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idem, Indice, p. 39; Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 6.32.
E. c. M. Set,.

Asher ben Perez Minz : German printer ; type-
setter ill Azariah b. Joseph's printing establisiiment
in Naples, where was printed, in 1491, the Hebrew
translation of Avicenna's "Canon." Wolf ("Bibl.
Hebr."i., No. 306). following Bartolocci, read XVJD
("mi-Nizza" = "of Nizza") instead of xvro
("Minza").

Bibliography: De Rossi, AiinaU", p. 179; Steinschneider,
Cat. lituU. col. 2841.

Judah ben Eliezer ha-Levi Minz : Italian
rabbi; born about 1408; died at Padua in 1508.
He was the most prominent rabbi of his time. He
officiated as rabbi of Padua for forty-seven years,
during which time he had a great number of
pupils, among whom were his son Abraham Minz
and the hitter's son-in-law Meir Katzenellenbogen.
In a quarrel he had with Elijah Delmedigo he was
supported by Elijah Mizrahi (comp. Joseph Solo-
mon Delmedigo, "Mazref la-Hokmah," p. 3b;
idem, " Elim," p. 29 ; :\Iizrahi, Responsa, No. 56). It
appears from Solomon Luria's responsa (No. 6) that
Minz was the author of a number of ordinances
(•' takkanot ") at Padua. According to Ghirondi,
he was professor of philosophy at the University
of Padua. Ghirondi further states that in recogni-
tion of ^liiiz's services as professor the authorities
of the university placed his portrait, with an appre-
ciative inscription, in the hall of the university,
over the staircase. But it is very likely that Ghi-
rondi confounded "Minz with Elijah Delmedigo or
Abraham de Balmes, both of whom lectured on
philosophy before Christian audiences. In th(! sack
of I'adna soon after Minz's death almost all of his



605



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Minz
Mirabeau



writings were destroyed. Josepli b. Abraham

Minz, Jiis grandson, discovered sixteen of liis re-

sponsa, and these were published (Venice, 1553) by

Mei'r Katzenellenbogen, who printed in tlie same

volume his own responsa and the " Seder Gittin

wa-Halizah " of Abraham Minz. These responsa have

been edited, and supplemented with an extended

commentary and preface, by Johanan ben Moses

Preschel (Munkacs. 1898). Judah's responsa,

though scanty, afford interesting information ou the

history of his age and ou Jewish customs in Padua.

Bibliography: Fuenn, Koiesct YisraiJ,\i. 412; Frankel. in
Orient, Lit. vii. 530 tf ficq.; Griitz, Gcxcli. 3d ed., viii. 353 et
seq.; Michael, Or )ta-Ha}niim, No. 1020; Nepi-Gliirondi, Tole-
dftt Gedole i'isi-ael, pp. 123-124 ; Preschel, in the preface to
his edition of Minz's responsa; Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl.
col. 1344.

Meir ben. Alexander Svisskind. Minz : Gali-
cian scholar; born Oct. 6, 1814; died May 22, 1866.
Having acquired a thorough knowledge of Hebrew,
the Talmud, and of several European languages,
Mei'r Minz devoted himself to the defense of Juda-
ism. He wrote : " Ein Wort zur Zeit " (1848); " Lele-
wels Kampf um Recht " ; " Die Judeufeiude."

BiHi.iOGRAPHY : Eisenstadt-Wiener, Da'at Kedoshim, part iii.,

p. .s.-..

Moses ben Isaac ha-Levi Minz : Gci man

rabbi of the fifteenth century; contemporary of
Israel Isserleiu, whom he frequently consulted.
Ho was successively rabbi at Mayence, Landau,
Bamberg, and Posen. In his responsa (No. 114) he
mentions a certain Jacob Margolioth of )p)~) (Luc-
ca?), and refers to a case of divorce in Posen in 1444
(Steinschneider gives 1474). Frankel("Zeitschrift,"
iii. 387) doubts that Moses ever was at Posen.
lie suggests that "IJTIQ (Posen) is a printer's mistake
for ^~]^^ (Pesaro). Moses' responsa (Cracow, 1617)
mention also Joseph Colon, Israel Isserleiu, and his
cousin Judali Minz. Responsum No. 46 contains a
dispute over a philological point with Eliezer Treves
(comp. M. Wiener in "Mouatsschrift," xvi. 390).

