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of the treatises have, however, been subjected to
various changes, and have, in some cases, been re-
placed by later terms. Thus the earlier name " Mash-
kin" gave way to the later "Mo'ed Katan"; "Ze-
bahim " was substituted for " Shehitat Kodashim " ;
and " Shehitat Hullin " was abbreviated to " Hullin "
(on the names comp. A. Berliner in " Ha-Misderonah, "
1. 20 et seq., 40 et seq.; see also Frankel, I.e. p.
255; Brllll, I.e. ii. 18-20). The treatises belonging
to each order deal with similar subjects, or have
some other bond of relationship which causes them
to be placed in a given order. Although there are
some tractates, such as Nazir (comp. Naz. 2a) and
Berakot, which apparently do not belong to the
order in which they are included, a closer examina-
tion reveals the reason for their inclusion (comp.
Maimonides' introduction to his commentary on the
Mishnah; Brull, I.e. ii. 17-18; Weiss, I.e. ii. 207;
Geiger, I.e. p. 486).

It is a harder task to define the principle on which

the treatises are arranged within the various orders;

and this difficulty, is increased by the existence of

many different sequences, especially

The since it is uncertain which of these is

Treatises, the oldest. According to the Letter

of Sherira Gaon (i.e. pp. 12-13), Rabbi

observed no definite sequence, but discoursed on

each mas.sekta singly without reference to the other

treatises, changing their arrangement at will. Tliis

statement is supported by 'Ab. Zarah 7a,which states

that for two treatises there was no definite order in

the Mishnah — an assertion which is all the more trust,

worthy since it is recognized as a principle in ma-

ing halakic decisions as well. It appears, on the

other hand, from various passages in the Talmud

{e.g., Sheb. 2b: Sotah 2a; Ta'an. 2a). that even at an

early period a certain arrangement of the .several

treatises within their respective orders was fol-



lowed, and it is necessary, therefore, to adopt Hoff-
mann's view (in Berliner's "Magazin," 1890, pp.
322-323) that a definite sequence was gradually de-
veloped and observed in the course of instruction
in the Palestinian and Babylonian academies. Tlie
teachers of these schools arranged their material on
pedagogic lines, and in interpreting an order of the
Mishnah they selected the longest treatise for tlie
beginning of the lesson, when the minds of their
pupils were still fresh, and then passed on to the
smaller tractates. Likewise in Maimonides' se-
quence, which was the one generally adopted, the
treatises from the second to the sixth order are
arranged according to length, as Geiger has re-
marked ("Einiges iiber Plan," etc., in Geiger's
"Wiss. Zeit. Jiid. Theol." ii. mdetseq.); and this
principle is evident in the first order likewise (Hoff-
mann, I.e. p. 323; Geiger, I.e. p. 402). Maimonides'
sequence seems, therefore, to have been the same as
that adopted in the Palestinian and Babylonian
academies, and hence was the original one (for other
reasons for this sequence see Maimonides' intro-
duction to his commentary on the Mishnah ; Fran-
kel, I.e. pp. 255-264; Briill, I.e. ii. 20-27).

The division of the several treatises into chapters
as well as the sequence of these chapters was the
work of Rabbi himself (Letter of Sherira Gaon, I.e.
p. 13). The portion discussed each
The day constituted an independent perek ;

Chapters, and this term was, therefore, applied
elsewhere to a single discourse also
(Ber. lib; 'Er. 36b; on a statement in the "Seder
Tanna'im we-Amora'im," to the effect that the
Saboraim divided the treatises into chapters, see M.
Lerner, "Die Aeltesten Mischna-Compositionen," in
Berliner's " Magazin, " 1886, p. 3, note 1). Generally
speaking, the original division and sequence of the
chapters have been preserved, as appears from vari-
ous passages of the Talmud (R. H. 31b; Suk. 22b;
Yeb. 9a; Ket. 15a; Niddah 68b; Zeb. 15a). The
names of the chapters taken from the initial letters
are likewise old, and some of them are mentioned
even in the Talmud (B. M. 35b; Niddah 48a). In
the course of time, however, various changes were
made in the division, sequence, and names of- the
chapters; thus, for example, the division of Tamid
into seven chapters is not the original one. On
other variations in sequence see Frankel, I.e. pp.
264-265, and on the changes in the names see Ber-
liner in "Ha-Misderonah," i. 40b.

