Isidore Singer.

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The laws of sacrificial food and sacrificial animals
have been modified by many glosses. Some of these
are anterior to H. P has added the references to
Aaron and his sons in verses 1, 2, 3, 4, and 18. In
this chapter two originally independent calendars of
feasts have' been united. From P came verses 1-9,
21, 23-38, 39a, 39c, and 44; from H. verses 10-20,
39b, and 40-43. A later hand added verse 22. and
perhaps other glosses (for details comp. " Hex." and
Baentsch ad lor.).

Ch. xxiv. 1-9, which treats of the lamps and the
showbread, belongs to the P stratum, but is out of
place here. Verses 10-13, 23 deal with blasphemy.
They arc quite unrelated to verses 15-22 except as
a partial doublet, and belong, perhaps, to a sec-
ondary stratum of P. Verses 15-22 are a part of
the Holiness Code.

The law of the Sabbatical year and of jubilee in
ch. XXV. is now composite. The earlier portion was
a part of the Holiness Code. Driver sees this portion
in verses 2b-9a, 10a, 13-15, 17-22. 24, 25, 35-39, 43,



Levy, Aaron.

47, 53, 55. P has added the portions which iutro-
duce a complicated reckoning, viz.: verses 1, 9b,
lOb-13, 16, 23, 26-34, 40, 42. 44-46, 48-52, 54 (for
other analyses conip. Baentsch and "Hex." (id loc).

Ch. XX vi., as already noted, is the liortatory con-
clusion of the Holiness Code. It has escaped serious
interpolation from later hands, except peihaps in
verses 34 et seq., v^'here references to the Exile may
have been inserted.

Leviticus now concludes with a chapter on vows,
which belongs to a late stratum of P. It is later
than the institution of the year of jubilee, and intro-
duces a law, not mentioned elsewhere, concerning
the tithe of cattle.

From what has been said concerning the absence

of ch. xvi. from the Pentateuch of Nehemiah it is

clear that some of the material of Leviticus was

added to it later than Nehemiah's

Deute and time. It is probable that P in its

Place of main features was in the hands of

Composi- Ezra and Nehemiah. Leviticus is,
tion of P. however, not the work of the P who
wrote the account of the sacred insti-
tutions, but of an editor who dislocated that work
at many points, and who combined with it the Holi-
ness Code and other elements.

It is commonly supposed that the priestly laws
were collected in Babylonia and were brought back
to Palestine by Ezra. Haupt goes so far as to claim
that the Levitical ritual is influenced by Babylonian
institutions (conip. Haupt, "Babylonian Elements
in the Levitical Ritual," in "Jour. Bib. Lit." xix.
55-81), and that a number of the words are Babylo-
nian loan-words. Any deep Babylonian influence
may well be doubted, however. It has been seen
that the laws of Leviticus were collected little by
little in small codes, and that they were united into
their present form after the time of Nehemiah. If
any of these collections were made during the Exile,
it must have been the desire of the priests who col-
lected them to preserve the sacred ritual of the
Temple at Jerusalem. Like Ezekiel, they may have
proposed reforms, but it is hardly likely that they
would deliberately copy heathen practises. The
Levitical terms which are identical with Babylonian
no more prove borrowing from Babylonia than the
similarities between the code of Hammurabi and the
Hebrew codes prove a similar borrowing there. All
that is proved in either case, when radical differ-
ences are given proper weight, is that in both coun-
tries the laws and the ritual were developed from a
common basis of Semitic custom.

It is generally held that the Holiness Code is

younger than Ezekiel, though this is opposed by Dill-

mann (" Exodus und Leviticus ") and Moore (in " En-

cyc. Bibl." s.v.). That there are many resemblances

between H and Ezekiel all agree.

Date and Ezekiel dwells again and again upon

Place of offenses which are prohibited in the

Composi- code of H. Compare, e.g., the laws of
tion of the incest, adultery, and of commerce with

Holiness a woman in her uncleanness (Lev.

Code. xviii. 8, xx. 10-17, and Ezck. xxii. 10,

11). A list of such parallels will be

found in" Hex. "i. 147 e< seq. Thesame writers point

out {ib. pp. 149 et seq.) that there is a similarity be-

tween Ezekiel and the hortatory portions of H so
striking as to lead Colenso to regard the former as
the author of those exhortations. Equally striking
differences make Colenso's theory untenable; and it
remains an open question whether Ezekiel influ-
enced H, or II influenced Ezekiel. Those who re-
gard H as the later (Wcllhausen, Kueneu, Baentsch,
and Addis) lay stress on the references to exile in
xxvi. 34-44, while Dillmann and ]\Ioore regard such
phenomena as the work of later hands. When one
remembers how many hands have worked on Leviti-
cus it must be admitted that the references to exile
may well be additions ; and if the antiquity of the
law of the altar in ch. xvii. be recalled — a law which
is clearly pre-Deutcronomic — the probability that
H is really earlier than Ezekiel becomes great.

