("Mitlheilungen," iv. 315), as

early as the Greek translators of the Pentateuch,

whom he places about 280 B.C., and is given also in

Enoch, xxxiii. The idea of the Mes-

Found in sianic interregnum was later incor-

Revela- porated in this form in Revelation
tion. (ch. XX.). When Jesus has conquered
the serpent, representing the hostile
an ti -Christian world, the martyrs of the faith will
be raised from the dead and will rule with him for
1,000 years as a band of kingly priests. This period
is to be followed by the Last Judgment and the
creation of a new heaven and a new earth. The
concept of the Messianic kingdom, which is here
described merely as a reign of peace, is elaborated
more fully in the eschatological descriptions of
apocalyptic literature (as in Papias), in the Epistle of
Barnabas, and in the writings of Justin. Barnabas
follows the Jewish theory that the world is to exist
unchanged for 6,000 years, and that at the begin-
ning of the Sabbatical or seventh millennium the
son of God will appear, although, unlike Papias, he
regards this event as purely spiritual. The view of
Justin ("Dial, cum Tryph." cxiii.) concerning the
Messianic kingdom is nationalistic in coloring, being
influenced, according to Hamburger, by the insur-
rection of Bar Kokba. After the middle of the sec-
ond century of the common era these ideas fell into
abeyance, until the Montanists arose in Asia Minor
(c. 160-230) and revived the ancient hopes, declar-
ing, however, that their city of Pepuza was to be
the site of the future Jerusalem and the center of
the millennial kingdom. In the Greek Church chili-
asm was displaced entirely by Origen's Neopla-
tonic mysticism, and was kept alive only in the Ori-
ental branches of that communion.

BiBLiOGRAPHT: Corrodl, Kritische Gesch. des Chiliasmus;
A. Harnack, Millennium, In Encyc. Brit.; Semlsch, Chilias-
mus, in HerzoK-PUtt, Real-Encuc; Hamburger, R. B. T. s.v.
Chilia»mus ; Schiirer. Gesch. 2d ed., ii. 457 et seq.; F. Weber,
JUdische Tlieologie, 2d ed., pp. 371-373.
J. A. B.

MILLET : An important species of grain which
grows chiefly in sandy regions. In Arabia, Italy,
and elsewhere a bread-, excellent when fresh, is made
of it, and also of the species Panicum italicum
Linn. The grain is mentioned but once in the Bible,
in Ezek. iv. 9: "Take thou also unto thee wheat,
and barley, and beans, and lentils, and millet, and



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THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



594



fitches, and put them in one vessel, and make thee
bread thereof." Since this passage was evidently
intended to enumerate all the kinds of grain used
for making bread, millet ("dohan") was included;
but it is practically impossible to decide which
variety the prophet meant. Rosenmiiller and others
preferred to translate " dohan " by " Indian millet, "
because the Arabic " dukhn " was shown by For-
skal to have this meaning, although Furrer had al-
ready pointed out that panicum likewise bears the
same name ; it is best to translate " dohan " by
"millet," especially if the Biblical "sorah" be ren-
dered "sorghum" (Isa. xxviii. 25, A. V., "wheat";
with which Sachau compares the miK' [i.e., "dur-
rah " = " broom-corn "] of an inscription at Zenjirli ;
comp. Post, "Flora of Syria, Palestine, and Sinai,"
p. 854, Beirut, 1896), and to use " panicum " as a
translation of "pereg," which is first found in the
Mishnah. The Syrians, misled by their word "pe-
ragga," have traced this Mishnaicword to the "pan-
nag" of Ezek. xxvii. 17. The Septuagint and the
Vulgate, followed by the English versions, in-
correctly translate "nisman" (Isa. xxviii. 25) by
"millet."