Bibliography: Azulai, Shem ha-Ged(ilim, i. 140; Conforte,
Ko7-e ha-Doroty p. 37b ; Fiirst, liibl. Jud. ii. 380 ; Steinschnei-
der, Cat. Bodl. cols. 1946-1947.
B. M. Skl.

MIPHKAD (ipDD ; R. V. HAMMIPH-

KAD) : Name of a gate mentioned in connection
with the repair of the wall of Jerusalem by
Nehemiah (Neh. iii. 31). It seems that this gate
was not in the wall of Jerusalem, but that the part
of the wall facing it was to the east, between
the Hor.se Gate and the Sheep Gate. Indeed, it
is not mentioned among the gates of Jerusalem in
Neh. xii. 31 et seg. The word TpDO designates
in Ezek. xliii. 21 the place near the Temple where
the sin-offering was burned, and it seems to
mean "an appointed place," to which the name of
this gate may refer. But, while the Septuagiut ren-
ders TpSDH "lyK' by ttitIv roii MaipsKud, Jerome trans-
lates it by "porta judicialis," which induces Light-
foot ("HoroB Hebraicae," ii. 37) to suggest that it
may refer either to the hall of judgment in the
Pr;etorium or to the east gate of the Temple. Bar-
clay ("City of the Great King," p. 156), however,
identifies the gate Miphkad with the "high gate of
Benjamin " (Jer. xx. 2), locating it at the west end
of the bridge which crosses the Tyropaon.
s. M. Sel.



MIRABEAU, GABRIEL HONORE RI-
aUETI, COMTE DE : French statesman of the
revolutionary era; born at Bignon March 9, 1749;
died at Paris April 2, 1791. Sent by De Calonne
on a secret mission to Prussia, he became acquainted
at Berlin with several distinguished Jews belonging
to the circle of Henriette Herz, and associated much
with DoiiM, the author of "Ueber die Biugerliche
Verbesserung der Juden." Recognizing the advan-
tage which France might derive from the Jews,
Mirabeau wrote, and publislied in London (1787),
his " Sur Moses Mendelssohn, sur la Reforme Poli-
tique des Juifs et en Particulier sur la Revolution
Ten tee, en Leur Faveur, en 1753, dans la Grande
Bretagne." When he was elected deputy from
Provence to the States General, and one of his Jew-
ish friends of Aix asked what he would do in the
Assembly, he replied, "I will make a human being
of you." True to this promise, he seized every op-
portunity to plead for the emancipation of the Jews,
being, together with the Abbe Gregoire and the
pastor Rabaud-Saint-Etienne, one of their most zeal-
ous advocates. Several times he took up their cause
before the National Assembly: on Aug. 17, 1789,
he proposed, in the name of the "Committee of
Five," the " Declaration of the Rights of Man " ; on
Aug. 22 he eloquently attacked religious intoler-
ance, and he was the first to protest against the in-
stitution of a dominant state church — " Nothing
should dominate except justice; nothing should
dominate but the rights of each man, to which all
else is subject. " On Dec. 24, in speaking in favor
of the admission of Jews to civil and military
oflices, he said : " I have lieard with astonishment
the honorable speaker [H. de Baumetz] state that
the Jews perhaps do not desire the civil and military
offices to which you declare them eligible, and draw
therefrom the specious conclusion that it would be a
gratuitous and ill-advised generosity on your part
to pronounce them fit for such positions. ... In a
government such as you are establishing all men
must be equal ; you must exclude all who are not
equal or who refuse to become so. The petition
which the Jews, however, have laid before this
Assembly contradicts the statement of the gentle-
man who has just spoken."

Like all who at that time took the part of the
Jews, Mirabeau found his motives misinterpreted,
being accused of accepting bribes from the Jews
and of deriving benefit from ministerial appoint-
ments; but he never allowed himself to be moved
from his purpose. While Mirabeau in 1787 was
already in favor of the emancipation of the Jews,
he expected that, like other acts of the doctrinaires
then in power, it would embitter the people against
the Jacobins and lead to a moderate constitutional
government. This appears clearly from the secret
correspondence in which he furnished the king with
reports of the proceedings of the National Assembly
and with directions in regard to the policy to be
pursued by the court (" Correspondance Entre le
Comte de Mirabeau et le Comte de la Marck . . .
Publiee par M. A. de Bacourt," ii. 374-377, Paris,
1851; Oncken, "Das Zeitalter der Revolution, des
Kaiserreiches und der Befreiuugskriege," i. 340,
Berlin, 1884).



