Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

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his coreligionists, but he was very domineering,
especially as an elder of the community of Fllrth.
He threatened them with imprisonment and heavy
fines if they .should refuse to carry out his orders.

LiUe all court Jews, Model had to suffer much
from the hatred and jealousy of his rivals. Elha-
naii Fiilnkel i^see H.\N.\f, Zkhi Hiksch) was one of
ids most dangerous and embittered enemies. Friin-
kcl tried several times, especially in 1711, to turn tlie
margrave against Model and to have tlie latter im
prisoned on the charge of dishonesty ; but the court
Jew and his family kept their place at court, while
Friinkel became involved in a serious charge and
was ruined.

About 1716 iVIodcl was denounced for having par-
ticipated in defnuiding the public revenues. Al-
though he was not convicted, iiis reputation became
so micli damaged by the long investigation that he
and some of the family retired from court, and others
enugrated into the county of Pfalz-Neuburg.

UrBi.KXJRAPHY : Haen\e, Gescli . dcr Juilen im KhemaUii<n
FUr><te)itum Ansbach., passiin.
I). A. Fk.

MODENA : City in central Italy : formerly the
capital of the duchy of Modena. Of its Jewish
community, which has been, during the last few
centuries, one of the most important in Italy, there
is no record until a comparatively late date. Al-
though Jews were living in the territory of Mo-
dena as early as the year 1000, no reference to them
as dwelling in the city itself occurs before 1450.
There, as in so many other places, they seem at first
to have been bankers who established themselves in
Modena with the approval of the dukes of Ferrara,
and they were treated exactly like the other Jews in
the duchy. On the extinction of the house of Ferrara
in 1598, the duchy did not come under the control
of the States of the Church, but of a collateral
branch of the house of Este. The Jews of Modena
did not suffer to the same extent, therefore, as their
coreligionists elsewhere, although they were sub-
ject to all the hardships of the ecclesiastical laws.

The Jewish community increa.sed considerably in
the seventeenth century, when it occupied an im-
portant position because of its rabbis and of the
studies which were pursued there. Prominent
among its scholars of this period was Abraham
Joseph Solomon Graziano (d. 1685). Cabalistic
thought predominated; and the community was
one of the first to introduce the daily penitentijd
services "^pzh D^"iD1{i'- The political status of the
Jews remained uncertain, with tlie exception of a
temi)orary improvement during the French Revolu-
tion ; and the Jews were not emancipated until tlie
city was incorporated with the kingdom of Italy in
1861. In 1845 Cesare Rovighi of Modena edited tlie
first Italian Jewish periodical, the "Rivista Isracli-
tica," which was publislied at Parma.

Tlie following rabbis and scholars of Modena may
be mentioned. Fifteenth century: Samuel of Mo-
dena, corresponded with Joseph Colon (Response,
No. 128). Sixteenth century: Gershom b. Moses;
Abrahcim b. Daniel Modena (1543), author of many
lituri::ical prayers; Baruch Abraham da Spoleto b.
R. Pethahiah (1584). Seventeenth century: Ger-
shom b. Israel Chezigin, Menahemb. Elhanan Cases,
Closes Israel Fofl b. Vardama, Judali b. Jacob Pog-
getto, Abraham Rovigo b. Michael Raphael, Moses
David Valle, Elijali Usili, Meshullam Levi, Nahman
b. Nahman b. Joseph, Joseph Melli b. Joseph Israel,




David b. Elijali Ravenna, the above nained Abra-
ham Joseph ISoIomon Graziano (1685), Aarou Bere-
cbiah Modena, Epliraim b. Elijah da Ostra, Abraliam
Jedidiah b. Menaiiem Sanisou Basilea. Eigiiteenth
century: Judaii INIaziiah Padua (-1728), Manasseh
Joshua Padua (1728), Ephraiui Coen (1728), David
Coen b. Abraham Isaac, Jacob Hayyiin b. Keubeu
Yahya, Moses b. Levi Li, Abraham Hai b. Meualiem
Grassiui, Abraham Vita Sinigaglia b. Solomon Jedi-
diah, Solomon Jedidiah, Abraham Vita II., Moses
Elijah b. Solomon Jedidiah (d. 1849), Ishmael Coen
b. Abraliam Isaac, Ephraim b. Joseph Gallico.
Nineteenth century: Elishama Mei'r Padovani, Sol-
omon Nissim, Solomon Teglio, Moses Ehrenreich,
Solomon Jonah, Giuseppe Cammeo.