There are altogether 523 chapters in the Mishnah,
divided as follows: Zera'im 74 (Bikkurim 3), Mo'ed
Katan 88, Nashim 71, Nezikin 73 (Abot 5), Ko-
(lashim 91, Tohorot 126. Some authorities reckon
524 chapters by adding a sixth chapter to Abot,
while others count 525 by adding a sixth chapter to
Abot and a fourth chapter to Bikkurim.

The division of the chapters into paragraphs,
which is likewise very old, has not been preserved
in its original form, the different recensions of the
jiresent Mishnah having a different division (comp.
Frankel, I.e. p. 265). The several paragraphs are
mostly cast in the form of the fixed Ilalakah with-
out a Scripture passage (see MiuuasiiHalakaii), al-
though Weiss {I.e. ii. 211, notes 1-6) lias enumerated
217 passages in which the Halakah is given together



617



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Misbnah



with the Scriptural text on wliich it is based, hence
assuming the form of the Midrash. Some of these
niidrashic sentences in the Mishnah have the form
ot the earliest exegesis of the Soferim (comp.
Frankel, I.e. p. 5), and there are also many passages
modeled on the tannaitic Talmud (comp. Weiss, I.e.
ii. 21)9-210).

The following is the list of the mishuaic orders
■with their treatises, according to Maimonides, the
deviations in both Talmudim being given at the end
of each order (for details see separate articles under
the names of the respective orders and treatises:
and on variations in certain editions of the Mishnah
comp. Strack, I.e. pp. 9-12):

I. The order Zera'im ("Seeds") contains the following eleven
treatises: (1) Berakot (" Blessings"), divided into nine chapters;
deals with the rules for the daily prayer, and other prayers and
blessings. (2) Pe'ah ("Corner "); eight chapters; deals with
the regulations concerning the corners of the held (Lev. xix. 9,
10; xxiii. 22 ; Deut. xxiv. 19-22), and with the rights of the poor
In general. (8) Demai ("Doubtful"); seven chapters; deals
chiefly with various cases in which it is not certain whether the

offering of the fruit has been given to the priests.

Orders and (4) Kilayim ("Of Two Sorts" ; " Heterogene-

Treatises. ous"); nine chapters ; deals chiefly with rules

regarding forbidden mixtures (Lev. xix. 19;
Dent. xxii. 9-11). (5) Shebi'lt ("Sabbatical Year"); ten
chapters ; deals with the regulations concerning the seventh
year (Ex. xxiii. 11; Lev. xxv. 1-8; Deut. xv. 1 et seq.). (6)
Terumot ("Offerings") ; eleven chapters ; deals with the laws
regarding the offering to be given to the priest (Num. xvili. 8
et .seq.; Deut. xviii. 4). (7) Ma'aserot or Ma'aser Rishon
("Tlthes"or"First Tithes"); flvechapters; deals with the pre-
scription regarding the tithe to be given to the Levites (Num.
xvili.21-24). (8) Ma'aserSheni ("Second Tithe"); flvechapters;
deals with the rules concerning the tithe or its equivalent
which was to be eaten at Jerusalem (Deut. xlv. 22-26). (9)
Hallah ("Cake") ; four chapters ; deals with the laws regard-
ing the heave-offering of dough to be given to the priests (Num.
XV. 18-21). (10) 'Orlah ("Foreskin of the Trees"); three
chapters ; deals chiefly with the regulations of Lev. xix. 23-25.
(11) Bikkurim (" First-Frults"); three chapters ; deals with the
laws in Ex. xxiii. 19 ; Deut. xxvl. 1 et seq.

