Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

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menhirs, and stone-circles, and contains many ruined
villages, mostly of the Roman and Byzantine
periods. The land is now occupied chiefly by Bed-
ouins, Avho render the district by no means the
safest in Palestine.

At the time of the Hebrew invasion the Moabites
seem to have been so powerful that conflict with
them was avoided (Deut. ii. 9: Judges xi. 15; II
Chron. xx. 10), although the Israelites defeated and

slew Sihon, the Amorite king of Heshbon, who

himself had conquered a former king of Moab (Num.

xxi. 21-31; Deut. ii. 24-35). Moab,

History, on the other hand, under its king
Balak, meditated a resistance to the
invaders which it dared not carry out (Num. xxii.-
xxiv. ; Deut. xxiii. 4; Judges xi. 25). After the
conquest the Moabite territory was allotted to the
tribe of Reuben (Josh. xiii. 15-21 ; comp. Num.
xxxii. 37-38). The Moabites seem to have sub-
mitted to the control of the Hebrews for a time,
until Eglon, King of Moab, with the help of the
Ammonites and the Amalekites, succeeded in con-
quering them, and ruled over them eighteen years.
At the end of this period a Benjamite named Ehud
obtained access to Eglon and treacherouslj' assas-
sinated him, whereupon the Hebrews arose and
slaughtered 10,000 Moabites (Judges iii. 12-30). A
few years later Saul waged a war, apparently of
little importance, against them and their allies (I
Sam. xiv. 47). David also subdued them and made
them tributary (II Sam. viii. 1-2, 11-12; I Chron.
xviii. 2, 11), although it is noteworthy that even be-
fore this time a Moabite named Ithmali was one of
his generals (I Chron. xi. 46).

After the death of Ahab the Moabites under Mesha
rebelled against Jehoram, who allied himself with
Jehoshaphat, King of Judah, and with the King of
Edom. At the direction of Elisha the Israelites
dug a series of ditches between themselves and the
enemy, and during the night these channels were
miraculously filled with water which was as red as
blood. Deceived by the crimson color into the be-
lief that their opponents had attacked one another,
the Moabites became overconfident and were en-
trapped and utterly defeated at Ziz, near Engedi (II
Kings iii.; II Chron. xx., which states that the
Moabites and their allies, the Ammonites and the
inhabitants of Mount Seir, mistook one another for
the enemy, and so destroyed one another) Accord-
ing to Mesha's inscription on the Moabite Stone,
however, he was completely victorious and regained
all the territory of which Israel had deprived him.
The battle of Ziz is the last important date in the
history of the Moabites as recorded in the Bible. In
the year of Elisha 's death they invaded Israel (II
Kings xiii. 20), and later aided Nebuchadnezzar in his
expedition against Jehoiakim (ib. xxiv. 2).

Although allusions to Moab are frequent in the
prophetical books (f.r/., Isa. xxv. 10; Ezek. xxv. 8-
11; Amos ii. 1-3; Zeph. ii. 8-11), and although two
chapters of Isaiah (xv.-xvi.) and one of Jeremiah
(xlviii.) are devoted to the "burden of Moab," they
give little information about the land. Its prosper-
ity and pride, which brought on the Moabites the
wrath of Yiiwn, are frequently mentioned (Isa. xvi.
6; Jer. xlviii. 11, 29; Zepli. ii. 10); and their con-
tempt for Israel is once expressly noted (Jer. xlviii.
27). From this time Moab disappears as a nation ;
and in Neh. iv. 7 the Arabians instead of the Moab-
ites are the allies of the Ammonites (comp. I Mace,
ix. 32-42; Josephus, "Ant." xiii. 13, § 5; xiv. 1, § 4).

References to the religion of Moab are scanty.
The Moabites were polytheists like the other early
Semites; and they induced the Hebrew invaders to
join in their sacrifices (Num. xxv, 2; Judges x. 6).