SLiracle
SEirels



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



606



Bibliography: J. Weyl, Disctmis Pronnnce a V Occasion de
laCeremonie Commemorative Celebree au Templs Israelite
de Marseille, p. 20 ; Halphen, Recueil des Lois, pp. 192-193 ;
L^n Kahn, Les Juifs d Paris, p. 61 ; Idem, Les Juifs de
Paris Pendant la Revolution, pp. 16, 56, 58.

D. S. K.

MIRACLE (K^D, DDID, DIK; lit. " wonder " or
"sign"): An event which can not be explained by
ordinary natural agencies, and which, therefore, is
taken as an act of a higher power.

Miracles are by no means identical with myths.
Myths are primitive or pagan personifications (or
rather deifications) of the powers, or forms of nature,
represented as acting like human beings. Miracles,
on the contrary, place all things in nature under
the control of a higher power, which uses them as
means of working out its holier designs; they are,
therefore, essentially monotheistic. It is true, how-
ever, that ancient myths have frequently been
transformed in support of the monotheistic idea into
miracles performed by prophet or saint (see Steiu-
thal, "My the und Religion "),

In the Bible every occurrence which contrasts
with the ordinary happenings of life is counted a
miracle or wonder. It is by the wonders which the
Lord did in Egypt (Ex. iii. 20, vii. 3, xi. 9; Deut.
iv. 34, vi. 22, vii. 19, xxvi. 8, xxlx. 2; Judges vi.
13; Jer. xxxii. 20, 21; Ps. Ixxviii. 43, cvi. 7) that
His power was made known. He alone "does won-
ders" (Ex. XV. 11; Ps. Ixxii. 18, Ixxxvi. 10); there
is nothing "too wonderful" (Gen. xviii. 14; Jer.
xxxii. 17, 27 [A. V. "too hard"]) for Him. He
worked wonders for Israel as for no other nation
(Ex. xxxiv. 10; Josh. iii. 5). But He works won-
ders without number in the natural world also (Job
v. 9, xxxvii. 14; Ps. cvii. 24). As a matter of fact,
every occurrence in nature is, in the Biblical view,
an act of God. He sends the rain and causes the
thunder (Job xxxvii. 4-6); "He bringeth out the
stars by number" (Isa. xl. 26, Hebr.); every work of
creation is an act of His providence (Ps. civ.). Yet
only an uncommon or inexplicable event makes man
ponder and see " the finger of God " (Ex. viii. 15) ;
God must " make a new thing " in order to make
men know that He rules (Num. xvi. 30). The rain,
hail, fire, and brimstone that are treasured up in the
heavens must come down in an unusual time and
quantity to destroy the evil-doers (Gen. xx. 24; Ex.
ix. 22-24; Josh. x. 11; comp. Ps. xviii. 13 [A. V.
12]; Job xxxvii. 6, xxxviii. 22); the waters of the sea
and the river must leave the place assigned to them
to show His might (Ex. xiv. 21-27; Josh. iii. 13-16) ;
and sun, moon, and stars must be stayed in their
course to show tlint God battles for Israel (Josh. x.
10-14; Judges v. 20).

The miracles of the Bible are performed either
directly by the Deity — to manifest His punitive jus-
tice, as in the cases of Sodom, of Egypt, of the Ca-
naanites or Assyrians, or of individuals, such as
Abimeiech, Korah, Uzza, and others (Gen. xix. 24;
Ex. viii. -xiv. ; Josli. vi.-x. ; II Kings xix. 35; Gen.
xii. 17; Num. xvii. ; II Sam. vi. 7), or to protect
His chosen ones, as in the furnishing of water,
bread, and meat to Israel in the wilderness (Ex. xv.
23, xvii. 7; Num. xii. 31), to Samson and Elijah
(Judges XV. 19; I Kings xvii. 6, xix. 5)— or by the
messengers of God in order to prove their divine



calling (Ex. iv. 1-17; Deut. xxxiv. 11; II Kings
ii.-vi.). Every theophany, in fact, is a miracle (Ex.
xvi. 7-13, xxi. 17-19; Judges vi. 21-22), and ac-
cordingly the revelation of the Lord on Sinai is the
greatest of miracles (Deut. iv. 32-36). A literal
belief in the Torah, therefore, necessarily implies a
belief in the miracles told therein.