Since 1900 the monthly "L'Idea Sionista" has
been published at Modena by Carlo Coniglia, pro-
fessor of law in the university there. At present
(1904) the Jews of the city number about 1,200 in a
total population of 64,941.

Bibliography : Ersch and Gruber, Encijc. section il., part 27,
p. 156, s.v. Juden ; R. E. J. xx. SH et aeq.; Monara, Indice,
G. I. E.

MODENA : An Italian family the most distin-
guished members of which are:

Aaron Berechiah Modena. See Aaron Bere-
cnTAn BEN Moses ben Nehemiah op Modena.

David ben Abraham Modena : Supposed au-
thor of the anonymous Hebrew-Italian school dic-
tionary " Dabar Tob " (Venice, 1596, 1606), in three
parallel columns in Hebrew, Italian, and German.
The existence of the author and the book is, how-
ever, called in question.

Bibliography: Fiirst, BihL Jud. i. 198; Wolf, Bibl. Hehr.
i. 288; Steinschneider, Cat. BndL col. 8,5,5.

David Zacutob. Mazzal Tob Modena : Italian
scholar of the nineteenth century ; popular preacher
and teacher at Modena. He wrote a number of di-
dactic, religious, and casuistic works in Hebrew and
Italian, including: (1) "Zeker Da wid," on customs of
circumcision, two parts (Leghorn, n.d.) ; (2) Lini-
mude Adonai," fundamental principles of religion for
children, with Italian translation, three parts (Reg-
gio, 1814, 1824): (3) responsa to the four Turim; (4)
commentary to the prayer-book and the Mahzor
according to the Italian ritual; (5) " Shelal Dawid,"
notes to the Pentateuch; and 300 sermons. Only
the first three of these works have been printed.

Bibliography: Nepi-Ghirondi, Tolednt Gedole Fusrae?,, p. 78;
Benjacob, Ozar Jia-Sefm-ini, passim.

Judah Aryeh Modena. See Leon (Judah

Aryeh) of Modena.

Pomona Modena : Mother of Abraham b. Daniel,
who wrote over 1,000 liturgical prayers between
1536 and 1552, in which he celebrated her as a pious
woman. These prayers are contained in the Codex
Bislichis 72. Pomona Modena was versed in the Tal-
mud, and David of Imola addressed a detailed Tal-
mudic responsum to her.

Bibliography : Zunz, Lit eraturgexch . p. 535 ; Benjacob, Oznr
ha-Sefarim, p. 494; KavserlinR, Die Jildischen Frau'eii,
p. 140.
G. I. E.

rabbinical author : lived at Salonica at the end of
the eighteenth century. He belonged to a family

originally from Modena. Italy, the descendants of
which are prominent in tinancial and industrial en-
terprise in Salonica. He corresponded with Hayyim
ben David Abulafia, rabbi of Smyrna. Modiano
published two works — "Liyan Telitai " (Salonica,
1795) and " Rosh Mashbir," responsa (2 vols., ib.
1821 and 1840). The former is a collection of no-
velise on various Talmudic treatises by Nahmani,
Ibn Migash, Yom-Tob b. Abraham, R. Samuel Isaac
of Salonica (IStli cent.), and by Modiano himself.
The latter work was published po.sthuinousiy.

Bibliography : Hazan, Ha-Ma'alot U-SHirhimoh, p. 9(); Azu-
lai, Slietn lia-Gcdnlitn, s.v. Vruan Telitai.
D. M. Fr.

MODIGLIANI, ELIA : Italian traveler, natu-
ralist, and author; born at Florence June 13, 1861;
graduated at Pavia in 1883. From early youth he
showed a marked inclination for natural science and
a special fondness for travel. He visited the Malay
Peninsula and returned with a very rich collection
of specimens, which he presented to the museums of
Genoa, Florence, and Rome. Among his numerous
published works may be mentioned his " Ricerche
sulla Grotta di Bergeggi " ; " L'Isola di Nias " ; " Un
Viaggio all' Isola di Nias," Milan and Treves, 1890;
and "L'Isola delle Donna."