In Mishnaic times millet of two kinds, rice, and
sesame constituted a separate category of cultivated
plants, which were grouped between
Mishnah. grain and pulse, although rice and
millet more closely approached the
former (Low, "Pflanzennamen," p. 102; Sheb. ii.
7; Yer. Sheb. 34a, 10; Sifra, Behar, 105c; R. H.
13b; Hal. i. 4; Mek., Bo, 8b, 12; 9a, 27; Sifre, i. 110,
146; ii. 105; Yer. Peah i. 16c, 23; Mek., Deut. i. 14;
Hoffmann). Dioscorides discusses the four kinds of
plants in the same sequence. In spite of the fact
that rice and millet are kinds of grain, they were not
included among the recognized species ('Er. 81a;
Pes. 35a; Ber. 37a; " Halakot Gedolot," ed. Hildes-
heimer, p. 54; Maimonides, " Yad," Berakot, v. 10;
"Kesef Mishne," ad loc).

Foreign names for millet occur in rabbinical
works, e.g.: "hirse," "hirsen " (" 'Aruk ha-Kazer";
*' Lebush," Orah Hayyim, 208, 8 ; Isaac Tyrnau ; et pas-
sim), "arzan hindi" (Bacher, "Sefer ha-Shorashim,"
No. 879), "dokhn" (Maimonides), "durra" ("Birke
Yosef," Orah Hayyim, 205), "mil," "miglio" (D.
Kinihi, "Zunz Jubelschrift," Hebrew part, p. 97;
Rashi), "panis," "panitz" (Rashi, and A. Berliner,
"Festschrift," p. 248), "panizo" (" Pahad Yizhak,"

S.V.).

Bibliography: Beckmann, Beitrilae, 11. .543; RosenmuUer,
Bihlwche Naturycsch. 1. 84 ; Ibn Saflr, Eben Sappir. 1. 40a ;
WOnlK, Die Pflanzen im Alten Aegypten, pp. 173 et seq.,
Lelpslc, 1886.

J. I. L6.

MILMAN, HENRY HART : Historian ; born
in London Feb. 10, 1791 ; died there Sept. 24, 1868.
His career at Oxford was a brilliant one. He first
became known through his dramatic poems "Fa-
zio " (1815), '.'Fall of Jerusalem," "Martyr of An-
tioch," and others. In 1830 lie published his "His-
tory of the Jews," a work which brought down on
him the censure of tlie Church. This history is ag-
e,ressively rationalistic; it treats the Jews as an
Oriental tribe, and all miracles are either eliminated
or evaded. He was nevertheless presented with a



piece of plate by some representative Jews in recog-
nition of his sympatlietic attitude. His history was
republished in 18G3 and 1867.

Dean Milman was appointed Dean of St. Paul's
in 1849. He was tlie first to translate Sanskrit epics
into English. He edited Gibbon in 1838, and Horace
in 1849. His ecclesiastical and theological sympa-
thies were very liberal, as is shown by his "History
of Latin Christianity " (1855), in which also occur
several sympathetic references to the Jews.
Bibliography : Dictionaru of National Biog.

J. S. J. L.

MILSAHAGI, ELIAKIM. See Samiler,
A. G.

MILWAUKEE : Metropolis of the state of
Wisconsin. The oldest congregation of Milwau-
kee, Bene Jeshurun, was organized in 1855 by Liibl
Rindskopf, Leopold Newbauer, Solomon Adler,
Emanuel Silverman, and others of the first Jewish
settlers in the city. At the outset the congrega-
tion had as hazzanim Messrs. Alexander, Lasker,
and Marcus Heiman in the order named, and it then
came under the guidance of Rabbis Isidor Kaliseh,
M. Falk, Elias Epstein, Emanuel Gerechter, and
Victor Caro, the present (1904) incumbent. On Oct.
18, 1869, under the leadership of David Adler and
Henry Friend, a new congregation named "Emanu-
El " was organized, which was incorporated Feb. 17,
1870. After a short period of service by M. Schul-
hof as hazzan. Rabbis E. M. V. Brown, M. Spitz,
Isaac S. Moses, Sigmund Hecht, and Julius H.
Meyer were successively the spiritual guides of the
congregation. There are four other incorporated
congregations.

A federation of Jewish charities was effected in
Jan., 1903, the income of the new organization being
about $12,000. Out of this sum the following local
charities are supported : the Hebrew Relief Associa-
tion ; the Settlement ; the Jewish Hospital Associa-
tion ; the Ladies' Relief Sewing Society ; and the
Sisterhood of Personal Service. From this source,
also, the contributions of Milwaukee Jews to na-
tional Jewish charities are made.