Moabite Stone



Their chief god was Cukmosii (.Jcr. xlviii. 7, 13). so
that tiicy are even called the "people of Cheiuosh "
(Num. \.\i. '29; Jcr. xlviii. 4G). At
Religion, times, especially iu diic peril, lumiaii
sacritiees were oifered to him, as by
Meslia, who gave iii) his .son and heir to liim (II
Kings iii. 27). Nevertheless, Solomon built, for
this "abomination of Moab," on the hill before Jeru-
.salem, a "high place" (I Kings xi. 7) which was not
destroyed until tlie reign of Josiah (II Kings xxiii.
13). The Moabite Stone also mentions (line 17) a
female counterpart of (/hemosh, Ishtar- (or Ashlar-)
Cheniosh, and a god N(-bo (line 14), the well-known
iJabylonian divinity, while the cult of Haai-peor
(Num. XXV. 5; Ps. cvi. '.28) or Peor (Num. xxxi. 16;
.losh. xxii. 17) seems to have been marked b}' sensu-
ality. Since the Moabites liad opposed the invasion
of Palestine, they, like tlie Ammonites, Avere ex-
chided from the congregation unto the tenth gener-
ation (Dent, xxiii. 3-4 ; comp. Neh. xiii. 1-3). This
law was violated during the Exile, however; and
E/.ra and Nehemiah souglit to compel a return to the
ancient custom of exclusion (Ezra ix. 1-2, 12; Neh.
xiii. 23-25). The exilian usage had had royal
sanction: th(! harem of Solomon included Moabite
women (I Kings xi. 1). On the other hand, the fact
that the marriages of the Beth-lehem-judah Ephra-
I bites Chilion and Mahlon to the Moabite women
Orpah and Kutli (Ruth i. 2-4), and the marriage
of the latter, after Iier Jiusband's death, to Boaz
{ill. iv. 10, 18), who was tlic great-grandfather of
David, are mentioned with no shade of reproach,
shows that the law had fallen into abeyance at a
comparatively early period and had become a mere
priestly restriction.

In the Nimrud clay inscription of Tiglath-pilescr

the Moabite king Salmanu (perhaps the Shalman

who sacked Betharbel [Hos. x. 14])

In Assyr- is mentioned as tributary to Assyria.

ian and Sargon II. mentions on a clay prism a

Babylo- revolt against him by Moab together

nian In- with Philistia, .ludah, and Edom ; but

scriptions. on the 'I'aylor prism, which recounts

the expedition against Ile/.ekiah, Kam-

musu-Nadbi(('hemosh-nadab), King of ]\Ioab, brings

tribute to Sargon as his suzerain. Another Moabite

king, Muzuri ("the Egyptian" 't), is mentioned as

one of the subject princes at the courts of Esar had-

don and Assurbanipal, while Kaashalta, po.ssibly his

successor, is named on cylinder li of A.ssurbanipal.

In the Egyptian inscriptions Moab is mentioned
once, on the base of one of six colossal figures at
[..uxor, where Hameses II. (r. 1300 n.c.) includes
" Mu'ab " in the list of liis conquests. See Mo.vhitp;

r.rnMonRAPllV : 'I'rlstrHin, Tlir Ijiiiul nf ^[iiiih. I.oiulon, 1874;
(ieorjrt; .A(l:itii miiIiIi. Ilisturintl <inmnii>li\i nf tlir llnlij
Lntiii, It). isitT; Clcnrioiit-iiiinncau, litem il iV ArrUiiihmic
Ohfiitnir, II. IK5-:^:H. Purls. 1K«(: Hiictlitft-n. BrUrt'lur ziir
Srinitixc.lifti /I'c/iffto/i.xi/c.xc/n'c/ifr. Hn llii. lxN<; Snilth, ifi/.
of Scin. Eilint)urKh. IH'.'4.
J. [.. II. C.

MOABITE STONE: Name usually given to
tiie only known surviving inscribed monument of
ancient Moal). It was discovered in IbOH at Dhi-
ban, the ancient DiiioN, four miles north of the
River Arnon. When first seen by Europeans (in-

cluding a (rerman missionary named Klein) it was
an inscribed slab of bliick basalt 3A feet long by 2
feet wide. The Arabs of the neighborhood, dread-
ing th(! loss of such a talisman, broke the stone into
])ieces; but a S(iueeze had already been obtained by
Clermont-Ganneau, and most of the fragments were
recovered and pieced together by liim. The recon-
structed monument is now, together with the
s(jueeze, in the museum of tiie Louvre in Paris.