Bibliography : I)e Gubernatis, Diz. Biog.

s. V. C.

MODI'IT). See Mattathias Maccabeus.

in Mantua Aug. 1, 1679; died there June 10, 1727.
He received a thorough education and was recog-
nized as an accomplished linguist. He was one of
those sent by the congregation in Mantua to do
homage to Emperor Charles VI. at Vienna, where
he acquitted himself most creditably and gained the
emperor's good-will. Encouraged by David Finzi,
rabbi of Mantua, he devoted himself to the writing
of poetry ; Finzi added some of his own poems to
the collection " Kol Musar," published by Modon at
Mantua in 1725 (Lemberg, 1845). Others of his
poems are "Keter Torah " (Venice, 1721); "Zir ha-
Zirim " [ib. 1722), an elegy on his teacher Judah
Brill ; and " Shigyon Shimshon." The last is a poem
of three hundred lines, each commencing with the
letter {j>. He also compiled a rabbinical encyclo-
pedia, arranged alphabetically, and called "Sefer
Zikronot"; this and the "Shigyon Shimshon" are
in manuscript.

Bibliography: Steinschneider, Cat. Bndl. col. 2636; Fiirst.
Bihl. Jud. 11. 386; Samuel della Volta, in Kercm Hemed, ii.
113 et seq.\ Alia- Zeit. den Jud. 1838, p. 216 ; Mortara, Indice,
p. 41 ; Benjacob, Ozar ha-Scfarim, p. 159. No. 185.

s. S. J. L.

born at Cento in 1841; educated at the Istituto
degli Studi Superior! of Florence. Besides com-
piling several library catalogues he has written:
" L'Uomo e la Natura " ; " La Safo Storica e il Mito
di Safo e Faone " ; "La Leggenda Cristianadel Mito
della Caduta degli Angeli in Rapporto a Due
Tavolette del Museo Britannico " ; "Sara Copia Sul-
1am " ; "Di una Edizione del Sidur Tetilot."

Bibliography: De Gubernatis, Diz. Bing.

s. V. C.




MO'ED ("Feasts"): Name of an order of the
Misiinali and the Tosefta both iu Babli and in Yeru-
shahni. The name " Mo'ed," which is mentioned in
the Talmud itself (Suk. 4b), is applied to this order
because all the treatises belonging to it contain reg-
ulations and rules regarding the Sabbath and the
feast-days. It is the second order in the ^lishnah
(Shab. 31a), and is divided into twelve treatises con-
taining altogether eighlj'-eight chapters. The fol-
lowing are the names of the treatises: Shabbat,
'Erubin, Pesahim, Shekalim, Yoma, Sukkah, Be-
zah, Rosh ha-Shanah, Ta'anit, ilegillah, Mo'ed
Katan, and Hagigah. On their contents and their
sequence in the order Mo'ed, as well as on the single
instance where the order is enumerated as the third
in the Mishnah, see ^Iishnah.

In the editions of Babli the Palestinian Gemara to
Shekalim is printed together with that treatise, no
Babylonian Gemara to it being now extant, and
none, in all probability, having ever existed. The
Palestinian Gemara is lacking to ch. xxi.-xxiv. of
the treatise Shabbat.

Bibliography: Frankel, Hodegetica in Mischnam, pp. 258-
259. Leipsic, 1859.
s. J. Z. L.

MO'ED KATAN ("Smaller Festival"): Trea-
tise in the Mishnah, iu the Tosefta, and in the Baby-
lonian an(i Jerusalem Talmuds. It deals principally
with the regulations concerning the semi-feasts, orin-
termediary festivals, which are termed "mo'ed " and
are the days between the first two and the last two
days of the feasts of Passover and Sukkot. The
treatise receives its name from this designation,
with the addition of " Katan " to distinguish it from
the whole Seder Mo'ed (I. Dereubourg, in " R. E. J."
XX. 136 et neq.). In the manuscript of the Mishnah
edited by Lowe and in the " 'Aruk " of Nathan ben
Jehiel, Mo'ed Katan is called " Mashkin " from its
opening word, signifying "they water, give to
drink." In the Mishnah of the Seder Mo'ed it is
the eleventh treatise, and is divided into three chap-
ters, which contain twenty-four paragraphs in all.