In a total population of 300,000 there are about
8,000 Jews.

A. J. H. M.

MI-MIZRAH UMI-MA'ARAB. See Period-
icals.

MIN (pi. Minim) : Term used in the Talmud
and Midrash for a Jewish heretic or sectarian. Its
etymology is obscure, the most plausible among nu-
merous explanations being that given by Bacher,
namely, that it is derived from the Biblical po ( =
"species"), which has received in post-Biblical He-
brew the signification of " sect " ; and just as " goy,"
which in the Bible has only the meaning of "na-
tion," took later the sense of "non-Jew," so "min"
received also the signification of ".sectary." As ex-
pressly stated by R. Nahman (Hul. 13b), the term
"min" is applied only to a Jewish sectary, not to
a non-Jew. It is variously used in the Talmud and
the Midrash for the Samaritan, the Sadducee, the
Gnostic, the Judaeo-Christian, and other sectaries, ac-
cording to the epoch to which the passage belongs.
Yerushalmi states that there were, at the time of



595



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Millet
Minden



tlie destruction of the Temple, no less than twenty-
four kinds of minim (Yer. Sanh. x. 5). Thus the
min who (the Midrash states) derided
Various Alexander the Great for rising before
Applica- the Jewish high priest Simon the Just
tions of the (Lev. R. xiii.) was undoubtedly a
Term. Samaritan. The minim referred to in
Berakot ix., on whose account the
custom was established of closing the benedictions
with the words " from eternity to eternity " in order
to emphasize the existence of more than one world,
were undoubtedly Sadducees, who, as known, de-
nied the existence of another world. In passages
referring to the Christian period, " minim " usually
indicates the Judseo-Christians, the Gnostics, and
the Nazarenes, who often conversed with the Rabbis
on the unity of God, creation, resurrection, and
similar subjects (comp. Sanh. 39b). In some pas-
sages, indeed, it is used even for "Christian"; but
it is po.ssible that in such cases it is a substitution
for the word "Nozeri," which was the usual term
for "Christian."

During the first century of Christianity the Rabbis
lived on friendly terms with the minim. Rabbi
Eliezer, who denied to the heathen a share in the
futuje life, is said to have discoursed with the
Judaeo-Christian Jacob of Kefar Sekanya and to
have quietly listened to the interpretation of a Bib-
lical verse he had received from Jesus ('Ab. Zarah
16b; Eccl. R. i. 8). Ben Dama, a nephew of R.
Ishmael, having been bitten by a snake, allowed
himself to be cured by means of an exorcism uttered
by the min Jacob, a Judaeo - Christian. These
friendly feelings, however, gradually gave way to
violent hatred, as the minim separated themselves
from all connection with the Jews and propagated
writings which the Rabbis considered more danger-
ous to the unity of Judaism than those of the
pagans. "The writings of the minim," says R.
Tarfon, "deserve to be burned, even though the
holy name of God occurs therein, for paganism is
less dangerous than 'minut'; the former fails to
recognize the truth of Judaism from want of knowl-
edge, but the latter denies what it fully knows"
(Shab. 116a).

On the invitation of Gamaliel II., Samuel ha-
Katan composed a prayer against the minim which
was inserted in the " Eighteen Benedictions " ; it is
called " Birkat ha-Minim " and forms
Prayer the twelfth benediction ; but instead
Against of the original " Nozerim " (= " Naza
Minim. renes"; see Krauss in "J. Q. R." v.
55; comp. Bloch, "Die Institutionen
des Judenthums," i. 193) the present text has "we-
la-nialshinim " (="and to the informers"). The
cause of this change in the text was, probably, the
accusation brought by the Church Fathers against
the Jews of cursing all the Christians under the
name of the Nazarenes. It was forbidden to par-
take of meat, bread, and wine with the min. Scrolls
of the Law, tefillin, and mezuzot written by a min
were burned (Git. 45b; Yer. Shab. 14b; 'Ab. Zarah
40b; Shulhan "Aruk, Orah Hay vim, 39, 1 ; ib. Yoreh
De'ah, 281, 1). An animal slaughtered by a min
was forbidden food (Hul. 13a). The relatives of the
min were not permitted to observe the laws of



mourning after his death, but were required to as-
sume festive garments and rejoice (Sem. ii. 10;
Yoreh De'ah, 345). The testimony of the min was
not admitted in evidence in Jewish courts (Shulhan
'Aruk, Hoshen Mishpat, 34, 22); and an Israelite
who found anything belonging to one who was a
min was forbidden to return it to him (see Hoshen
Mishpat, 266, 2).

