Isidore Singer.

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forbidden to enter upon one of either class after the
beginning of the corresponding Minhah ; this rule
was made as a precaution against any undertaking
being continued after the limit of the time fixed for
prayer (Shab. i. 2, 9a). Accordingly, one must not
commence a large business transaction or sit down
to a banquet after 12.30 p.m., nor begin a small
transaction or partake of an ordinary meal after
3.30 P.M., without having previously recited the
Minhah prayer. The semi-Minhah is a special di-
vision made by Rabbi Judah, who sets the limit
of the " Minhah " time at one and one-quarter hours
before sunset.

It appears tiiat some made it a practise to pray
both at Minhah Gedolah and Minhah Ketannah. R.
Mazliah did so; but Asheri rules against him, inas-
much as there is an additional Minhah known as
"ne'ilah," whicli is confined to Yom-Kippur and
special fast-days (Asheri, Rule iv., § 13). The
Shulhan 'Aruk allows one to say the Minhah
prayer twice, provided one Minhah is recited as an
obligation (" hobah ") and the other asa voluntary act
C'reshut"). This, however, is allowed only to men
of extraordinary devotion ; tliis rule being supported
by the wonls of Lsaiah: "To what purpose is the
multitude of your sacrifices unto me?" (Shulhan
'Aruk, Oral.i Hayyim, 234, 1).

Minl.iaii consists of Ps. cxlv., " 'Amidah," "Tah-
nun" (except on Fridays), and "'Alenu." When
there is a quorum of ten (" minyan ") tlie leader re-
peats tlie standing prayer (" 'Amidah ") aloud, and
recites the "Kaddishim." On Saturdays and on



Minerbi, Hirschel de

fast-days a portion of the Pentateuch is read in
public before the "'Aniidah." When time presses,
the leader recites aloud only the first part of the
prayer, through " Kedushshah " (" thrice holy "),
and the rest is said silently with the assembly.

The third meal on Saturdays is eaten between
Minhah and Ma'arib or evening prayer. Formerly,
a maggid sometimes preached in Uie synagogue after
Minhah. In the nineteenth century, when the peo-
ple became more busy in worldly affairs, it was diffi-
cult for them to assemble in the afternoon and again
in the evening; hence the Minhah prayer was post-
poned to very near sunset in order that it might
be followed by Ma'arib after a short interval.

On the relation of the Minhah prayer to the sacri-
fices in the Temple see Prayek.

Bibliography : Dembitz, Jewish Services in Synagogue and
Home, pp. 76-81, 333, Philadelphia, 1898.

J. J. D. E.

He was the author of the Talraudic commentary
"Be'erot Yizhak."

Joseph ben Isaac Minir: Rabbi at Constan-
tine; died before 1408; son of Isaac ben Joseph
Minir; for ten years a pupil of Isaac ben Sheshet,
who esteemed him highly for his scholarship.

Moses Minir : Edited Hebrew works at Venice
in 1593.

Shem-Tob Minir : Contemporary of Joseph
Caro; was living at Constantinople in 1569.

Bibliography : Isaac ben Sheshet, Rcitponsa. Nos. 79 et sea.,
123, 126, 396 ; Omr Nchmad, li. 99 ; Hc-Hahiz, il. 26, iv. 8.5 ;
Conforte. Knre ha-Dhrnt, p. 36b; Zunz, Literaturgejich.
p. 504 ; Kayserling, Oesch. der Juden in Spanien, i. 78 et
seq., 88.
G. M. K.

MINIS : American family especially prominent
in the South. Its founder, Abraham Minis, went
from England to America in 1733. The family tree
is as follows:

Minis (in England)

Abraham Minis

(b. 1691 ; settled in

Savannah, Ga., 1733; d. 1757)

m. Abigail (b. 1701;

d. 1794)

Simeon Minis
(no descendants)

Esther Minis
(no descendants)

Leah Minis
(no descendants)

Philip Minis (b. 1734; d. 1789)
m. Judith Pollack of New-
port, R. I. (d. 1818)

other children
(no descendants)

Abraham Minis (b. Savannah,
Ga., 1778; d. 1801)

Isaac Minis (b. 1780; d. 1856) 4 daughters

m. Divina Cohen of Georgetown, S. C.