Ch. i. : What agricultural work may be under-
taken on the intermediary festivals (§§ 1-4). In con-
nection with the rule that the irrigating ditches
may be repaired if they are injured.
Contents, it is stated that municipal water-works
and canals, as well as public streets,
may be put in good coiulition, and in general any
labor necessary for the public welfare may be per-
formed (^5 2b). The treatise contains also regula-
tions for the avoidance of mourning on these days
(i^ 5); for digging graves and sepulchers and pre-
paring coffins (^ 6); for marriage (§ 7); for sewing
(all may .sew as usual, except tailors, who must
take irregular stitches; §8); for erecting an oven
and a liand-mill (^ 9); for constructing balustrades;
and for making repairs (^ 10).

Ch. ii. : Rules for pressing olives or wine and
garnering fruit (g§ 1-3), for purchasing houses,
slaves, and cattle (§ 4), and for selling fruits, clotlies,
and utensils {% 5).

Ch. iii. : Enumeration of the occasions upon which
a man may cut his hair and wash liis clothes during
the intermediary festivals (§i; 1-2); what one may
write during these days (documents of all kinds),

and what may not be written {e.g., promissory notes,
books, etc. ; §§ 3-4). The feast-days interrupt a
period of mourning and end it altogether ; but if the
mourning has not yet begun, they are not reckoned
as part of it, while the Sabbath, on the contrar^", is
included in the period of mourning and does not
terminate it (§ 5). Enumeration of the feasts which
resemble the Sabbath in this respect (§ 6), and the
mourning ceremonies observed in the intermediary
festivals; with a description of how the women are
to sing the dirges on these days (i;§ 7-8) and, in con-
nection with this, how the dirges are to be sung at
the New Moon, ou Hanukkah, and on Purim (§ 9).

The Mishnah to this treatise, like its Tosefta,

which is divided into two chapters, contains much

important matter relating to Jewish

Tosefta social life, such as information regard-
and ing furniture and tools, housework

Gemaras. and agriculture, public institutions,
and mourning customs.

The Gemaras of both Talmuds explain the several
mishnayot. In the first chapter the Babylonian Ge-
mara contains also a number of tales, proverbs, and
benedictions, which give examples of the picturesque
style of the Rabbis. In the third chapter, besides the
explanations of the individual mishnayot, the Baby-
lonian Gemara contains detailed regulations concern-
ing the different forms of the B.\n and its removal
(pp. 15a-17b), as well as narratives of remarkable
incidents which took place when certain teachers
died or were buried (p. 2oa, b), and legends con-
cerning the manner in which death overtook them
(p. 28a). Here are also found interesting specimens
of dirges and funeral orations delivered in Hebrew
and showing traces of paronomasia and rime (p.
25b), besides Raba's citation of examples of wailing
songs sung by the hired mourning- women in the
vernacular at Shekanzib (p. 28b).

Especial mention should be made of the enumera-
tion of modifications which had taken place in the
course of time in many of the usages connected with
mourning and burial (p. 27a, b). All these changes
were made for the sake of the poor, who could not
afford the luxury of the old customs. The sums
expended in the preparation of the body were so
large that the relatives often left the corpse unburied
because they could not meet the enormous outlay.
It was not until after Rabban Gamaliel had been
buried in simple linen garments that this custom be-
came general. At a later period simplicity was car-
ried still further, and the cheapest coverings Avere
used for the burial of the dead (p. 27b).

s. s. J. Z. L.