Comparisons of the laws of H with those of Deu-
teronomy have often been instituted, but without
definite results. Lev. xix. 35, 36 is, it may be urged,
more developed than Deut. xxv. 13-15, since the
measures and weights are more definitely specified ;
but the point is not of sufficient significance to be
decisive. On the other hand, the implication of
many sanctuaries in ch. xvii. points to H's priority
to Deuteronomy. At any rate it seems probable
that H and Deuteronomy were collected quite inde-
pendently of each other. The hortatory form of
each is similar. This, together with resemblances
to the language and thought of Jeremiah, points to
the same general period as the date of their compo-
sition. Whether H is not the older of the two must
be left an open question, with a slight balance of
argument in favor of its greater antiquity. This
view makes it probable that the Holiness Code was
compiled in Palestine.

Bibliography : Dillmann, E.rridusund Leviticus, 3d ed., 1897 ;
Graf, Die Gei^chichtUchen Bilcher dex Alten Testaments,
1866; Noldeke, Untersuchungen ziir Kritik des Alten Tes-
taments, 1869; Oolenso, The Pentateiich and the Bonk of
Joshua, 1872, vl. ; Kuenen, He.ratexich, 1886; Wellhausen,
Die Composition des Hexateuchs, 3d ed., 1899 ; Driver, Iii-
ti'oduction, 6th ed., 1897 ; Idem. Leviticus, in Haupt, S. B.
O. T. 1898 ; Bacon, Triple Tradition of the E.vodus, 1894 ;
Addis, Documents of the Hcrateuch, 1898; Carpenter and
Harford Battersby, He.rateuch, 1900; Baentsoli, Exodtis-
Leviticus-Numeri, in Nowack's Hand-Kommentar, 1903;
Paton, Th^ (yriginal Form of Lev. xvii.-xix. in Jour.
Bit). Lit. xvi. 31 et seq.; idem. The Original Form of Lev.
xxi.-xxii. ib. xvii. 149 e4, seq.; Haupt, Babylonian Elements
in the Levitical Ritual, ib. xix. 55 et seq.
E. G. H. G. A. B.

LEVY. See Execution.

LEVY, AABON: Revolutionary patriot ;
founder of Aaronsburg, Pa. ; born in Amsterdam in
1742; died in Philadelphia Feb. 23, 1815. He went
to America at an early age and settled in Pennsyl-
vania, his name appearing in the first tax -assessment
lists of Northumberland county. He engaged in
trade with the Indians and furnished supplies to the
proprietary government, and, during the war of the
Revolution, to the colonial army. In 1778 Levy
signed a memorial of the inhabitants of Northumber-
land county asking help on account of the British
and Indian ravages in the vicinity. In the same
year he removed to Lancaster, engaging in business
with Joseph Simon. He speculated in land in Penn-
sylvania, and soon became one of the largest landed
proprietors, owning immense tracts in nearly ever)''
count}^ in the state. During the war he released to
the state twelve tracts in Luzerne countj'; later he

Levy, Abraham Hirtzel
Levy, Asser



petitioned the governinent requesting that they be
eitlier paid for or returned to liini (see letter dated
Aug. 26, 1801, ill Pennsylvania State Archives, sec-
ond series, xviii. 347, 442).

Robert Morris, the financier of the Revolution,
was Levy's partner in many of these speculations,
and borrowed considerable sums of money from
him, acknowledgment of the indebtedness being
made at the time of Morris' bankruptcy. Through
the influence of Morris, Levy loaned a large amount
of money to the Continental Congress for the pui-
pose of carrying on the Avar. This money was
never fully repaid (sec letter in reference to these
loans in the Journals of Congress, March 29, 1781).
It was after the war that he engaged in his greatest
speculation in land, with which his name will al-
ways be connected. In 1779 lie bought a large
tract of land in Center county. Pa., upon which he
laid out the town of Aaronsburg, the earliest town
in the county, the i)lan of which was recorded at
Sunbury on Oct. 4, 1786; it is the first town in the
United States that was planned by, and named
after, a Jew. Aaron Levy was one of the original
members of the Congregation Mickve Israel, Phila-
delphia. He died without issue. See A.\konsbukg.