(b. 1787 ; d. 1874)

Philip Minis

(b. 1805)

m. Sarah Livingston

of New York

3 sons

4 daugh-

Sarah Ann
Minis (b. 1811)
m. Dr. Isaac
Hays of Phila-
(issue : .see
Hays pedigree)

Philipa Minis

(b. 1818)

m. Edward

Etting (issue)

Abraham Minis

(b. 1820; d. 1889)

m. Lavinia

Flora nee

of New Orleans

Francis Rebecca Theodore Minis 6 other
Minis Gratz (b. 1828) daughters

Minis m. Emily Tobias
(no issue)

Jacob Florance Minis
m. Louisa Porter (iilner

Maria Minis

Isaac Minis

(b. 18.-)7; d. 1S9:!)

m. Eugenia P.


Ahrani Minis
. Mabel A. Henry
of New York

Lavinia Minis
m. Charles I.
Henry of New
York (issue)

Isaac Minis, Jr.


Carol Minis


E. N. S.

Pediguee of the Minis Family.

MINIR (-l"'JO) : Family of scholars of Tudola,
members of which are met with in the East and in

Abraham ben Joseph Minir (probably a
brother of Isaac ben Joseph Minir); Acah (Isaac)
ben Hayyim and his son Abraham Minir ; and
Shem-Tob ben Samuel Minir were piomincnl
members of the community of Tiidela in 1363.

Isaac ibn Minir : Contemporary of Isaac ben

Isaac ben Joseph Minir : Commentatoi- and
liturgical poet ; pupil of Yom-Tob ben Abraham of
Seville, and contemporary of Solomon ben Adret.

Abraham Minis : One of the earliest settlers in
the colony of (rcorgia; born r. 1696; died 1757. He
arrived at Savannah with the group of Jewish col-
onists which came from England July 11, 1733,
.shortly after Oglethorpe. Abraham was accom-
panied by liis wife Abigail, his daughters Leah and
Esther, and his brother Simeon. He seems to have
been a man of means. Some of the family silver he
brought with him is still in possession of his descend-
ants; and sevei'al pieces bear his crest. Abraham's
name appears among those of the few Jewish grant-
ees mentioned in the general conveyance of town
lots and farms executed in Dec, 1733, and which




is virtually the earliest deed in the colony. He soon
became a merchant, and is mentioned as such in
Savannah as early as 1737.

When many of the colonists, both Jew and Gen-
tile, left Georgia about 1740, owing to the illiberal
policy of the trustees. Minis was one of the few
Jews who remained; he is mentioned in the trus-
tees' minutes of that period. His widow died in 1794.

Simeon Minis : Brother of Abraham Minis ; also
one of the original settlers. His name appears in
the records as late as 1743, when he received an al-
lotment of land.

Philip Minis : Son of Abraham Minis; born at
Savannah July 11, 1734 (being the first white male
child born in the colony of Georgia); died 1789.
He was a successful merchant at the outbreak of
the Ameiican Revolution. An ardent patriot, he
advanced considerable sums to the Revolutionary
cause, mainly in connection with the payment of
the troops. His name appears in the "Journal of
the Continental Congress." In 1778 Congress di-
rected the payment to him of several thousands of
dollars, advanced t(j the "acting paymaster and com-
missary to the Virginia and North Carolina troops
in the State of Georgia." When, in Sept., 1779, the
French au.xiliaries besieged Savannah, Minis acted
as guide through tlie woods, and was consulted as
to the best place for landing. He also volunteered
to act as a patriot guide thereafter. In 1780 the
British passed their famous "Disqualifying Act,"
whereby certain persons were disqualitied from
holding office, because of their prominence in the
"rebel cause." The name of Philip Minis is one
of the 150 names appearing in this

After the Revolution Minis took a livelj' interest
in congregational affairs at Savannah. On the re-
establishment of the congregation in 1786 he be-
came parnas or president of the Mickva Israel con-
gregation in that city.

David Minis : A member of the family who was
prominent in masonic affairs as early as 1757. He
was among those who, on behalf of the order,
wailed on Governor Ellis with an address of wel-
come in that year.