Nevertheless, the Torah itself lays down the prin-
ciple that miracles are no test of the truth of the
thing for which their testimony is invoked. The
Deuteronomic law says: " If a prophet arise among
you who giveth a sign or wonder, and the sign or
wonder comes to pass, but he desires to lead you
into idolatry, thou shalt not hearken

Belief in to that prophet, for the Lord your

Miracles. God trieth you whether you truly love

the Lord your God " (Deut. xiii. 2-4,

Hebr. [A. V. 1-3]). This is a plain statement that

miracles do not prove a religious truth, as they are

performed also in the cause of untruth.

Miracle has justly been called "des Glauben's
liebstes Kind " (the dearest child of faith). The
belief in God's omnipotence and all-encompassing
providence necessitates at a certain stage of relig-
ious consciousness the belief in miracles, that is, in
supernatural help in times of great stress or peril.
To deny the possibility of miracles appears to the
believing soul to be tantamount to a denial of the
absolute omnipotence of God. "Is anything impos-
sible to God ? " " Is the Lord 's hand waxed short V "
(Gen. xviii. 14, Hebr. ; Num. xi. 23) are questions
asked ever anew by helpless man. Talmudic Ju-
daism, therefore, accepts all the miracles related
in the Bible, but at the same time it does not em-
phasize belief in them as fundamen-

Talmudic tal to the faith. What Paul says

Judaism, of the Jews, " they seek signs while
the Greeks seek wisdom " (I Cor. i. 22,
Greek), is certainly not true of the representatives
and exponents of Judaism. Miracles, which occupy
so conspicuous a place in the New Testament and in
the history of Christianity, are viewed as matters of
secondary importance throughout the rabbinical lit-
erature.

The Talmudic sages made the very possibility
of miracles a matter of speculation, stating that
" when God created the world He made an agree-
ment that the sea would divide, the fire not hurt,
the lions not harm, the fish not swallow persons
singled out by God for certain times, and tluis the
whole order of things changes whenever He finds it
necessary " (Gen. R. v. 4; Ex. R. xxi. 6). This view
removes some of the objections to miracles as in-
volving an interruption of the order of creation and
as an admission of the insufficiency of the first crea-
tive act. In the same spirit the Rabbis, in the
Mishnah (Ab. v. 6; comp. Ab. R. N., Text B,
xxxvii. [ed. Schechter, p. 95]; Sifre, Deut. 355;
Pirke R. El. xix. ; Targ. Yer. to Num. xxii. 2^),
enumerate the things created at dusk on the Sab-
bath of the week of creation, and that would appear
in due time as miraculous works: the mouth of I he
earth (Num. xvi. 30); the mouth of the well (iO. xxi.
17); llie mouth of the ass {ih. xxii. 28); the bow
(Gen. ix. 13); the manna; the rod (Ex. iv. 17); the
tables of the Law ; and so on. The underlying idea



607



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Miracle
Mirels



of these utterances is that miracles, instead of being
interruptions of the divine order of things, are in
reality foreordained by the creative wisdom and ap-
pear only to man as something new.

The Rabbis prescribe benedictions to be recited
when approaching places made memorable by mi-
raculous events (Ber. ix. 1, 53b-54a); they speak
of miracles which occurred continuously during
the time of the Temple (Ab. v. 5; Yoma 21a, b);
they knew of saints to whom, as to the Prophets of
old, miracles were of daily occurrence (" melumma-
dimbe-nissim"; Ta'an. 21-25; Hul. 7a; seeEssENEs).
Nevertheless, they pay little heed to the power of
miracles. Simeon b. Shetah threatened Onias the
saint with excommunication for his demonstrative
appeal to God to send down the rain in a miraculous
manner (Ta'an. iii. 8). When asked by the Romans,
"If your God is as omnipotent as you claim, wh}-
does He not destroy the idols?" the Jewish sages
replied, " Shall God destroy sun, moon, and stars on
account of the fools that worship them? The world
goes on in its order, and the idolaters shall meet with
their doom" ('Ab. Zarah iv. 7). When Pappus and
Lulianus were asked by their Roman executioners,
" Why does your God not save you as He did the
three youths in Nebuchadnezzar's time?" they re-
plied, " We aie probably not worthy of such a mira-
cle " (Ta'an. 18b).