BiBLiof;RAPHV: Isabella H. Rosenbach and Abraham S. Wolf
Rosenbach, in Piihl. Am. Jetv. Hist. Sdc. No. 2, 1894, pp.
l,57-lt>i; I'einmilvaina ColoiiiM Recurda; Pennxylvania
Archives ; Jobn Blair Linn, History of Center County.

A. A. S. W. R.

martyr; born at "Wittolsheim; executed at Colmar,
Alsace, Dec. 31, 1754. He was accused with three
other Jews of having stolen property amounting to
three thou.sand livres from the house of a widow
named Madeline Kafin. Notwithstanding that they
all proved an alibi, he w\as condemned to " the ordi-
nary and extraordinar}'^ question." He did not con-
fess and was broken on the wheel the next day.
The chief Jews of Alsace, convinced of his inno-
cence, brougiit the case on appeal before the Privy
Council of Paris, which reversed the verdict and
proclaimed Levy innocent June 16, 1755. His re-
mains were removed from the gallows, enveloped in
a tallit, and buried in the Jewish cemetery of Jung-

Bibliography: I. l.oeh, Anniuiire de la Societedes Etudes
Juives. 1. 123-161.
D. J.

L^VY, ALBERT: French sculptor; born at
Paris May 4. 1864. A pupil of Etienne Leroux, he
exhibited for the first time in 1886, his work being
a portrait medallion.

Levy's sculptures include: " RCveric," 1887; "I,a
Priere"" and "Fillette," 1888; "Etude d'Enfant,"
1889; "Jcune Paysanne i\ la Source," 1891; "La
Chanson." 1892: " JeuneTrouveur." 1893: "Portrait
de Simon," 1894; "Eve," 1895; "Jean de Rotrou a
VingtAns,"1896; "Sans Permis," 1898. He has ex-
ecuted also busts of several well-known persons.
Bibliooraphy: Curlnler, Diet. Nat. II. 128.

8. F. T. H.

LfiVY, ALFRED : French rabbi ; born at Lune-
ville Dec. 14, 1840. He studied at the College de
Luneville and entered (1860) the Paris Rabbinical

Seminary. On leaving it in 1866 he was appointed
rabbi at Dijon, where lie remained for two years.
lie then occupied for twelve years the rabbinate of
his native town, and in 1880 became chief rabbi of
the consistory of Lyons. He is a chevalier of the
Legion of Honor.

Levy has published the following writings: "Le
Deuil et les Ceremonies Funebreschez les Israelites,"
Paris, 1879 ; "' Notice sur les Israelites du Duche de
Lorraine," 1885; " Notice sur les Israelites de Lyon,"
1894; " Les Doctrines d 'Israel, Recueilde Sermons,"
Lyons, 1896. S.

L:6vY, ALPHONSE : French painter; born at
^larmoutier, Alsace, in 1843; educated at the Stras-
burg lyeeum. At the age of seventeen he went to
Paris, where he studied under Gerome. As an illus-
trator, Levy has drawn for ail the great Parisian
journals, devoting himself almost exclusively to
scenes of life. Among his illustrations the
most important are those for the Jewish stories of
Sacher Masoch, his "Jewish Life," and especially
his latest collection of thirty drawings litliographed
by himself. He is now (1904) engaged on a series of
sketches of Jewish life in Algiers to parallel his
drawings of the Ashkenazic Jews. In the Salon of
the Societe Natioualc des Beaux-Arts and at the In-
ternational Exposition of 1900 Levy won prizes, and
the committee, Gerome, Dagnan, Bouveret, Henri
Bouchot, and Gustave Geffroy, recommended him
for the cross of the Legion of Honor. He has been
made also an officer of the Academy.

s. J. Ka.

LEVY, AMY: English novelist and poet; born
Nov. 10, 1861, in London; died there Sept. 10, 1899.
Verse written by her before she was eight years of
age gave evidence of liigh literary talent. By the
time she had entered her teens she had produced
a considerable number of verses, essays, plays, and
short stories characterized by a steady and rapid
increase in significance and power; one of her poems
written at tlie end of that period was published in
tlie quarterly known as the " Pelican." In 1876 the
family moved to Brighton, where she attended the
high school. It was while at school that she wrote
" Xantippe," a scathing defense in verse of Socrates'
spouse from a modern standpoint — a remarkable
achievement for a school-girl in her teens.