In many editions of the Mishnah, even early ones like those of
Naples 1492, and of Riva 1559, as well as in most of the editions
of the Babylonian Talmud, a fourth chapter to the eleventh
treatise, which does not belong to the Mishnah, has been added
(comp. the gloss in the Wilna edition of the Talmud, p. 87b).
The sequence of the treatises of this flrst order in both the
Talmudim corresponds with that of Maimonides.

II. Mo'ed ("Festivals") includes the following twelve trea-
tises: (1) Shabbat (" Sabbath"); twenty-four chapters ; deals with
the laws regarding the seventh day as a day of rest (Ex. x vi. 23 et
seq.. XX. 8-11, xxiii. 12, xxxiv. 21, xxxv. 2-3; Deut. v. 12-15).
(2) 'Erubin (" Mingling ") ; ten chapters ; deals with the means
by which inconvenient regulations regarding the Sabbath may
be legally obviated. (3) Pesahim (" Passover Festivals ") ; ten
chapters; deals with the prescriptions regarding the Passover
and the paschal sacriflce (Ex. xll., xiii. 6-8, xxiii. 15, xxxiv. 15
etseq.; Lev. xxiii. 5 et seq.; Num. ix. 2-14, xxvlli. 16 etseq.).
(4) Shekalim (" Shekels ") ; eight chapters ; treats chiefly of the
poll-tax of a half-shekel for each male, prescribed in Ex. xxx.
12-16, and which was devoted to defraying the expenses of the
services of the Temple. (5) Yoma (" Day "), called also " Kip-
purim" or "Yom ha-Kippurlm " (:= "Day of Atonement");
eight chapters ; deals with the prescriptions regarding wor-
ship and fa.sting on the Day of Atonement (Lev. xvi.,
xxiii. 26-32). (6) Sukkah or Sukkot (" Booth") ; flvechap-
ters; deals with the regulations concerning the Feast of
Tabernacles, the Tabernacle, and the garland on it (Lev.
xxiii. 34-36; Num. xxix. 12 etseq.; Deut. xvi. 13-16). (7)
Bezah ("Egg"; so called from the flrst word, but originally
termed, according to its subject, "Yom-Tob" = " Feast -
Day"); Ave chapters; deals chiefly with the rules to be
observed on the feast-days. (8) Rosh ha-Shanah (" New-Year
Feast "); four chapters ; deals chiefly with the regulation of the
calendar by the new moon, and with the services on the New-
Year. (9) Ta'anit ("Fasting"); four chapters : deals chiefly
with the special fast-days in times of drought or other untoward
occurrences. (10) Megillah (" Esther Scroll "); four chapters ;



contains chiefly regulations and prescriptions regarding the
reading of the scroll of Esther at Purim, and the reading of other
passages in the synagogue. (11) Mo'ed Katan (" Half-Feasts " ;
originally called " Mashkin," after its initial word) ; three chap-
ters ; deals with the regulations concerning the intermediate
feast-days, or the days between the flrst two and the last two
days of Pesal.i and Sukkah. (12) Hagigah (" Feasting ") ; three
chapters ; deals among other things with the manner of observ-
ance of the three principal feasts.

In the Babylonian Talmud the treatises of the order Mo'ed are
arranged as follows: Shabbat. 'Erubin, Pesahim, Bezah,
Hagigah, Mo'ed Katan, Rosh ha-Shanah, Ta'anit, Yoma, Sukkah,
Shekalim, and Megillah ; while the sequence in the Palestinian
Talmud is Shabbat, 'Erubin. Pesahim, Yoma. Shekalim, Sukkah,
Rosh ha-Shanah, Bezah, Ta'anit, Megillah, Hagigah, and Mo'ed
Katan.