The inscription consists of thirty-tour lines con-
taining about 2()() words and is well engraved in
old Hebrew (Phenician) characters. It was written
about 860 B.C. in the name of Mesii.x, the King of
Moab. The translation of the first two-thirds of the
inscription is as follows:

"I am Meslia, son of Cheinosli . . . (?), Kiiipof Moal), tli(W)il)o-
nite. My father reigned over Moab tliirty years, and I became
king after my father, and I made this high place fcr Chemosh
in nnip, the high place of deliverance, because he had de-
livered me from all that attacked me, and because he had made
me see my desire upon all my enemies. Omri, King of Israel,
oppressed Israel many days because Chemosh was angiy with
his land; and his son succeeded him, and he also said, 'I will
oppre. - s Moab.' In my days he said this, and I saw my desire
upon him, and Israel was humbled with everlasting humilia-
tion. Omri bad taken possession of the land of Medeba and
fhis people] occupied it during his days and half the days of liis
son, forty yeais; but Chemosh restored it in my days. . . .
And the men of Gad had occupied the land of Ataroth for a
long time, and the King of Israel had built up Ataroth for him-
self. And I fought against the city and took it, and I slew all
the people from the city, a sight for the eyes of Chemosh and of
Moab. . . . And Chemosh said to me, '(io, take Nebo against
Israel.' And I went by night and fought against it from the
break of dawn until noon, and I took it and slew all [that were
in] it, seven thousand \uen and boys and women and girls and
maid servants; for to Ashtor-Chemosh I had devoted it. And I
took from there the vessels of YiiWH and brought them before
Chemosh. And the King of Israel had fortitled Jahaz and occu-
pied it while be was at war with me, and Chemosh drove him
out from before me. And I took of Moab two hundred, all its
chiefs, and I attacked Jahaz and took it, in order to add it to

In the rest of the inscription Meslia tells of re-
storing and fortifying cities that rightfully belonged
to Moab, of building a palace for himself, and of
constructing reservoirs for water.

The inscription is by far the most iin|)ortant yet
found in Palestine. It has added essentially to the
scanty knowledge of the liistory and religion of
Moab itself, and has thrown light on llie fortunes of
Israel east of tlie Jordan, as well as upon the foreign
relations of the dynasty of Omri. The character of
the language of Moab is also juetty fairly indicated.

In regard to the last point it may be noticed that
tlie inflections depart but very seldom from those of
classical Hebrew. The masculine plural ends in
"in" instead of "-im," and there is an ifte'al verb-
stem. " Waw " con.secutive Avith the first person
imperfect is regularly followed by the cohortative
or subjunctive. Tlie vowel-letter n is used for the
])ronominal suffix of both gendcis.

Ill matters of religion Moab is seen to furnish a
close parallel to Israel. Chemosh here bear.? ex-
actly the same political relation to his
Religious jieople as Jehovah does to His (comp.
and His- Num xxi. 20; Judgesxi. 24). Iiiboth
torical Im- nations religion is the basis of a lierce-
portance. ly intense jiatriotism (com]). II Kings
iii. 27), and the king is the nearest
reiircsentative of the Deity in executing all His
will. The vivid picliire given of the border war-




















?.1 i

Inscription on the Moabite Stone.

(After i^mcnil ami Socln.)

Moabite Stone



fare between Moab and Israel helps one to under-
stand the bitter hostility of each people toward the
other, and the race hatred to which Judah became
heir after tlie fall of the Northern Kingdom. Of
Israel's history it is learned that the warlike Gadites
had absorbed the tribe of lieuben, and that they up-
held the banner of Israel east of the Jordan. A
clearer idea is obtained of the epoch-making deeds
of Omri, under whom, in spite of the wars with
Damascus, a large portion of Moab was annexed and
the whole kingdom forced to pay an enormous trib-
ute (comp. II kings iii. 4); but after his day Israel
gradually lost its hold upon Moab, which was thus
left to its habitual repose, and, like wine, "settled
on his lees" (Jer. xlviii. 11).

The literature in connection with the Moabite
stone is quite large. Inasmuch as the elucidation of

MOBILE. See Alabama.

MOCATTA : An Anglo-Jewish family which
can be traced back to one of the earliest of the re-
settlers in England.

