Isidore Singer.

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was a head-covering of distinction for a bridegroom
and for the daughters of Zion (Isa. ill. 20, Ixi. 10).
Being a personal ornament, it was removed during
periods of mourning (//>. Ixi. 3; Ezek. xxiv. 17, 23).




The priestly miters are not described in the Bible,
yet the name "miznefet," like "zanif," the miter
which the prophet saw placed on Joshua the high
priest (Zech. iii. 5), suggests a turban wound around
the head. The term used to denote the miiers of
the common priests ("migba'ot," derived from
"gebia'" ="cup") suggests a covering of conical
shape, fitted tightly on tlie head, and the verb
" we-habashta " (Ex. xxix. 9) seems to point to tiie
same. "Pe'er" may be translated "a beautiful
bonnet''; and the "pa'are ha-migba'ot " worn by
the priests may have been bonnets with a conical

Josephus' description of the miter of the high
priest and of that of the ordinary priests ("Ant." iii.
7, §§ 3, 6) appears to be confused ; but it might be
elucidated by a study of the rabbinical literature on
the subject. Tlie Mishnah makes no distinction be-
tween "miznefet" and "migba'ot," and calls the
miter of the common priest likewise "miznefet"
(Yoma vii. 5, 25a). The miter of the high priest
was shorter, to allow room on tlie forehead for tlie
diadem, which was two finger-breadths wide and
reached from ear to ear (Suk. 5a), a space being
left for the phylacteries (Zeb. 19a et seq.). A ba
raita says tiiat the high priest wore a woolen cap,
to which was attached the diadem (Hul. 138u).
Perliaps this cap served as an underlining for the
miznefet. The miters were all made of six-cord
threads (Maimonides, " Yad," Kele ha-Mikdash, viii.
1, 2). The code of of Coucy ("Semag," No.
173) and later authorities agree that the miter
of the common priests was not coiled around like a
turban, but was rather a stiff, conical hat graduating
to a point at tlie top. Ibn Ezra, in his commentary,
says the miznefet was like a woman's bonnet and the
migba'ah like a man's hat (fez). All authorities are
unanimous in their opinion that the miznefet of the
high priest was mucli smaller, covering only about
one-lialf of his head. It was made of fine linen,
twined around tlie head many times.

Symbolically the miter and the rest of the priest's
vesture, like the sacrifices, represented certain sins
to be forgiven. Using another symbol, R. Hanina
said: "Let the miter on high combat the high spirit
of the arrogant" ('Ar. 16a).

Bini.iooRAPHY : Isserles, Torat lin-'Olnh, u. § 44; Uofe, Shilte
}ta-(libh(>rini,ch.x\\.; Lipsetiiitz, TlVrret Yixracl, introduc-
tion to Mo'fil, p. 39a; .\zariah dei Rossi, Me'i<r •Euayim, ch.
xlix., I.; Braunius, De Vei^titu !>arrrd(>tu)n Hchrccnrtim,
pp. .517 ct f<rq., Amsterdam. ItiHO ; Bahr, SiimhoUk den Monai-
sclicn Cidtiiii, ii. 110-115, Heidelberg, ISTl.
J. J. I). E.

MITNAGGEDIM (lit. " oppcments "): Title ap-
plied by the Hasidim to their opponents, i.e., to the
Orthodox Jews of the Slavonic countries who have
not become adherents of Hasidism (see Jkw. Kncyc.
vi. 254, s.v. H.\sidi.m). The latter have in course of
time accepted that title, and " mirnagged " now
means not necessiirily an active or even a passive
opponent of Hasidism, but simply a non-Hasid. An
alternative title for "mitnaggcd" is "'Olam'sher
Yid " (=:"Jew of the world"), not in tlie sense of
being worldly, but meaning one who belongs to tlie
great mass of the Jews of tlie world who are not

J. P. Wi.

MITRANI. See Tr.\ni.

braist; born May, 1836 ; died in Wilua July 23, 1887.
He was a writer of Hebrew prose and poetry, and
maintained himself chiefly by teaciiing Hebrew.
A collection of his Hebrew poems entitled "Kiui:or
Dawid " was published at Wilna in 1863.