Judith (Judy) Minis {nee Judith Pollack) :
Wife of Pliilip Minis; died 1818. She and her
motlier were both prominent patriots. On this
account both were confined to their dwelling after
the taking of Savannah, and were finally ordered to
leave the town.

Among the soldiers of the Georgia line in tiie
Revolution are also found the names of William
Minis and James Minis, presumably members
of tlic same family.

Isaac Minis: Son of Philip and Judith Minis;
said to have been born in 1780, in a cave near
Charleston, S. C, while that city was besieged and
while Savannah was in the hands of the British;
died 1856. He served as a private in the War of 1812
in Capt. William Bullock's company of artillery,
1st Regiment Georgia Militia.

Abraham Minis: Son of Isaac Minis; born at
Savaiuiali 1S20; died 1889. He was physically dis-
qualitied from serving in the field at the outbreak
of the Civil war. Though disapproving of .seces-
sion, lie, after iiostilities commenced, es|)oused the

Confederate cause, and filled a position in the com-
missary's office at Savannah. He also subscribed
liberally to the issue of Confederate bonds.

Isaac Minis : Son of Abraham Minis ; born at
Savannah 1857 ; died 1893. He was an active mem-
ber of the Georgia Hussars for many j^ears, until his

Abraham Minis : Son of Abraham Minis ; born
1859. He joined the Georgia Hussars in 1881, and
became first lieutenant. At the outbreak of the
Spanish-American war he requested assignment to a
cavalry regiment, but as no cavalry was called from
Georgia he had no opportunity for active service.
Later he was appointed quartermaster (with the
rank of captain) of the 1st Regiment of Georgia
Cavalry, of which body he is now (1904) adjutant.

Bibliography: Charles C. Jones, Hist, of Georgia, vol. i. ;
idon. In Puh. Am. Jew. Hist. Soc. i. 5; George White.
Historicnl Collections of Georgia, pp. 98, 102, 104, 339, New
York, 1S.55; Occident, i. 247, 381; George Gilinan Smith,
Tlic Story of Georgia, pp. 517, 619, 627, Macon, 1900; George
White, Statistics of Georgia, in Journal of tlie Transactions
of the Trustees of Georgia, p. 418, Wormloe, 1896 ; W. B.
Stevens, Historu of Georgia, vol. 1., 1847 ; Georgia Gazette,
March 12, 1789; Leon Huhner, The Jews of Georgia in Colo-
n ial Times, In Pub. Am. Jew. Hist. Soc. x.; idem, Tlie Jeu^
of Georgia in the American Revolution ; Charles P. Daly,
Settlement of the Jews in North America, pp. 68-73, New
York, 189;!; Isaac Markens, T)ie Hebrews i)i America, p. 49,
New York, 1888; Journals of Continental Congi'ess, 1778;
Herbert Friedemvald, In Pub. Am. Jew. Hist. Soc. i. 67.
A. L. HtJ.

tor; born at Byelaya Tzerkov April, 1859. His
father, Mordecai, a descendant of Yom-Tob Lip-
mann Heller, was cantor in the great synagogue of
Byelaya Tzerkov, and he himself was a singer in his
father's choir. After having studied the Bible and
Talmud under different teachers, Minkovsky con-
tinued his Talmudical studies alone in the bet ha
midrash of his native town. At the age of eighteen
he began to study Russian and German, and he mas-
tered these two languages. His first teacher in vocal
music was his father; later he studied it under Nisau
Spivak (Nisan Belzer or Nisan Berdychever), and
finally he went to Vienna, where he continued under
Robert Fuchs, now (1904) director of the Conserva-
torium of Vienna, from whom he obtained a diploma
as singer. From 1888 Minkovskj^ was successively
cantor at Kishinef, Kherson, Lemberg, Odessa (in
the great synagogue), New York (in the synagogue
Kehal 'Adat Yeshurun), and in 1892 he was called
back to Odessa, where lie is now cantor in the Bro-
der Synagogue. He has written " Die Entwick-
lung iler Synagogalen ].,iturgie bis nach der Refor-
mation des 19jahrhunderts" (Odessa, 1902). Min-
kovsky has contriliuted to many Hebrew periodicals
and to "Die Wahrheit."