The current belief of the Talmudic time is that
only former generations, because of their greater
piety, were worthy of miracles occurring on their
account (Ber. 4a, 20a; Sanh. 94b). "One should by
no means incur perils while relying for safety upon
the occurrence of a miracle" (Pes. 50b; Ta'an. 20b;
Ket. 61b). That miracles should not be invoked as
testimony in favor of one religious opinion as against
another is the principle asserted in a halakic contro-
versy between R. Eliezer and R. Joshua (B. M. 59b ;
"The Torahisnot in heaven that the decision should
be made there"). The daily wonders of divine
providence are extolled by some rabbis above the
Biblical miracles: "Greater is the miracle that oc-
curs when a sick person escapes from perilous dis-
ease than that which happened when Hananiah,
Mishael, and Azariah escaped from the fiery fur-
nace " (Ned. 41a). The wonder of the support of a
family in the midst of great distress is as great as
the wonder of the parting of the Red Sea for Israel
(Pes. 118a).

The medieval Jewish philosophers endeavored as
much as possible to bring the Biblical miracles
within the sphere of natural occurrences, without,
however, denying the possibility of miracle in gen-
eral. Saadia, while accepting every word of the
Torah as divine, insisted that the truth of the Bible
rests upon reason, and wherever the Bible seems to
be in conflict with reason the woids must be taken
in a metaphorical sense ("'Emunot we-De'ot," ii.
44, 68); he therefore substituted for the speech of
the serpent (Gen. iii. 1) and of Balaam's ass (Num.
xxii. 28) that of the angel (Ibn Ezra to Gen. iii. 1).
Maimouides, while maintaining against the Aristo-
telian view of the unalterable law of necessity ruling
nature the absolute freedom of the Creator which
makes miracle possible, finds at the same time in
the rabbinical utterances quoted above (Gen. R. v.



and Ab. v. 6) support for his view that the Creator
implanted the powers of miracle in nature, so that
in realit}- God did not elfect any change after crea-
tion ("Moreh," ii. 25, 29, and comment to Ab. v. 6;
comp. JoCl, "Moses Maimonides," 1876, p. 77; Lip-
mann Heller to Ab. I.e.). With finer acumen Ger-
sonides discussed the problem of miracles in the last
part of his "Milhamot" (see Levi ben Gershon),
ascribing them to the divine intelligence which
foreordains all things, but denying the actuality of
the performance within a given time. This is op-
posed by Crescas, who nevertheless takes miracles
as prearranged in the divine plan of creation ("Or
Adonai," iii. i. 5). In the "Yad" (Yesode lia-
Torah, viii. 1-3) Maimonides declares that the belief
in Moses and his law was based on the actual reve-
lation of God on Sinai and by no means on the mir-
acles performed ; since miracles may be the work of
witchcraft and of other non-divine agencies, they
can not be accepted as proof. This position is
taken also by Albo (" 'Ikkarim," i. 18).

Consequently miracles are never adduced in sup-
port of the faith by Jewish writers ; and Mendels-
sohn, in his answer to Bonnet, who referred to the
miracles of the New Testament as proof of the truth
of Christianity, was perfectly justified in declaring
in the name of Judaism that miracles may be ap-
pealed to in support of every religion and that there-
fore they can not serve as proof of any (Mendels-
sohn, "Gesammelte Schriften," iii. 123 et seq., 311).
Modern historical research can no longer, says Joel
(see "Jahrb. fiir Jlidische Gesch. und Litteratur,"
1904, pp. 70-73), view the narratives of the Bible in
the same light as did the medieval thinkers who could
not discriminate between the objectivity of the facts
narrated and the subjectivity of the narrator.

Bibliography: Das Wundcr in Seinem VerhUltnisse zur
Rcliaion, in Jlldisches Liternturblatt, i. 77-93.

K.

MIRANDA, LALLA : Australian singer ; born
in Melbourne 1876. Both of her parents were sing-
ers, and she herself sang in public when only thir-
teen years of age. After completing her musical
education in Europe, under Mdlle. de Garette, and
Madame Richard of the Grand Opera, Paris, she
sang for three consecutive years at the opera-houses
of Amsterdam and Rotterdam. Later she appeared
at the Theatre de la Monnaie, Brussels, and in 1900
sang in " Rigoletto " at the opera, Covent Garden,
London.
Bibliography: Han-is, Jew inh Year Book, 1901-2.