MOGADOR (or SUERAH) : Seaport of Moroc-
co, on the Atlantic; founded by Sidi Mohammed ibn
Abdallah in 1759. It has a total population of 19,-
000, including 10,000 Jews. Mogador is divided
into three parts: the Kasbah, where the governor,
some Mohammedans, tlie European officials, and a
number of Jewish merchants reside; the Medi-
nah, or city, of the Moors; and the Mellah, or
Jewish quarter, which has two fortified gates. The
Medinah contains the old Jewish quarter, called
"Al-Mcllah al-Kadimi" (the old Mellah). In 1807
the governor, Ibn 'Abd al Saddik, found it nec-
essary for the security of the Jews to found the




present Mellah. The condition of the Jews has
always been better in Mogador than in many other
parts of the empire, as tlic sultans — especially those
of the Sherifian dynasty — in many instances favored
them. An exception, however, was made in tliis
respect by the sultan Muley Yazid, who in order
to convert ten Jews of Mogador tortured them for
ten days by repeatedly hanging them head downward
in a dry cistern and bastinadoing them. When the
news of the death of Mulej' Yazid came, some of
them had expired and one had embraced Islam ; the
rest were set free.

The Sherifs encouraged the commerce of the Jews
in every possible way by granting them privileges
and loans; tliis condition lasted until the end of the
government of Muley al-Hassan, when the European
merchants began to give protection to their Moroc-
can agents. When the French navy, in 1846, bom-
barded Mogador, the Arab tribes of the neighbor-
hood suddenly attacked the city and pillaged the
houses of Jews and Mohammedans, dishonoring the
women, and killing many of tlie inhabitants. Those
who could escape fled as far as the city of Morocco
in order to find a shelter. When peace was restored,
they returned to Mogador in a condition of abject
poverty. In 1860, again, when Spanish war-ships
were sent to Morocco, tlie Jews left the city and fled
to the southern province of Haha, where they were
protected by the governor. The mission of Sir
Moses Montetiore to Morocco brought about a better
state of affairs for the Jews of Mogador and resulted
in the abolition of the bastinado. The condition of
the Jews of Mogador to-day, however, is still far
from being secure.

The commerce of the city, mostly with England,
France, and Germany, lies chiefly in the hands of
the Jews, so that the Mohammedans are compelled
to suspend business on the Jewish Sabbaths and holy
days. Religious matters and also civil cases are de-
cided by a board of three rabbis, and Jewish con-
gregational affairs by a committee of seven rabbis
of the community, chosen annually. The Mellah is
represented in civic and political affairs by a sheik,
who is installed by the government and is responsi-
ble to it for the regular payment of the Jewish tax,
which amounts to 250 "doros." The expenses of
the Jewish community, including the salaries of the
rabbis and charity for the poor, are met by a meat-
tax, a tax on imported and exported merchandise,
and by donations from a French and an English
shipping company by whose ships the Jews have
agreed to export their merchandise. The commu-
nity has a bet ha-midrash, a French and an English
school for boys (founded respectively in 1862 and
1864), and two English schools for girls, one,
founded in 1887, being supported by the Anglo-
Jewish Association, the other being a private school.

Since its foundation the community has had the
following rabbis: Yahya, from Agadir; Jacob
Bibaz, from Rabat; Abraham Coriat, author of
"Scfer Zekut Abot " (went to Leghorn in 1793);
Hayyim Pinto (d. 1846) ; David ibn al-Hazzan (d.
1828); Joseph ben Jacob Almalih, called Joseph al-
Kabir (d. Jerusalem 1837); Abraham Coriat II., au-
thor of " Sefer Berit Abot " ; Joseph ben Aaron
Almalih; Abraham ibn 'Attar (d. 1883); Moses
VIII.— 41

Cohen (emigrated to the city of Morocco) ; and
Abraham Sabah (d. 1903). The present (1904) rabbis
of Mogador are Judah ben Maniel, Mas'ud Knafo,
and Joseph ibn 'Attar.