According to Maimonides (" Yad," Teshubah, iii.)
the term "min " is applied to five classes of heretics:
to those who deny the existence of God and His
providence ; to those who believe in two or in more
than two gods; to those who ascribe to God form
and figure ; to those who maintain that there existed
before the creation of the world something besides
God ; and to those who worship stars, planets, or
other things in order that these may act as inter-
mediaries between them and the Master of the
World.

Bibliography: Sachs, in Orient, Lit. li. 825; Drelfus, ih. iv.
304, vi. 620; Kirchheim, ih. v. 1; Jost, Gesch. des Juden-
thums und Seiner Sekttn. i. 414 ; Gratz, Crnostu'wrnw-s und
Judenthum. Krotoschin, 1846, passim ; M. Friedlander, Der
Vc/rchri^tliche JUdische anosticismu,% GOttingen, 1898, pas-
sim ; Bacher, In R. E. J. xxxvlii. 38 ; Israel L^vl, ib. xxxviii.
204 ; Schurer, in Theologische Literaturzeitung, 1899, No. 6 ;
Goldfahn, in Monatsschrift, six. 163 ; J. Derenbourg, in R.
E. J. xiv. 30 ; Krauss, in J. Q. R. ix. 515.

J. I. Br.

MINDEN, JUDAH (LOB) B. JOEL: Ger-
man lexicographer; lived at Berlin in the sixth
decade of the eighteenth century. In 1760 he pub-
lished there, with the approbation of the rabbinates
of Berlin and Halberstadt, the first Hebrew diction-
ary produced by a Jew and using German as the
medium of translation; it was, as Zunz says("G.
V." p. 451), "the initial attempt to introduce the
High German language into the national literature."
The title "Millim le-Eloah " (comp. Job xxxvi. 2)
was chosen for it, "because it explains the words of
the divine writings," while its first word (D''TO)
hints at the author's name (jyiro y^ niMl'' ^JJD).
The book, which is based on David Kimhi's diction-
ary, contains also additions from the Concordance,
as well as discussions of the grammatical functions
of the letters. In 1765 Minden published a new
edition of Musafia's "Zeker Rab" as a supplement
to his own work.

Bibliography: Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 1344; idem,
BihlingrapliUches Ha7}dbuch, pp. 93, 98 ; Roest, Cat. Rosen-
thal. Bibl. Hebrew part, No. 1108.
T. W. B.

MINDEN, LOB B. MOSES: Cantor and
poet ; born at Selichow (from which he is called also
Judah b. Moses Selichower), in Lesser Poland,
in the seveuteeutli century ; died at an advanced
age at Altona or Hamburg May 26, 1751. He
acted as hazzan at Minden-on-the-Weser, whence
his name "Minden." He was the author of
"Shire Yehudah," Hebrew songs with German
translations and music. One of these begins: "Ihr
lieben Briider und Gesellen, die da sitzen und
zechen," and another, "Hortzu, ihr Lent, gedenkt
an die Zeit." In an epilogue to this work (Amster-
dam, 1696) he exhorts the rabbis not to allow^ con-
versation in the synagogue. He wrote also "Zemer
wa-Shir," which was printed by Solomon London,
Frankfort-on-the-.Miiiii, 1714.



Minerbi, Hirschel de
I£\uis



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



596



Bibliography : Steinschneider, Cat. BorH. cols. 643, 1361, No.
4064; Roest, Cat. Rosenthal. Bihl. p. 816; Appendix, pp.211
et seq.
H. K. M. K.