II. n. B. Ex.

MINKOWSKI, OSCAR: German physician;
born at Ale.xolen, near Kovno, Russia, Jan. 13, 1858;
educated at the universities of Freiburg. Strasburg,
and Ivonigsberg (M. D. 1881). He became assistant
at the medical clinic of K5nigsberg University in
1882 and privat-docent in 1885. Removing to Stras-
burg in 1888, he was appointed assistant professor at
the university there in 1891. In 1900 he became
chief physician at the General Hospital at Cologne.

Minkowski is a contributor to Leyden's " Hand-
buch diT Eniahningstherapie," Nothnagel's" Hand-




buch der Speziellen Pathologic imd Therapie," Lie-
bieich's " Encyklopadie der Tlieiapie," and Lubarsch
and Ostertag's "Ergebnisse der Allgemcinen The-
rapie." Besides contributing many essays to the
medical journals, lie has written : " Untersuchungen
liber den Diabetes Mellitus nach Exstirpation des
Pankreas," Leipsic, 1893; and "Untersuchungen
zur Physiologie uud Pathologic der Harnsaure," ib.

Bibliography: Papel, BU>\j. Lex.
^. F. T. H.

MINNEAPOLIS : Chief commercial city of the
state of Minnesota. In 1900 it had in a total popu-
lation of 303,718 a Jewish community of about (),000
souls. The liisl Jewish settlers were Germans, Bo-
hemians, and Russians, who went there between the
years 1865-70, there being among them one Ralph
Rees, still living, who came in 1866, and who was for
many years the most active member of the conmiu-
nity. In 1876 about a dozen families rented a hall
for worsliip and engaged the Rev. Mr. Schreiber as
minister. In 1878 the congregatitm was permanent-
ly organized and incorporated, and shortly after a
frame structure was erected as a synagogue on leased
ground now situated in the very center of the busi-
ness district. Such was the beginning of the pres-
ent Jewish Reform Congregation Shaarei Tov.
About five years later the synagogue was enlarged
and moved to its present site, Fifth avenue and
Tenth street south. Henry Iliowizi then became the
rablii of the congregation and remained here eight
years. His successors have been : Rabbi S. Marks,
two years; A. Friedman, seven years; and S. N.
Deinard, the present (1904) incumbent, wlio was
elected in 1901. The congregation dedicated a new
synagogue in 1903.

The great bulk of Russian and Rumanian Jews,
who are now the predominating element of the
community, have come since 1883. The first con-
gregations organized by them were the Adath Ye-
shurun, which existed for about seven years, and the
Rumanian Hebrew Congregation Sons of Abraham,
both in 1888. In 1890 the Congregation Beth Midrash
Haggadol was started, but two years later was dis-
solved and succeeded by the Congregation Keneseth
Israel, which built its present synagogue in 1894.
This congregation, the leading Orthodox one, main-
tains a Hebrew Free School (daily) with about 70
pupils, and a Sunday-school attended mostly by
girls. With the congregation are connected a Heb-
ra Tillim, a Hebra Mishnah, and a Hebra Gemarah.
Other Orthodox congregations are: Mikra Kodesh
Nusah Sfard ; Congregation Anshe Tavrig ; Adath
Yeshurun (reorganized in 1903); and South Side
Hebrew Congregation Agudath Ahim. They all
own their houses of worship. The spiritual liead of
the Orthodox portion of tlie community was, until
1901, Rabbi I. Yaffey, who lias been succeeded by
Rabbi M. S. Silber.

The following organizations attend
Charitable to communal charity : the Hebrew La-
Organiza- dies' Benevolent Society, composed of
tions. members of the Jewisli Reform con-
gregation ; Sisters of Peace ; Russian
Hebrews Charity Association ; Bikkur Holim of
the North Side ; Bikkur Holim of the South Side;

and Haknasat Orhim (free temporary shelter for
strangers)— the last five conducted and maintained
by the Orthodox Jews.

Before there was any established congregation in
Minneapolis, the first few Jewish settlers bought a
small tract of land about four miles from the center
of the city, and organized themselves into what is
now known as the Montefiore Burial Association. It
is not connected with any congregation, although
its membership is composed of those who affiliate
with the Reform congregation. In addition there
are now the Adath Yeshurun Cemetery Association;
the Minneapolis City Lodge O. B. A. Cemetery As-
sociation; and the Hennepin County Lodge O. B. A.
Cemetery Association.