Bibliography : Kohner, Hekcr Dahar. pp. 5-25, Warsaw,
1865 ; Fuenn, in Ha-Kar'mel, iii.. No. .50 ; Ha-Asit, 1887,
iv. 27.

H. u. J. S. R.

MI'UN : A Hebrew word signifying "refusal,
denial, or protest"; used technically by the Rab-
bis to denote a woman's protest against a mar-
riage contracted for her during her minority; also
the annulment of such a marriage.

A marriage contracted for a girl minor by her
father was regarded as valid ; and it necessitated the
formality of a divorce if separation was desired (see
Daugiiteu; ]M.\jouitv; Mauriage). If, however,
the minor was divorced or widowed after she had
been given in marriage by her father, and then,
while still in her minority, married again, or, in the
case of the father's death, was given in marriage
bj' her brotiiers or by her mother, even when her
consent was obtained, such a marriage was not valid .
until she reached the age of maturitj'. During her
minoritj' she might at any time declare her aversion
to her Imsband and leave him without a get (Yeb.
107a). Nor was any formal declaration on her part
necessary. If she in any manner showed her dis-
approval of the marriage contracted for her, or if
she accepted betrotlial-money ("kiddushin ") from
another man, she was released from the bonds of the
marriage previously contracted in Iier behalf (Yeb.
108a; Maimonides, "Yad," Gerushin, xi. 3; Shul-
han 'Aruk, Eben ha-'Ezer, 155, 3).

The usual procedure in regard to mi'un was that

tiie minor said, in the presence of two witnesses, "I

do not wish to live with m}' husband . . .," or used

some other phrase denoting the same

Form of idea, and thereby became released
Mi'un. (Yeb. I08a). Originally it was the
custom to make out a so-called " get
mi'un," in which the minor declared, "I do not like
him; he does not please me; I do not wish to remain
with him as his wife." This was subsequently
abolished, and the following practise was intro-
duced: The two men before whom such a declara-
tion was made prepared a document, which, how-
ever, was not necessary for the minor's remarriage,
since she became free as soon as she had made the
declaration (Yeb. 107b, 108a). Tills document, as
given by Maimonides ("Yad," I.e. xi. 11, and with a
few unimportant variations in "Or Zarua'," i. 687),
reads as follows:

"On . . . [dayof the week], tlie . . . day of the month . . .,

In the year . . . according U) the . . . era daughter of

.... proU'sted before us and said, ' My mother [or my brothers]
deceived me and gave me in marriage [or betrothed me] to ... ,
son of ... , and now I declare before you that I do not desire
him, and that 1 will not .stJiy with him.' We have examined this
. . . and are satisfied that the girl is yet a minor, and have
written and signed and given [this] to her as a document and a
clear proof.
witness witness."

If the marriage was contracted for tlie girl before
she had reached the age of six, or after that age




without her consent, the formality of niiun was not
necessary. If tlie marriage took place with her con-
sent when she was between the ages of six and ten,
mi'un was necessary if she showed signs of intelli-
gence and of appreciation of the symbols of mar-
riage. After ten, mi'un was necessary even if tlie
girl manifested no signs of intelligence (Yeb. 107b;
Git. 65a; "Yad," I.e. xi. 7; Eben ha-'Ezer, 155, 2).
Since mi'un was regarded as an annulment of mar-
riage, and not merely as a separation, like div(jrce,
the girl might afterward marr}' any of the relatives
of her presumptive husband, and he any of her rela-
tives. She might marry a kohen, or might remarry
her previous husband, even though she had been
married to another after mi'un (Yeb. 108a; "Yad,"
I.e. xi. 16, 17; Eben ha-'Ezer, 155, 10; see Divouce).

The institution of mi'un seems to have been of
very early origin. The Rabbis speak of it as a well-
established custom, although some of
Antiquity them look upon it with disfavor.

of Cus- Bet Shammai restricted mi'un to
torn. betrothed minors, and prohibited it
after marriage had already taken place
(Yeb. 107a). Bar Kappara includes mi'un among
the things which one should avoid {ih. 109a); and
one is therefore advised against associating oneself
with witnesses for the purposes of mi'un ("Yad,"
I.e. X. 16). In the Middle Ages some of the rabbis
vigorously objected to the marriage of minors, giv-
ing as one of their reasons the desire to make mi'un
impossible (Tos., Yeb. 109a, s.v. "Wayitrahek ";
"Haggahot Maimuni " to "Yad," I.e. xi. 1; "Or
Zarua'," i. 686; Eben ha-'Ezer, 155, 1, Isserles'