D. ■ M. Kn.

MOGHILEF (MOHILEV): 1. Capital of the
government of the same name in White Russia; sit-
uated on the Dnieper. Though the city was well
known as an important trading center as early as
the fourteenth century, the first mention of Jews
there occurs in a document dated 1522, wherein King
Sigismund awards a lease, for a period of three
years, of the various taxes of Moghilef to Michael
Jesofovicii, the noted merchant of Brest. This
lease was renewed three years later, and subse-
quently taken up by the Jesofovich family and
other Jewish merchants, as appears from a number
of documents. Toward the end of the sixteenth
century Jews had probably settled in Moghilef in
considerable numbers, although there are no docu-
ments extant to show that they had a well-organized
community at that time. In 1583 Affras Racii-
MAELOviCH, a prominent Jewish merchant of Mo-
ghilef, carried on an import and export trade with
Riga and Lublin. The presence of a considerable
number of Jews in Moghilef at the end of the six-
teenth centurj' is attested also by the petition, dated
March 5, 1585, of the burghers of the cit}' to King
Stephen Bathori praying that Jews migiit be pro-
hibited from settling in Moghilef, since they would
be a serious menace to the prosperity of the Chris-
tian merchants. The king promised to grant the
request of the burghers; but in spite of this the
agents of the Jewish tax-farmers continued their
business in Moghilef, as is shown by certain lawsuits
brought by them in 1589 against some Christian
merchants for selling spirituous liquors without a
license. In a document dated Jan. 31, 1597, a Jew,
Avram Rubinovich, is mentioned as residing on
Pokrovsky street. A Jewish community seems to
have existed in Moghilef for some

Commu- time prior to 1621, in which year the

nity in local gild of butchers passed resolu-
1621. tions making it illegal for Christian as
well as Jewish members of the gild to
buy cattle outside of the city, and requiring Chris-
tian butchers who wished to sell kasher meat to do
business in certain places where the Jewish butchers
were established. In the following year the mu-
nicipal council of Moghilef borrowed from the Jew
Gabriel Samuelovich and his wife, Rukhana Itzkha-
kovna, 100 Lithuanian kop groschen for a term of
ten years, and as security gave to Gabriel a house
belonging to the city, situated on Nikolski street.

The growing antagonism on the part of the Chris-
tian merchants, provoked by the competition of the
Jews, caused the former to make repeated com-
plaints to the king, and finally led to the promulga-
tion of an edict (July 23, 1626) by Sigismund III.,
whereby all Jews owning houses on the market-place
were ordered to remove to the street on which their
prayer-house was situated, "in order to prevent the
conflicts due to the residence of Jews and Christians
on the same streets." Equivalent areas were assigned
to the Jews on the Jewish street. This edict was con-
firmed by Ladiskus IV. (March 8, 1633), who also




prohibited ilio .lows from building baths and bnw-
cries within liie city limits. This and other docu-
ments show tiiut the populace was being incited
against the Jews by the burghers and the clergy.
In 1639 the burghers reported to the city council
that a Christian servant who had been employed for

ten years by the Jewess Lyuba Jose-
Conflicts fova, had died under suspicious cir-
with cumstancesand that the Jews had bur-

Citizens, ied her without giving notice of the

funeral to her relatives. The investi-
gation revealed that the deceased had been drinking
iieavily in the monastery and had fallen uncon-
scious in the street near the house ; that Lyuba with
the aid of the servant's sister had carried her into the
house, where she died soon after; and that the son of
the deceased, accompanied by other relatives, had
buried her, a fact corroborated by numerous wit-
nesses. Other unfounded accusations were repeat-
edly made against the Jews of Moghilef, especially
as to their responsibility for the fre(iuent conHagra-
tions occurring
in the city.

The enmity
toward the Jews
found expres-
sion in a riot
which occurred
on the Jewish
N e w - Y e a r ' s
Day, Sept. 21,
1645. Led by
the burgomas-
ter, Roman lieb-
rovich, an armed
mob attacked
the Jews, who
had gone to the
lliver Dnieper
for the observ-
ance of the relig-
ious custom of
"Tashlik"; the
mob wounded
men and women,

robbed them of their jewelry, anil attempted to
throw them into the river. The case was carried
to Prince Radziwil, the chief marshal of the
duchy of Lithuania, whose inHuence enabled the
burgomaster to escape punishment. This inci-
dent, one of many, throws light on the popular
attitude toward the Jews a few years before the
uprising under Chmielnieki. The Jews of Mo-
ghilef apparently escaped the first fury of Chmiel-
nicki's Cossacks in 1G48: and they benefited in the
following year by tlie renewal of the charter of
privileges gratitecl to many Lithuanian communities

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