David Mocatta : English architect; born in
London 1806; died May 1, 1882; son of Moses Mo-
catta, translator of "Faith Strengthened." Having
shown in early youth a leaning to art pursuits, he
made the choice of architecture as a profession, and
studied for many years in Italy under competent
masters, returning to England to practise his pro-
fession. He was engaged on many important build-
ings, and was frequently employed by the directors
of the London, Brighton, and South Coast Railway.
On the death of his father he succeeded to an ample
fortime, which was subsequently increased to a con-

Moses Mocatta
(1677; merchant, London)


= Grace, daughter of

Abraham Levy Ximenes (1712)

Rebecca Sarah
= (1) Isaac Levy Ximenes
= (2) Moses Lumbroso de Mattos (1730)


Abraham Lumbroso de Mattos

= Esther, daughter of Isaac Lamepo


= Abigail, daughter

of Daniel IJaruch

Lou sad a

Rachel Moses Grace Rebecca

Esther Abraham (1792-1830)

= Moses .MoTiteflore, — (irace. daughter
son of Samuel of .lacob Mendes

Haim Monteflore da Costa

Isaac Abigail Rebecca Abraham (1831-1900)

= Isaac Lindo = Judah = (18.57) Grace, daugh-
Mocatta Nahon ter of Elias Charles

M. da Costa

Esther Jacob Sarah


= (1794) Rebecca,

daughter of
Baruch Lousada


Abraham (1797-1880)

= (1818) Miriam,

daughter of

Gabriel Israel Brandon

Aaron Daniel


Rebecca (1820-55)
— Sigismund Schloss

David F. Schloss


= Juliana


= Samuel

Frederick David

= (1857) Mary,

daughter of

Frederick Goldsmid

Marian Lucas

Marian Helen
Herbert G. Lousada

A. de Mattos
= Florence Justina Cohen

BiBLiOGRAPnv : Jni-. Ou'iii. Jan 4, 1001.

Mocatta Pedigree.

the language of the inscription is continually pro-
gressing, the later treatises are the most valuable for
practical purposes. Translations with notes were
given in lyTO by Clermont-Gauneau, Noldeke, Gins-
burg, Schlottmann, and Derenbourg, and in 1871
by Wright. Recent discussions give results based
on reexamination and closer criticism of the text.
It may be noted that an attempt to disprove the
autlienticity of the stone Avas recently made by A.
L5wy (Berlin, 1903). The most important of the
later studies are cited in the bibliography.
Bini.ior.RAPiiY : Smend and Sooln, Dir In/irhrift des A'i'iriiy'.s
Misn. iswi; ciermont-fJanneau. La Strle ilr Misa. In
Jourvnl Axiatiipir, Jan.. 1HM7; Nordlander, Die In!<clirift
dfjt Konifi" Mf>'fi, 189«: Lldz»)arski. Kphrmrriit ffir Stmi-
tisrhr Kpi^rapUic. UHIO ; comp. Driver, Mrsha, in Cheyne
and Black, Encuc. Jii1>L
.1. J. F. .McC.

siderable extent by property bequeathed to him by
his brother Benjamin Mocatta. When the late
Sir John Soane bequeathed his collection to tiie na-
tion. David Mocatta was appointed a trustee, Sir John
having been one of his teachers before he left Italy.
Mocatta was one of the original Council of Found-
ers of the West London Reform Synagogue. He had
been directing architect of the temporary .synagogue
in Burton street, and he likewise superintended the
construction of the building in Margaret street. On
the death of Sir Francis Goldsmid he became chair-
man of tlie council of the congregation. He was a
member of the cotincil of the University College
Hospital, and of the Cancer Hospital. He married
the eldest daughter of Alexander Goldsmid, brother
of Sir Isaac Lyon Goldsmid.



JHoabite Stone

Frederick David Mocatta.