In the fifteenth century R. Menahem of Merseburg

wished to abolish the institution of mi'un altogether;
and while he did not secure for his decree unani-
mous adoption, the sentiment against the marriage
of young children, which became stronger in later
times, and the diffidence with which the Rabbis ap-
proached a case of mi'un on account of the conflict-
ing opinions, caused this institution to become al-
most obsolete (see Judah Minz, Responsa, No. 13,
Fiirth, 1766; Eben ha-'Ezer, 155, 22, Isserles' gloss;
and " Pithe Teshubah," ((d loc. ; see also Majokitv).

Bibliography: Low, Die Lehensalter, pp. 179-184, Szegedin,
1875; Duschak, Das M(>>iausch-Tnlnnidische Eherecht, pp.
142-143, Vienna, 18(i4 ; Mielziner, The Jewish Law of Mar-
riage and Divorce, § 36, Cincinnati, 1884 ; Saalschutz, Das
Mosaische Recht, p. 807, note, Berlin, 1853 ; Weill, La Femme
Jnive, part i., ch. ill., iv., Paris, 1874.

E. c. J. H. G.

MIXED MARRIAGE, See Intermarriage.

MIZMOR LE-DAWID (lit. "A Psalm of
David"): The superscription to Ps. xxix., chanted
on Sabbaths before the evening service, and at
morning service while the scroll of the Law is being
returned to the Ark. Settings by modern com-
posers are in most cases utilized in the morning
service by the Ashkeuazim, there being among
tliem no recognized traditional melody. The Se-
phardic synagogues, however, possess an ancient
chant, of Peninsular origin, which, in its melodic
outline, and in its extensive use of the third and
fifth degrees of the scales as the reciting notes, and
particularly the former as the closing one, charac-
teristically illustrates the general tone of their tra-
ditional melodies and intonations (comp. Lekah
DoDi; 'Et SnA'.\RE Razon). The transcription
here given exhibits the employment of both strains
of the chant.


Poco lento.



le - Da - wid: 1. Ha


la - do - nai. ... be - ne.









habu ladonai ka - bod wa - 'oz.

3. Kol Adonai 'al.. ha - mayim,

4. Kol Adonai bak - ko - - ah,

5. Kol Adonai sho - ber a - ra - zim,
7. Kol Adonai ho - zeb.. lahabot esh.

waye-hesof ye - 'a - - rot,

10. Adonai lam-mab-bul ya - shab,

11. Adonai 'oz le'am - mo., yit - ten,


2. Habu ladonai kebod shemo, hishtaha wu . . la - do -

El ha-kabod hir - - - - 'im, A - do -

Kol A do - -

wayesheb ber A -do -

8. Kol A do

ube - - - - - - - he-ka-

wa -.-.-.- yesheb A - do-
Ado - ... - nai ye - ba -




#1— zP

'^ ^ __0_ — ^-^^-T—f—p-


J^ e -5

_^ -mr

» «

*irz* -


be -had -rat ko - - -

-F — ^


l-h= ^ ^

-r^ —

-1 1 —


'al... ma - yim rab - bim.


be - ha - dar.


et ar - ze ha-Leba

-non. (

3. Way - yar - ki -

dem. .

ke -

mo . . .

nai .


hil mid - bar,

lo o - mer ka - bod.

me - lek le - 'o -lam.

et 'am - mo ba-sha-lom.

ya - hil A - do - nai mid- bar Ka



—»■ —

* ^

— 1 —


Bal Segno. %


Le -

ba -


— t^
we -

— \ 1

Sir -


ke -

mo. . .



- e



9. Kol

A -





ye -

ho -



- ya -


Bibliography: De Sola and Aguilar, Ancient Melodies nf
the Liturgy nf the Spanish and Portnguese Jews. No. 13,
London, 1857; Cohen and Davis, Voice of Prai/ei' a)id
Praise, No. 16, London, 1899.