MINERBI, HIRSCHEL DE : Count of Os-
carre; Italiuu diplomal; desceiidaut of a wealthy
and illustrious Jewish family of Triest ; bora April
25, 1838; educated at the University of Padua,
where he received his degree in law in 1864. He
then went to Italy, and entered the government
service in 1867, being tirst sent to Paris, later in
turn to Bern, Constantinople, London, Brussels, and
finally to London again, where he remained until he
withdrew from the service. Before he retired to
private life he set aside the sum of 80,000 lire
which he directed to be used as a nucleus for the
foundation of an institute for the benefit of the
widows and orphans of diplomatists.

s. V. C.

MINES AND MINING- : Mines did not exist
in the land inhabited by the Israelites. In the de-
scription of Palestine in Deut. viii. 9, it is true, the
words " whose stones are iron and out of whose hills
thou mayest dig brass " seem to refer to mining ; but
it is doubtful whether this passage is to be taken
literally. The writer may have only meant that the
stones were like iron in hardness. Here and there,
however, superficial deposits of iron ore, such as
pea ore or meadow ore, are to be found. In the
Wadi Ajlun there are even thin deposits of red iron
ore ; but whether these were perhaps worked in some
primitive manner is unknown. Traces of iron-mines
and of ancient copper-works are found in the Leb-
anon. Possibly the words in Deuteronomy refer to
this territory, though it was never inhabited b}' the
Israelites.

The author of Job xxviii. betrays a more exact
knowledge of mining. In verses 4, 7, 8 he refers to
the passages and galleries Avhich run crosswise with
many sharp turns, following the labyrinthine course
of the vein of ore. Verse 3 refers to the miner's
light, which, according to Diodorus (iii. 11), the
workers in Egyptian mines used to wear fastened to
their foreheads. Verse 5 refers to the process of
breaking the stone by making it intensely hot and
then pouring water on it. This process also is
mentioned by Diodorus. Verse 10 refers to the
cleaving of a rock in which a vein of ore ran through
it in a fissure. Water burst from the fissure, and the
flow was stopped by closing up tlie gap. Perhaps
the writer's knowledge of the subject came from
Egyptian sources.

The rich gold-mines of which Diodorus {I.e.)
speaks were on the boundary between Egypt and
Nasb, but more likely in this passage the allusion
is to the copper-works of the Egyptians on the Sina-
itic Peninsula. Traces of extensive mining opera-
tions are still to be seen in the wadis Maghara and
Nasb, in the heaps of rubbish, the piles of .slag, and
tlie ruined passages. The inscriptions found on the
rocks there intimate that the ore was excavated even
before th(! time of (Cheops (the builder of the great
pyramid), under King Snefru. Mining was not car-
ried on by regular miners, but by slaves, convicts,
prisoners of war, etc. Tlie autiior of Job xxviii.
must in. some way have become acquainted with



such mines, and have used the picture with poetical
freedom for a general illustration of human skill in
obtaining precious metals. See Metals.

E. G. H. W. N.

MINHAG. See Custom.

MINHAH PRAYER: The afternoon devo-
tional service of the Jewish liturgy. The term is
probably derived from Elijah's prayer at " the time
of the offering of the evening [" minhah "] sacrifice "
(I Kings xviii. 36). Minhah is one of the three daily
services referred to in Dan. vi. 10. Tradition credits
the patriarchs Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob with the
authorship of the morning, afternoon, and evening
prayers respectively (Ber. 26b). That Isaac was the
original author of Minhah is deduced from the
verse, " And Isaac went out to meditate in the field
at the eventide " (Gen. xxiv. 63).

Minhah proper, otherwise known as "Minhah

Gedolah" (major) begins at six and one-half hours

of the day (12.30 p.m.); "Minhah Ke-

Divisions. tannah '' (minor), at nine and one-half

hours of the day (3.30 p.m.) ; and they

both end at sunset (6 P.M.). "Pelag" (split or semi-)

Minhah divides the "Minhah Ketannah " in half at

ten and three-quarter hours of the day (4.45 p.m. ;

Ber. iv. 1, 26a). Sunset is calculated to occur at

the twelfth hour of the day (6 p.m.); no attention

is paid to variations in the length of day and of

night according to the seasons, but each is reckoned

as containing exactly twelve hours.

The distinction between Minhah Gedolah and
Minhah Ketannah corresponds to a division of ac-
tivities into important and unimportant; it being



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 147 of 169)