III. Nashim (" Women") contains the following seven trea-
tises : (1) Yebamot ("Widows Obliged to Contract a Levirate
Marriage ") ; sixteen chapters; deals chiefly with the rules for
the levirate marriage and of the Halizah, whereby the widow Is
enabled to contract another marriage (Deut. xxv. 5-10). (2)
Ketubot (" Marriage Contracts) ; thirteen chapters ; deals chiefly
with the mutual duties and rights of husband and wife. (3)
Nedarim ("Vows"); eleven chapters; deals with the regula-
tions concerning vows (Num. xxx. 2-17). (4) Nazir ("Naza-
rlte " ; called also " Nezlrut " = " Nazariteshlp ") ; nine chap-
ters ; deals chiefly with the prescriptions regarding the Nazarite
vows (Num. vi. 1-21). (5) Gittln ("Documents"; "Bills
of Divorce" ); nine chapters; deals chiefly with the laws for
the dissolution of marriage (Deut. xxiv. 1-4). (6) Sotah
(" Woman Suspected of Adultery "); nine chapters ; deals chiefly
with rules concerning a woman suspected of infldellty (Num.
V. 11-31). (7) Kiddushin ("Betrothal"); four chapters; dis-
cusses the question how, by what means, and under what con-
ditions a legal marriage may be contracted.

In the Babylonian Talmud the sequence of the treatises in
this order is as follows : Yebamot, Ketubot, Kiddushin, Gittln,
Nedarim, Nazir, and Sotah. In the Palestinian Talmud the
sequence is : Yebamot, Sotah, Ketubot, Nedarim, Gittln, Nazir,
and Kiddushin.

IV. NeziVin ("Injuries"; called also " Yeshu "01" = "Deeds
of Help," as In Num. R. xlii.) contains the following ten trea-
tises: (1) Baba Kamma ("First Gate"); ten chapters; deals
chiefly with Injuries and compensation for damages. (2) Baba
Mezl'a ("Middle Gate"); ten chapters; deals chiefly with the
laws relating to sales, leases, objects found, and usury. (3) Baba
Batra(" Last Gate"); ten chapters; deals chiefly with the rights
of sale, the ownership of real estate, and the rights of succession.
(4) Sanhedrin ( " Court of Law " ) ; eleven chapters ; deals chiefly
with judicial procedure and criminal law. (5) Makkot ("Blows,"
" Punishments "); three chapters; deals chiefly with the regu-
lations concerning the number of stripes Imposed as punish-
ment by law (Deut. xxv. 1-3). (6) Shebu'ot (" Oaths "); eight
chapters ; deals chiefly with the rules regarding different oaths
(Lev. v. 4 et seq.). (7) ' Eduyot, or * Edlyyot (" Evidences ") ;
eight chapters ; contains the testimony of later teachers regard-
ing statements of earlier authorities, a large part of this mate-
rial being contained In other portions of the Mishnah as well.
(8) 'Abodah Zarah ("Idolatrous Worship"); Ave chapters;
deals chiefly with the regulations concerning the attitude of the
Jews toward idolatry and idolaters. (9) Abot.or Pirke Abot
("Sayings of the Fathers"); flve chapters; contains maxims
and aphorisms. A sixth chapter called " Perek Klnyan ha-
Torah " ( = "AcquIsltIon of the Law ") was subsequently added
to this treatise, but it does not belong to the Mishnah. (10)
Horayot, or Hora'ot ("Decisions"); three chapters; dealschiefly
with such religious and legal decisions as had been made

through error. . .^ „ ,_ , ,

The sequence of these treatises is as follows m the Babylonian
Talmud : Baba Kamma, Baba Mezl'a, Baba Batra, 'Abodah
Zarah, Sanhedrin, Makkot, Shebu'ot, Horayot, 'Eduyot, and
Abot. The usual sequence is observed In the Mishnah of the
Palestinian Talmud.

V :5.odashim ("Holy Things") contains the following
eleven treatises: (1) Zebahim ("Sacriflce "; originaUy called
" Shehitat Kodashim " = " Slaughtering of the Holy Animals" ;
B M 'l69b)"; fourteen chapters ; deals chiefly with the laws re-
garding sacriflces (Lev. 1. ct seq.). (2) Menahot ("Meat-Offer-
ing ") ; thirteen chapters ; deals chiefly with the rules concerning
meat-offerings (Lev. ii.; v. 11-13; vi. 7-16; vii. 9-10: xlv. 10-20;
xxiii. 13, 16; Num. v. 11 et seq., vl. 13-20, xv. 24, xxviil.,
xxix.). (3) Hullin ("Profane"; called also "Shehitat Hul-
lin" = "Slaughtering of Non-Consecrated Animals"); twelve
chapters ; deals chiefly with the laws for slaughtering and with