Bibliography: Jeiv. Chro7i.Msiy 5, 1882- T)ie Timen, May 4,

J. I. H.

Frederick David Mocatta : English philan-
tliropist and communal worker; born in London
Jan. 15, 1828; retired from the firm of Mocatta 6c
Goldsmid, bullion-broilers to the Bank of England,
in 1874, and devoted himself almost exclusively to
the study of charitable and social questions. The
condition of the working classes of all creeds, the
improvement of their dwellings, and the adminis-
tration of charity with a view to promoting the in-
dependence of the poor
on the lines of the Char-
ity Organization Society,
are some of the principal
subjects that have en-
gaged his attention. His
philanthropic work is
conducted on certain
well-defined principles,
foremost among them
being the unification and
S3'stematic organization
of charity so as to pre-
vent the undue multi-
plication of institutions.
He acted as chairman of
the committee appointed
to effect the union of the
Jews' Hospital and Orphan Asylum. In 1871 a
Jewish Workhouse was started, which was subse-
quently amalgamated under his presidency with
the Hand-in-Hand Asylum. He has been active
also in abrogating the voting system in Jewish
charitable institutions.

Mocatta is a vice-president of the Anglo-Jewish
Association ; served as a member of the Rumanian
and Russo-Jewish committees; and in 1882 was de-
puted by the Mansion House Committee to proceed
to the various Continental centers in which the refu-
gees from persecution were congregated. In 1895
Mocatta reorganized the Jewish Home for Incura-
bles. At the beginning of his seventieth year he
was presented with a testimonial from over 200
philanthropic, literary, and other iustitutions of
which he was a member.

Mocatta has been specially interested in the pro-
motion of Jewish learning, having been one of the
most active members in the Society of Hebrew Lit-
erature. Among works partly or wholly subven-
tioned by him may be mentioned Zunz, " Zur Ge-
schichte und Literatur " and "Literaturgeschichte
der Synagogalen Poesie" ; Berliner, " Juden in Rom" ;
Jacobs, " Sources of Spanish Jewish History " ; the
English translation of Graetz, " History of the Jews " ;
etc. He is himself the author of "The Jews and
the Inquisition," London, 1877, of which German,
Hebrew, and Italian translations have appeared.
In 1900 he was elected president of the Jewish His-
torical Society of England.

Bibliography: Young iKrael, March, 1897; Jew. Chron. 3a.u.
15, 1897 ; Jevn;ih Year Book, 5661, pp. 304^305.
J. G. L.

Isaac Lindo Mocatta : Author ; born in Lon-
don 1818; died at Reading 1879. His early life was

passed in the business pursuits which he carried
on in South America. He likewise spent three
years in Australia. On settling in England he in-
terested himself in Jewish diaritable work. Later
in life, like his father before him, he devoted him-
self to writing. His two best-known works are
entitled : " Moral Biblical Gleanings " (London, 1872),
illustrating moral principles by Biblical examples,
and "The Jewish Armory" (Brighton, 1877, pri-
vately printed). Some of the Sabbath readings is-
sued by the Jewish Association for the Diffusion of
Religious Knowledge were from his pen. He de-
signed and printed some ingenious pictorial repre-
sentations of moral truths. His secular works in-
clude "Times and Places," London, n.d., and vari-
ous pamphlets on social subjects.
Bibliography: Jewish Chronicle, November 21, 1879.

Moses Mocatta : Broker, author, and commu-
nal worker; born in London February, 1768; died
September, 1857. He was connected with the most
iniiuential Sephardic families of his day. His sis-
ter Rachel was the mother of Sir Moses Monte-
fiore. For many years he was a partner in the firm
of Mocatta & Goldsmid (bullion -brokers to the Bank
of England), which had been founded by his father.
He retired from business in middle life and devoted
himself to study and to communal work. He was
a diligent student of Hebrew, and well read in
Biblical and Jewish literature. The "Hebrew Re-
view " (1846) as well as the works of Grace Aguilar
found in him a generous patron. Theological con-
troversy was a subject which particularly interested
him. His " Faith Strengthened " (1851) is a transla-
tion from the Hebrew of the famous " Hizzuk Emu-
uah " of Isaac ben Abraham of Troki. His other
translation, entitled " The Inquisition and Judaism "
(1845), was a contribution to controversial literature,
and comprised a sermon on Isa. xlii. 22 addressed to
Jewish martyrs on the occasion of an auto da fe at
Lisbon in 1705, and a reply to the sermon by E.
Vero (a posthumous work of the author of the
" Secret History of the Inquisition "). The sermon
was translated from the Portuguese, and the reply
from the Spanish. Moses Mocatta compiled also
"The Wi.sdom of Solomon; a Selection from Prov-
erbs and Ecclesiastes in Hebrew, with a Corrected
Version on Parallel Lines " (1834).