A. F. L. C.


(lit. "A Psalm, a Song for the Sabbatli Day "): The
superscription to Ps. xcii., chanted with Ps. xciii.
before the commencement of evening service on Sab-
batiis (includiog festivals falling on that day) in the
" Pesuke de-Zimrah " of tiie early part of morning
service on Sabbaths and festivals (see Liturgy), and
(without Ps. xciii.) after the Reading of the Law at
Sabbath afternoon service. There is, strangely
enough, no general musical tradition for the psalm
in the northern uses. The modern hazzanim and

choir-masters have produced numerous settings
(choral and solo) for it. A noteworthy composition
by Franz Schubert for verses 1 to 8, designed for
special festival occasions, is included in Sulzer's
" Schir Zion " (i. No. 6). This setting is written for
barytone solo, soli quartet, and chorus, and has been
introduced by Georg Henschel at the London Sym-
phony Concerts.

Ordinarily, in the northern ritual, the psalm is
read by the congregation, and the concluding
verses, from No. 12, are then intoned by the hazzan
in an elaborate melismatic recitative, of the charac-
ter shown in the transcription commencing " Zaddik
ka-tamar " (comp. the similar passage in Sulzer's
"Schir Zion," ii.).




Zad - dik ka - ta - mar yif - rah ke - e

ITie right - eous as a palm - tree shall flour - ish, as a ce

rez ba - Le - ba

dar in Leb - a






non yis - - geh.

non shall grow tall.

She-tu - lim be - bet A - do - - nai, be ■

Plant-ed in the House of the Lord inthe











)iaz - - rot E - lo - he - iiu yaf - ri - liu. 'Od ye - nu -

courts of our Ood they nhall bios - som. Still shall they shoot

:^_ IB — :^,- — -r^ —


bun . . be - se - bah, de - slie - nim . . we - ra - a - ran - iiim .
forth., in old age; yea, full of sap... and green

yi - he ■
shall they


Le - hag

gid ki ya - shar.

To de - clare that up - rujht


g " y- ^riii

A - do

is the Lord ;


- tMI^




- ri. .


- lo



is. . .

. lie :

there is


-I — ^ — tJ C




'aw - la - tab. . bo.
un - riijht-emi " ness in Him.


In the Spanish and Portuguese tradition there is
preserved tor the Sabbath Psalm an ancient chant
of exceptional beauty and interest, which is utilized
in England also in the synagogues of the Reform and
the Gernjun and Polish rites. It has been effectively
scored, as the Psalm of the day iti the Temple
service, by Sir Edward Elgar in his oratorio "The
Apostles," which was i)rodiiced at the Birmingiiam
Musical Festival of 1903. The first strain (marked
A in the transcription), the pair of simple musical
phrases employed for ordinary verses, is very an-
tique in character; and the secondary strain (marked
B), even if a later addition to it. also must have origi-
nated uuder Moorish intlueuce. The ornamental fig-
uration of the first two and parallel phrases in tliis

secondary strain is of tru(i Oriental character, and
appears frequently in Arab songs, as, for instance,
those founded on the "Oriental chromatic" scale
given by Bourgault-Ducoudray in "Trente Melodies
Populaires de Grece et d 'Orient," Paris, 1876, par-
ticularly No. 2 (quoted also by Ambros, in his
"Gesch. der Musik," and by others), No. 17, and the
more modern No. 29. But it is imi)ortant to note
that this figure, and also that of the third phrase in
the same strain, frequently occur in the traditional
melody of the Jews of Teutonic and Slavonic lands
as well as of around the Levant (comp. Jew.
Encyc. iii. 247, s.v. Bikkat Kohanim [the
melody] ; Gkshem [melody A] ; Ne'ilaii ; and espe-
cially Music, Svnagogai,).


A. Andante maestoso.






— I — I — h


1. Tob . le - ho - dot la - do - nai.

le - ziim - mer le - shim - ka.

'el - yon.






2. Lehag - gid ba - bo - ker has - de

B. poco piu lento.

ka, we - e - mu - ua - te - ka ba - le - lot.

cen . - - do.

i P^^^





mf tempo prima.



hig-ga - yon

be - kin - nor. 4. Ki 6im -mah - tan - ni A - do

nai be - fo - 'o


ka, be - ma - 'a - se ya

de - ka a



The rest of the Psalm similarly, all verses being chanted to A, except v. 9 and vv. 14, 15, which are
set to B.