J. M. W. L.

MIRELS, MESHULLAM ZALMAN BEN
DAVID (NEUMARK): German rabbi; born
about 1620 at Vienna; died Nov. 28, 1706, at Al-
tona. When, in 1670, the Jews were expelled from
Vienna, he and his son Zceb Wolf and other mem-
bers of the Mirels family emigrated to Berlin. A
few years later (1678) JVlirels was elected chief rabbi
("ab bet din") of the communities Altona, Ham-
burg, and Wandsbeck, which position he held until
his death. He was the father of a large family,
ramified through Poland and Lithuania, and lived
to see the fifth generation. His daughter Sarah was
the wife of Zebi Ashkenazi (Hakam Zebi) and the
mother of Jacob Eniden.



Mirels
Misbnah



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



608



One responsum written by Mirels is found in

the collection "Eben ha-Shoham." Bee also Jew.

Enctc. 1. 474, s.v. Altona.

Bibliography : Jacob Eniden, MegiUat Sefer, ed. Kahana,
pp. 10, 13, Warsaw, 1888 ; Dembitzer, Kclilat Yofi, 1., 8a, 91b,
93a, Cracow, 1888 ; Fuenn, Keneset YisraeU p. 328.

D. S. Man.

MIRELS, ZEBI HIRSCH BEN AARON:

German Talmudist ; rabbi of Scbwerin in the middle
of the eighteenth century. He received his early
education in London. After studying at various
yeshibot he became rabbi at Wreschen, Poland, and
shortly after was appointed rabbi to the congrega-
tion at Schweriu. He was the author of " Mispar
Zcba'am " (Berlin, 1787), a pilpulistic treatise on the
Talmud, in two parts — " Pinnot Zeba'aw" and " Erez
Zebi."

Bibliography : Fuenn, Kencxet YisraeU i. 285 ; Walden,
Sftcm )ia-Gedi)lini he-Hadash, 1. 39; Steinschneider, Cat.
Bodl. col. 2757 ; Furst, Bibl. Jud. li. 380.

E. C. S. J. L.

MIR:^S, JULES ISAAC: French financier;
born at Bordeau.x Dec. 9, 1809; died at Marseilles
in 1871. A broker in 1848, he became, after the
February Revolution
of that year, director
of tiie gas company
of Aries. Subse-
quently he bought
the " Journal des
Ciicmins de Fer"
and founded the
" C () n s e 11 1 e r d u
Peuple, " which be-
came quite popular
through Lamartine's
contributions. To-
gether with Millaud,
Mires organized the
" C'aisse des Chemins
de Fer," of which he
became sole director
in 1853. In 1851 he
bought "Le Pays"
and " Le Constitu-
tionnel." He under-
took colossal works at Marseilles,
construction of a harbor and of a
of the city, and the installation of
illumination bv gas. In 1860 he
conce.ssion for the construction
railroads and for the negotiation
loan.




Miriam.

(From the Sarajevo Hagg&dah of the fourteenth century.)



including



the
new quarter
a S3'stem of
obtained the
of the Roman
of the Turkish
On July 11, 1861, he was sentenced to five
years' impri.sonment and to the payment of a fine
of 3,000 francs, but he succeeded in getting this
verdict set aside on April 21, 1862, and was rehabili-
tated by the court of Pouai. Toward the end of
1869 Mirrs was sentenced to si.\ months' imprison-
ment and fined 3,000 francs on account of his
l)amphlet "Un Crime Judiciaire," attacking the ex-
pert Monginotand the judges who had tried his suit
against tlie firm of Pcreire.

He contributed several financial articles to "Le
Constitutionnel " and " La Presse," and jiublished a
number of pampldcts, including " Aper(;us Finan-
ciers" (1868) and "Memoires Judiciaires" (in his
own defense).



He was decorated by Napoleon III. with the rib-
bon of the Legion of Honor in 1860. His daughter
married a French nobleman.

Bibliography : Vapereau, Dictionnaire des Contemporains;
La Grande Encyclopedic.
s. J. Ka.

MIRIAM.— Biblical Data: Prophetess;
daughter of Aniram and sister of Moses and Aaron
(I Chron. vi. 3; Ex. xv. 20; Num. xxvi. 59). When
Moses was left at the river Miriam watched from a
distance until Pharaoh's daughter took him up,
whereupon she proposed to the princess to find
a Hebrew nurse; the princess assenting to this,
Miriam returned with her mother (Ex. ii. 4-7). After
the Israelites had crossed the Red Sea Miriam sang



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 150 of 169)