Jewish secret fraternal organizations are particu-
larly numerous in Minneapolis: one lodge of the
I. O. B. B. with about 70 members; five lodges of the
O. B. A. with a total membership of 1,350 ; two lodges
of the Sons of Benjamin ; one of the Free Sons of
Israel ; Mendelsohn Camp, M. W. A. ; Baron Hirsch
Camp, W. W. ; and one Jewish lodge of each of the
following: Modern Samaritans, Bankers' Union,
Knights and Ladies of Security, Loyal Mystic Le-
gion of America, Supreme Court of Honor, and
Modern Brotherhood of Ameiica.

Zionism is represented by the Ohave Zion Kadi-
mah and the American Daughters of Zion. There
are several literary and .social organizations.

The professions are represented by nine lawyers
(one of whom, Simon Meyers, was in the state legis-
lature from 1897 to 1899) and six physicians; three
Jewish names are on the faculty list of the Univer-
sity of Minnesota : Robert Kolliner, professor at the
University Law School; S. N. Deinard, of the chair
of Semitics; and Lilian Cohen, instructor of chem-
istry. Dr. George J. Gordon is on the faculty of
the Hamline Medical College.

A. S. N. D.

MINNESOTA : One of the northwestern states
of the American Union. It has a Jewish population
of about 13.000, distributed in the following cities
Minneapolis, the largest city of the state, 6,000
St. Paul, tile capital city, 5,000; Duluth, 1,000
and about 1,000 scattered over the rest of the state,
where from 5 to 30 Jewish families maj' be found in
most towns of 3,000 or more inhabitants.

The three brothers Samuels, English Jews, who as
early as 1853 had an Indian trading-post at Taylor
Falls, on the Minnesota side of the St. Croix River,
seem to have been the first Jewisli settlers. One of
the brothers, Morris Samuels, was captain in the
Union army during the Civil war. Another Jew
known to have been engaged in trading with the
Indians in those early pioneer days was Isaac Marks,
who had his residence in Mankato, and a trading-
post about twelve miles from that place.

About 1857 some Jews went to St. Paul and en-
gaged in general business, which likewise consisted
mostly in trading with the Indians. The first Jew-
ish organization was not effected till 1871, when
the present Mt. Zion congregation of St. Paul came
into existence. At that time Minneapolis had only
a very few^ Jews. Since then, however, the Twin
Cities have had an extraordinary growth in popula-
tion, and the Jewish communities in them have




grown in proportion, especially since 1882. Of late
years several Jews of St. Paul have greatly pros-
pered in business, and are now recognized factors in
the commercial life of that city, so that while the
Jewish community of Minneapolis is the larger in
point of numbers, that of St. Paul is the wealthier
and more influential.

In political and general communal activity the
Jews of Minnesota have so far achieved little dis-
tinction, though T. N. Cardozo of St. Paul was as
early us 1855 appointed United States commissioner,
and Joseph Oppenheim of St. Paul was early in the
eighties a member of the state legislature for two
consecutive terms.

About 30 Jews from Minnesota were in the United
States service during the Spanish-American war,
one of them, Albert Steinhauser of New Ulm,
being captain of Company A, 12th Minnesota Vol-
unteer InfantT}' (see "American Jewish Year Book,"

Tliere are 17 organized congregations in the state,
to wit: 7 in Minneapolis; 7 in St. Paul; and 3 in
Duluth ; one in each city — namely, Mt. Zion of St.
Paul, Shaarei Tov of Minneapolis, and Emanuel of
Duluth — belonging to the Reform wing of Judaism,
while all the others retain the Orthodox i-itual.
These three have within the last two years dedicated
new and handsomely built houses of worship.
There is an I. O. B. B. lodge in each of the three
cities, the one in St. Paul having been organized in
1871, and the one in Duluth in 1904. In the Twin
Cities many lodges of tlie other Jewish fraternal or-
ders, particularly of the O. B. A., are in flourishing
condition. Zionism is well represented in St. Paul,
where a Zionist society with a large membership of
young men and young women maintains a well-
appointed club-house.