BiBLiOGKAPiiY : De Sola and AKuilar. A)ii:ic)it Mdoilics of the
Litvruii i)f Die Spanish and Poriuquese Jews, No. 8 ((rives
also the traditional endintr for Ps. xciii.), London, 1857 ; Baer,
Ba'al Tejillah, Nos. 368, 369, 373, Frankfort-on-the-Main.
1883; Salanian and Verrinder, Mimic of tlie Went Loudon
Si/nagnuve of British Jeros, vol. i.; Pauer and Cohen. Tra-
ditional Hebrew Mehulies^ No. 2, London, 1896; Cohen and
Davis, TniVe of Prajierand Praise. No. 20. London, 1899.

A. F. L. C.

MIZPAH (MIZPEH; nCVD) : Name of sev-
eral places in Palestine. It is derived from nDV( =
"to look"), on account of wliicli it is translated in
certain instances by the Septuagiut oKonid and upaair,
and by the Targuinini NfllDD (Gen. xxxi. 49). Ex-
cept in Hosea V. 1, " Mizpah " always occurs with
the definite article prefixed; ''Mizpeii " occurs three
times with the article — (1) in Josh. xv. 38, where it
designates a town of Judah ; (2) in Josh, xviii. 26,
wheie it is applied to a town of Benjamin ; and (3)
in II Chron. xx. 24, where it probably signifies a
watch-tower in the wilderness — and twice in the
construct state; namely, in Judges xi. 29{"Mizpeh
of Gilead ") and in I Sam. xxii. 3 ("Mizpeh of
Moab ").

Mizpah is first mentioned in the Bible in connec-
tion with the meeting of Jacob and Laban ou Mount
Gilead, where the heap of stones which they erected
as a witness, and which was called by Jacob
"Galeed" and b}-^ Laban " Jegar-sahadutha," was
called "Mizpah" also, for tiie stated reason, "the
Lord watch between me and thee " (Gen. I.e.). This
Mizpah is most probably identical with the Mizpeh
of Gilead (see above), which, according to Schwarz
("Das Heilige Land," pp. 17, 183), is the same as
Ramath-mizpeh of Gad (Josh. xiii. 26), and which
he identifies with the modern village of Al-Suf in
the eastern mountain-range of Gilead.

The most important of the places bearing the
name of "Mizpah " was that in Palestine, which on

several occa.sions was the seat of as-
Mizpah in semblies at which the Israelites dis-
Palestine. cussed their affairs, e.g., in the time

of Jephthah (Judges xi. 11), and dur-
ing the war of Israel with Benjamin {ib. xx. 1).
Samuel, also, summoned Israel to Mizpah (I Sam. vii.
5-6, 11, 16); and, finally, in the time of the Macca
bees, Mizpah (Maffo^^d) appears again as a place of
solemn assemblj' (I Mace. iii. 46). Fiom the fore-
going it would appear that at Mizpah a shrine for
the worship of Yhwh existed ; but there is a di-
versity of opinion as to the location of the place.
There is no doubt that, since it is mentioned with
Geba of Benjamin, the Mizpah which Asa fortified
against the attacks of the King of Israel (I Kings
XV. 22; II Chron. xvi. 6) was the Mizpah of Benja-
min, which was called "Mizpeh" in Josh, xviii. 26
(see above), and which was over against Jerusalem.
It was also this Mizpah which became the seat of
the governor Gedaliah after the destruction of the
Temple (II Kings xxv. 23; Jer. xl. 6 etscq., xli. 1);
for when Ishmael went forth from Mizpah he met
certain people journeying from Shiloh to Jerusalem.
W. F. Birch concludes that the other Mizpahs in-
dicated as places of assembly are also identical with
the same town of Benjamin ("Pal. Ex])lor. Fund,"
1881, pp. 91 ctseq.\ 1882, pp. 260 et i*eq.). Finally
maybe mentioned the opinion of Conder ("Hand-
book to Bible." p. 277, London. 1879), who identi-
fies Mizpah with Nob. The Mizpeh of Judah (Josh.
XV. 38; see above) is in the Shefelah or lowlands,
mentioned as lying between Dilean and Jokthe-el,
neither of which places has been identified. Schwarz




{I.e. p. 74) identifies Mizpeli with Tel al-Safiyah, tlie
Alba Specula of the Middle Ages (comp. Robinson,
"Researclies," ii. SGSetseq.).