As a communal worker Moses Mocatta rendered

conspicuous service to the Shaare Tikva schools and

other institutions of the Spanish and Portuguese

Congregation. When the schism of 1841 occurred

Mocatta was one of those members of Bevis Marks

who seceded from the parent community, and helped

to establish the West London Synagogue of British

Jews, his considerable knowledge of Hebrew and

Jewish literature proving of great value to the new


Bibliography : Jevnsh Chronicle, Oct. 2, 1857 ; Jan. 4, 1901 ;
Leisure Hour, July, 1886.
J. I. H.

MOCH, JULES: French officer; colonel of the
130th Regiment of Infantry; bornatSarrelouis Aug.
4, 1829; died at Paris Aug. 8, 1881. On completing
his classical studies at the lycee of Metz, he entered
the military school of Saint-Cyr (1849) and was ap-
pointed sublieutenant of infantry in 1851. Moch




took part in tlie canipaii^ns in the C'liiiR'a (18r)."i-.)G)
and in Syria (1860-61). andiii the occupation of Hnnic;
(1863-67); in the Franco-Prussian war (1870-71) lie
was commander of the battalion of the8d Regiment,
which had the mournful distinction of firing tlie hist
siiots of tlie war, and took an honorable part in ihe
battle of Sedan (Sept., 1870). During the interval
between the Crimean and Syrian campaigns he was
tutor at tiie school of Saint-Cyr, to wiiich he re-
turned later on as examiner.

After the conclusion of the Franco-Prussian war
Moch published in tiie military journals a numl)er
of articles on the reorganization of the army. He
was one of tiie founders and also vice-president of
the Assembly of Oflicers (known later on as the
" Military Club "), whose ollicial organ was " Le Bul-
letin " (now the " Revue du Cercle Militaire "). Moch
was a chevalier of the Legion of Honor, officer of
the Academy, commander of tiie Order of Charles
HI. of Spain and of Nis^am-el-Istikhar (Algiers),
and was decorated witii tiie stars of the Order of
Nisan-i-Medjidie and the Order of Pope Pius IX.
Moch openly professed Judaism.

Bibliography : Gaston Moch. Sierlan ; les Derniers Coups de
Feu. Paris, 1S8.5; Zadoc Kahn, Stiuvnnirs et Regrets, pp.
121-12.-), Paris, 1898.
s. J. Ka.

MOD'AI : Family of Turkish authors.

Hayyim Mod'ai (the Elder): Rabbinical author;
born at Safcd 1709; died there 1784. He was sent
by the Safed community to Europe to collect haluk-
i<ah. From 1755 to 1776 he lived at Constantinople,
returning in his old age to Safed. He left a num-
ber of manuscripts, t\vo of which have been pub-
lished — "Tib Gittin," a on divorce (Jerusa-
lem, n.d.), and "Sefer Hayyim le-'Olam," responsa,
2 vols. (Smyrna, 1785).

Hayyim Mod'ai (the Younger): Rabbinical au-
thor; grandson of Hayyim Mod'ai tlie Elder; lived
at Smyrna in the middle of tlie nineteenth century.
His "Sefer Memar Hayyim," responsa, was printed
with his grandfather's "Sefer Hayyim le-'Olam"
(Smyrna, 1879). He also edited Said Leon's" Yissad
Jia-Meh'k." liomiiies {ib. 1866).

Nissim Mod'ai: Printer; lived at Smyrna in
the middle of the nineteenth century. He was in
partnersliip with Jacob Ashkenazi. Tlie " Kiryat
Sefer " of Moses Colien Na'ar is among the works
printed by ^lod'ai an<l Ashkenazi.
BTBLiOfiRAPHV : Hazan, IJn-Mn'nlol li-SlicUtmoJi, pp 31, 39, !XI.

D. M. Fii.

MODEL, MARX: Court Jew to Margrave
"William Frederick of Hrandenburg-Ansbach (1703-
1723) From 1691 Model and his family were exempt
from the payment of duties on the goods which tliey
imported, and in the same year were given the priv-
ilege of printing the Talmud. The margrave pro-
tected him by several decrees, and ordered the au-
thorities to take the necessary measures to collect
debts due to him "so that Model may surely be able
to help us."

Model sometimes used his influence in favor of

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 157 of 169)