Mishnah
]y[is80uri



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



618



other rules relating to the eating of meat. (4) Bekorot (" First-
Born "); nine chapters ; deals chiefly with the regulations con-
cerning the various firstlings (Ex. xiil. 2, 12 et seq.; Lev. xxvii.
26 et seq.; Num. viii. 16-18, xviii. 15-17; Deut. xv. 19 et seq.).
(5) 'Arakin ("Estimations"); nine chapters : deals chiefly with
the prescriptions regarding the ransom of those who have been
dedicated to God (Lev. xxvii. 2 et seq.). (6) 'I'emurah ("Ex-
change"); seven chapters ; deals chiefly with the laws regard-
ing the exchange of a dedicated animal (Lev. xxvii. 10, 33).
(7) Keritot ("Extirpations"); six chapters; deals among other
subjects with the punishment by excommunication ("karet"),
which is frequently mentioned in the Old Testament. (8) Me'ilah
("Trespass"); six chapters; deals with the rules concerning
trespass in the case of a dedicated object (Num. v. 6-8). (9)
Tamid ("The Daily Morning and Evening Burnt Offering");
deals among other subjects with the regulations for the daily
sacriflce (Ex. xxix. 38-42; Num. xxviil. 2-8). In the editions
of the Mishnah, Tamid is divided into seven chapters, excepting
In LOwe's edition, where it has but six ; while Levi b. Gershon
(RaLBaG) enumerates only Ave chapters for Tamid in the in-
troduction to his commentary on the Pentateuch. (10) Middot
("Measures"); five chapters; describes the apartments and
furniture of the Temple. (11) Kinnim (" Birds' Nests "): three
chapters ; deals with the prescriptions regarding the offering
of doves (Lev. i. 14-17, v. 1 et seq., xii. 8).

In the Babylonian Talmud the sequence of the treatises of
this order is as follows : Zebahim, Menahot, Bekorot, HuUin,
'Arakin, Temurah, Keritot, Me'ilah, Kinnim, Tamid, and Middot.

VI. Tohorot (" Puriflcations") contains the following
twelve treatises : (1) Kelim ("Utensils"); thirty chapters ; deals
chiefly with the regulations concerning the different kinds of
uncleanness of vessels (Lev. xi. 32 et seq.; Num. xix. 14 et neq.,
xxxi.20et seq.). (2)Oholot, orAhilot ("Tents"): eighteen chap-
ters; deals chiefly with the laws regarding the defllement occa-
sioned by a corpse (Num. xix. 14-20). (3) Nega'im {" Leprosy");
fourteen chapters ; deals with the rules concerning the various
kinds of leprosy (Lev. xiii., xiv.). (4) Parah ("Red Heifer");
twelve chapters ; deals with the regulations concerning the red
heifer and the puriflcative ashes obtained from it (Num. xix.).
(5) Tohorot ("Purities"; euphemistic for "Impurities"); ten
chapters; deals with minor defilements. (6) Mikwa'ot, or Mik-
wot ("Ritual Baths"); ten chapters; deals with the regula-
tions concerning the bathing of the defiled (Lev. xiv. 8, xv. 5 et
seq.). (7) Niddah (" Menstruous Woman"); ten chapters;
deals with the laws concerning the defilement caused by men-
struation (Lev. xii., XV. 19 et sey.). (8) Makshirin ("Predis-
posings"; called also " Mashkin " = " Liquids "); sixchapters;
deals with the rule which declares that an object is defiled by
contact with anything unclean only in case it was wet before-
hand (Lev. xi. 34,37, 38). (9) Zabim ("Sufferers from Dis-
charges"); five chapters ; deals with the rules in Lev. xv. (10)
Tebul Yom (" He Who Has Taken a Ritual Bath on That Same
Day"); four chapters; deals chiefly with the effect produced
upon an entire object which has come in contact with a "tebul
yom," who, according to Lev. xv. 5, is unclean until sundown,
even though this contact has been only partial. (11) Yadayim
("Hands"); four chapters; deals chiefly with the defllement
and cleansing of the hands. (12) 'Ukzin ("Stems"); three
chapters ; deals chiefly with the relation of the fruit to the stems,
skins, and seeds, with reference to defllement, uncleanness of
the fruit affecting the stems, skins, and seeds, and vice versa.