"The Jewish Progress" of the Twin Cities, a
weekly in English, is issued at Minneapolis.

A. S. N. D.

rabbi and author; born at Wilna 1827; died there
Jan. 21, 1900. He received his elementary educa-
tion from his father, R. Jekuthiel, a well-known Tal-
mudist. At the age of twelve Minor took up the
study of Biblical and rabbinical subjects, but with-
out the aid of a teacher. In 1849 the rabbinical
seminary at Wilna was established, and Minor was
among its first graduates. In 1854 lie became in-
structor in Talmud and rabbinical literutuie in that
institution, and in 1856 was appointed special ad-
viser on Jewish affairs in the office of the governor-
general of Wilna. Among the sermons he delivered
in German at that time in the Wilna seminaiy may
be mentioned " Der Rabbiner und der Lelner "
(Wilna, 1858). It pictures the ideal rabbi as a de-
voted guardian of the spiritual interests of his flock
and as the advocate of his jicople. In 1860 Minor
was appointed rabbi at ^linsk; and for the ne.xl
nine years he lived a life of conspicuously beneficent
activity. Owing to hisefforts a Sabbatii-school and
a night-school for artisans were opened (1«61), and
a library for tiie Jewish community was established
(1862). In 1869 Minor was called to Moscow, where
a Jewish congregation had recently been formed.
There he succeeded in obtaining from the govern-

ment the right to establish an independent Jewish
religious organization, a right which the commu-
nity of Moscow liad, till then, never enjoyed. At
the same time he received permission to build a
synagogue and other commimal institutions, such as
a Hebrew free school, an industrial school, and an
orphan asylum. He also taught the Jewish religion
at the high school for girls in Moscow.

In his younger days Minor delivered his sermons
in German, but at Minsk and Moscow he delivered
them in Russian, and frequently had many Chris-
tians among liis hearers. Indeed, Minot was the
first Russian rabbi to preach in the vernacular;
and his sermons have since served as models for
synagogal discourses in Russia. They consisted
largely of elucidations of the principles of Judaism,
explanations of liistorical events concerning the
Jews, and homilies on the duties of tiie Jews as
Russian citizens. Minor was a friend of Count Leo
Tolstoy, whose studies in Hebrew and in the Old
Testament he directed. In 1891, when the expul-
sion of Moscow Jews began. Minor, owing to his
too open expressions of sympathy for his people,
was banished by the governor-general to his native
town, Wilna, where he remained in seclusion until
his death.

Minot's sermons have been published (3 vols.,
Moscow, 1875-89). He was the author of: "Rabbi
Ippolit Lutostanski " (Moscow, 1879), directed
against Lutostanski's anti-Semitic book "The Jews
and the Talmud " ; an outline of the history of
the Jewish people, after the German of M. Elkan
(Moscow, 1880; 2d ed., 1881); "Poslye Pogromov "
{ih. 1882), on the anti-Jewish riots in Russia; and
" Biblia Ob Utotrebleniye Vina " {ib. 1889), on tlie
teaching of the Bible in regard to alcoholic bever-
ages. Minor wrote articles for the Russian supple-
ment to "Ha-Karmel" (1866, Nos. 11-25), and for
" Yevreiskaya Biblioteka " (vol. iv.), and was a con-
stant contributor toother Hebrew and Russian peri-
odicals. He also corresponded with many of the
prominent Maskilim of his time.

Bibliography: Sokolov, Sefer ha-Shanah, ii. 288, Warsaw,
1901 ; Voskhod, 1900, No. 5 ; SlstematUshcslii Vlxazatel, s.v.
H. K. J. G. L.

MINORCA. Sec B.\learic Isles.

MINORITY. See Majokity.

MINSK (formerly Mensk) : Russian city; capi-
tal of the government of the same name. Of the
history of its Jewish community very little is
known. In 1576 King Stephen Bathori granted the
Jews of Minsk the privilege of engaging in trade or
commerce of any kind. At the end of the sixteentli
century the Minsk Jews, sharing tiie lot of their
Inethren in other parts of tlic^ country, were ex-
pelled from Liliiuania. In 1606, liowever, Jews are
again found in Minsk, owning shops. In tlie same

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 148 of 169)