There was also a wliole tract of land called "the
land of Mizpah"("erez ha-Mizpah") or "the valley
of Mizpeh" ("bik'at Mizpeh "), men-
Land of tioued in connection with the battle
JVIizpah. between Joshtia and Jabin, King of
Hazor, which took place at the waters
of Merou (Josh. xi. 3, 8). The topography indi-
cated, "under Herniou in the land of Mizpeh" and
"unto great Zidon and unto Misrephoth-maim, and
unto the valley of Mizpeh eastward," taken in con-
nection witli Josh. xi. IT, suggests that the land or
valley of Mizpali is to be identified with the valley
of the Lebanon or the Ccele-Syria of the Greek wri-
ters. The Mizpeh of Moab (see above) is mentioned
only once (I Sam. xxii. 3), as the residence of the
King of Moab. to whose care David consigned his

J. M. Sel.

MIZBAH : Hebrew term denoting the rising of
the sun, the east (Num. xxi. 11; Ps. 1. 1); also used
to designate an ornamental picture hung on the
eastern wall of the liouse, or in front of the reading-
desk in the s3'nagogue, and applied to the row of
seats in the synagogue on either side of the Ark.
The custom of turning toward the east while at
prayer, observed by the Jews living west of Pales-
tine, is of great antiquity (Dan. vi. 11; comp. I
Kings viii. 88; Ber. 28b; see East). The Jews of
Palestine prayed with their faces turned westward
(Suk. 51b). In later times opinion varied on this
subject. While some of the rabbis, claiming that
the Divine Presence ("Shekinah") is everywhere,
maintained that it makes little difference in wiiich
direction one's face is turned in praj'er, others were
of the opinion that the Divine Presence is especiall}'
located in the west, and that therefore one should
turn westward. R. Shcshet positively objected to
the custom of praying while facing the east because
the Minim prayed in that direction (B. B. 25a). The
custom, however, j)redominatcd and was formulated
in a baraita reading as follows: "One who is out-
side of Palestine should turn toward Palestine; in
Palestine, toward Jerusalem ; in Jerusalem, toward
the Temple; and in the Temple, toward the Holy
of Holies" (Ber. 30a; Yer. Ber. iv. 5).

In accordance with this injunction, synagogues
arc so constructed that the Ark may be placed in
the direction of Palestine, and that the people may
turn toward it in prayer (^laimonides, " Yad," Tefil-
lali, xi. 2; Sliulhan 'Aruk, Orah Hayyim, 94, 1-3).
In places east of Palestine, tlie Ark is placed in the
west and tlie door opposite to it in the east (Tosef. ,
Meg. iii. 14; Rosli, ih. iii. 12; Ber. 6a; Tos. s.r.
"Ahure"; "Yad," I.e. • comp. Orah Hayyim, 150, 5
and Isserles' gloss; " Hatam Sofer," ib. 27).

In spite of the objection of the medieval rabbis
to the presence of any object of art in the syna-
gogue, there were still some figures and pictures re-
tained (see Aut). In many synagogues and in al-
most every Iiet Iia-midrash of modern times an
ornamental picture, usually bearing the inscription
" From the rising of tlie sun unto tlie setting thereof,
the name of the Lord is praised " (Ps. cxiii. 3, Hebr.),

is hung in front of the reading-desk, which latter
is near the Ark. Many other passages, and even
whole psalms, are added, and frequently are artis-
tically strung together so as to form the likeness of
the menorah or of some animal. One of tlie later
authorities ("Hatam Sofer," Yoreh De'ah, 127) for-
bids the engraving of the above-cited passage around
a picture of the sun in one of the eastern windows
of the synagogue (comp. "Sefer Hasidim," ed. Wis-
tinetzki, i^ 1625). No one, however, seems to raise
any objection to the mizrah, which is found in S3'ua-
gogues and in many homes.

Bibliography : Dembitz, Jewish SenHces in Synaijogue and
Hume, pp. t).j, 199, Philadelphia, 1898; HamburRer, R. D. T.
ii. 11-U.
A. J. II. G.

MIZBAHI : Family living in the Orient, to
which belong some well-known rabbinical authors.

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 155 of 169)