In the Babylonian Talmud the sequence of the treatises in To-
horot is as follows : Niddah, Kelim, Oholot, Nega'im, Parah,
Tohorot, Mikwa'ot, Makshirin, Zabim, Tebul Yom, Yadayim,
and 'Ukzin.

The Mishnah is extant in many editions, although
only the earlier ones can be mentioned here: first
edition, Naples, 1492, fol., with the Hebrew com-
mentary of Maimonides; Venice, Jus-
Editions tiniaui, 1546-50, fol. ; Venice, 1549,
and Com- 4to, with the commentary of Obadiah
mentaries. Bertinoro; Riva di Trento, 1559,
fol., with the commentaries of Mai-
monides and Obadiah; Sabbionetta and Mantua,
1559-63, 4to; Venice, 1606, fol., with the same two
commentaries.

Many commentaries on the Mishnah have been
written. Maimcniides wrote one in Arabic with a
general introduction on the history, origin, and ar-
rangement of the Mishnah. This commentary,



which was translated into Hebrew several times, is
printed in many editions of the text. The Arabic
original of several treatises has recently been pub-
lished, in addition to that of the entire sixth order,
edited by Dereuboui-g (comp. the enumeration in
Strack, I.e. p. 113 and Appendix); the Hebrew
translation, which is faulty in many passages, being
corrected to agree with it.

Asher b. Jehiel of Germany (d. Toledo 1337)
wrote a commentary on the first and sixth orders,
which was first printed in the Amsterdam edition of
the Talmud, 1714-16, and in the Frankfort-on-the-
Main edition, 1720-21. R. Samson of Sens also
wrote a commentary on the same orders, which is
printed in most of the editions of the Talmud. R.
Obadiah Bertinoro (end of 15th cent.) wrote a com-
mentary on the entire Mishnah, which is printed
in most editions. The commentaries " Tosefot Yom-
Tob " by Yom-Tob Lipmann Heller (1579-1654) and
"Tif'eret Yisrael " by Israel Lipschiltz are likewise
printed in many editions of the Mishnah. The
following commentaries may also be mentioned:
•'Kaf Nahat," by Isaac ibn Gabbai, printed in the
Venice edition of the Mishnah, 1609, and in some
other editions; "'Ez ha-Hayyim " (Leghorn, 1653
et seq.), by Jacob Hagiz ; " Kab we-Naki," by Elisha
b. Abraiiam, in ed. Amsterdam, 1697, 1698, etc.;
"Zeia' Yizhak," by Isaac b. Jacob Hayyut, Frank-
fort-ou-the-Oder, 1739; " Sefer BetDawid," Amster-
dam, 1739; "Melo Kaf Nahat," by Senior Phoebus
b. Jacob, in ed. Offenbach, 1737; Berlin, 1832-34;
" Sefer Mishnat Rabbi Natan," on Zera'im (Frank-
fort-on-the-Main, 1862), by Nathan Adler; and
"Likkute ha-Mishnah " (Breslau, 1873), by Shraga
Phoebus Frenkel.

Of the translations of the Mishnah the following
may be mentioned : (1) " Mischna sive Totius Hebrse-
orum Juris, Rituum, Antiquitatum
Transla- ac Legum Oralium Systema cum Cla-
tions. rissimorum Rabbinorum Maimonidis
et Bartenorse Commentariis lutegris;
Quibus Accedunt Variorum Auctorum Notae ac
Versiones in Eos Quos Ediderunt Codices ; Latinitate
Donavit ac Notis lllustravit Guilielmus Surenhu-
sius," Amsterdam, 1698-1703, 6 vols., fol.; the text
in Hebrew and Latin, with the commentaries of Mai-
monides and Obadiah Bertinoro in aLatin translation.
(2) "Mishnayot," Berlin, 1832-34, 6 parts, 4to. (3)
Vocalized Hebrew text of the Mi-shnah, with German
translation in Hebrew letters. (4) The commentary
" Melo Kaf Nahat," and (5) a brief German introduc-
tion Vith notes, published by the Gesellschaft von
Freunden des Gesetzes und der Erkenntniss, gener-
ally known as" Jost's translation." (6) Johann Jacob
Rabe, " Mischnah, oder der Text des Talmuds Ueber-
setzt und Erlautert," 6 parts, 4to, Onolzbach, 1760-
1763. A new edition of the vocalized Hebrew text
with a German translation has been undertaken by D.
Hoffmann and E. Baneth, of which several parts have
appeared. An Italian translation by Vittorio Cas-
tiglione is likewise in course of publication (1904).



Bibliography : Letter of Rherira Gaoii, ed. Neubauer, In M.
J. (\ pp. 3-41, Oxford, 1887 ; Maimonides, introduction to his
commentary on the Mishnah, printed in many editions of the
Talmud after the treatise lirrakiit; Z. Frankel, Hodeuetica
in yTi.tchnaw. Leipsic, 18.59; J. Briill, MetiD hc^-^fit<hnah,

S. J.
Krochmal,



part i., FrankfortK)n-the-Main, 1876 ; part ii., ih. \im ;
Rapoport, in Kcrem Hemed, vil. 157-167 ; A. Kroct



619



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Uishnah
Hissouri



ToUdnt R. Yehudah ha-Nasi, in He-Haluz, ii. 75-83;
ideal, ib. iii. 118-124 ; idem, preface to his Yei-ushala-
yim ha-Be)iuiiah, Lemberg, I8«~; O. H. Schorr, in He-
Haluz, 18«it), pp. 41-44; vi. 32-47; Z. Frankel, Introdiictio in
Talinud Hierusolymitaiiunt, pp. 19a-22a, Breslau, 1870; Jo-
achim Oppenheiin, Zur Gexch. lier Mi.sc/nirt, in Bet Talmud,
ii. 143-151, 173-179, 237-345, 269-273, 304-315. 343-ai5 (also re-
printed separately, Presburg, 1882); A. Geiger, Einiges Uber
Plan und A)uirdt)ung der MixcJina, in Geiger's Wiss.Zeit.
Jiid. Theol. 1836, ii. 474-492; idem, Lehrhuch zur Sprache
der Migchua, Breslau, 1M45; Isaac Lampronti, PaJJwid Yiz-
hak, s.v. Mishuah ; W. Landsberg, Plan und System in der
Aufeinanderfoloe der Eiuzehten Mischnas, in Monats-
scltrift, 1873, pp. 208-215; Tobias Cohn, A^tfeiuanderfolge
der Mi.fchitaordnungen, in Geiger's JUd. Zeit. 1866, Iv. 126-
140; Diinner, Veranlassung, Zwcck und Entunckelung der
Halakigclien rind Halakischexegetisclien Sammlungoi
Wdltrimd der Tannaimperiode im Umi-ii's Dargextellt, in
Monattitichrift, 1871, pp. 137 et seq., 158 et scq., 313 et seq., 363
et seq., 416 et seq., 449 et «eq.; idem, Ii. Jeliuda Hana«i's
Anteil an Unserer Mischna, ib. 1872, pp. 161 et seq., 218 et
seq.; idem, Einigeii Uher Ursprung und Bedeutung des
Traktates Edoyot, lb. 1871, pp. 33-42, 59-77 ; D. Hoffmann,
Die Erste Mischna und die Controversen der Tannaim,
Berlin, 1882 ; idem, Bemerkungen zur Kritik der Mischna,
In Berliner's Magazin, 1881, pp. 131-130, 169-177; 1882, pp.96-



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