On leaving school Amy Levy spent two j-ears at
Girton College, Cambridge, working fitfully at tlic
prescribed studies, but doing much reaiiing and
writing. During her first term there a .story of hers
came out in "Temple Bar," and a little later "Xan-
tippe and Other Poems " was published in three vol-
umes. Then came a winter in Dresden, and on her
return to London she occupied lierself with teaching
and writing. " The Minor Poet," published in 1882,
is tinged with sadness and with suggestions of auto-
biography. The third and last volume of lier poems,
"A London Plane Tree," appeared after her death.
As pure literature all three volumes have a distinct-
ive charm. Her first novel, the "Romance of a
Shop," and ashort story, " Mi.sslVIeredith," werepub-
lished in 1886, after a winter spent in Florence; and
in 1888 " Reuben Sachs" appeared. The last-named
work presents some of the less pleasing aspects of



Levy, Abraham Hirtzel
Levy, Asser

tlie Jewish character, and the vivid writing of the
exquisitely imagined story makes regret more keen
that the author's outlook on her people was so

BiBLiOGRAPHT : Dictionary of National Biography.



matliematician and mineralogist; born at Paris
1794 ; died there
June 26, 1841.
He was a grad-
uate of the Ecole
Normale, where
he became teach-
er of mathemat-
ics (1814 - 15).
He went to Eng-
land, where he
lived till 1828,
and then to Bel-
gium. Here he
was lecturer at
the University
of Liege, and be-
came a member
of the Academy
of iSciences at
Brussels. Re-
turning to
France in 1880,
he was appoint-
ed professor of
mineralogy at
the College

Levy pul)-
lished essays in
the "Corre-
spondance Ma-
thematique" of
Quetelet (1828-
30), in the " An-
nals of Philos-
ophy," and in
the "Philosoph-
ical Magazine,"
and was the au-
ferentes Propri-
etes des Sur-
faces de Second
Ordre"; "Sur
une Nouvelle
Maniere de Me-
surer la Pesan-
teur Specifique

des Corps " ; " Sur Quelques Proprietes des Sys-
t^mes de Forces."

Bibliography: La Grande Encyclopedic \ Nouveau La-
rmtsfte lUustre.
8. F. T. 11.

SWELLEM) : One of the first Jewish settlers of
New Amsterdam, as New York city was known
under the Dutch; probably born in Amsterdam;

" Blessing ot

(From a drawini

died in 1680. He is first mentioned as one of the
Jews who went to New Netherlands in 1654, proba-
bly as refugees from Biazil. From the start Levy
was one of tlie eliainpions of his people, never per-
mitting an injury, however slight, to pass without
protest. In 1G55 Peter Stuyvesunt, tlie governor
of the colony, was ordered to attack the Swedes on
the Delaware, and accordingly issued orders for the
enlistment of all adults. Several Jews, among

whom was Asser
Levy, appear to
have been ready
to serve; but the
governor and
council passed
an ordinance
"that Jews can
not be permitted
to serve as sol-
diers, but shall
instead paj^ a
monthly contri-
bution for the
Levy and his
comrades at once
refused to pay,
and on Nov. 5,
1655, petitioned
for leave to
stand guard like
other burghers
or to be relieved
from the tax.
The petition was
rejected with
the comment
that if the peti-
tioners were not
satisfied with
the law they
might go else-
where. Levy
successfully ap-
pealed to Hol-
land, and was
permitted to do
guard duty like
other citizens.

As Levy ap-
pears also as a
prominent tra-
der at Fort Or-
ange (Albanj'),
it is likely that
he was respon-
sible for the rebuke given to Stuyvesant by the di-
rectors in Holland during the same year because of
his refusal to permit Jews to trade there. Levy
was also one of the first licensed butchers in the col-
ony. In 1657 the burgher right was made abso-
lutely essential for certain trading privileges, and
within two days of a notice to that effect Asser Levy
appeared in court requesting to be admitted as a
burgher. The officials expressed their surprise at

the New Moon."

5 by Alphonse L^vy.)

Iievy, Asser
Li^vy, Gustave



such a request. The record reads : " The Jew claims
that such ought not to be refused him as he keeps
watch and ward like other burghers, showing a
burgher's certificate from the city of Amsterdam
that the Jew is a burgher there." The application
was denied, but Levy at once brought the matter
before Stuyvesant and the council, which, mindful
-of the previous experience, ordered that Jews should
be admitted as burgliers (April 31, 1657).

As early as 1661 Levy purchased real estate at
Albany ; he was also the earliest Jewish owner of
real estate in New York city, his transactions there
commencing in June, 1662, with the purchase of
land on South William street. Within ten years of
his arrival Levy had become a man of consequence,
and when, in 1664, the wealthiest inhabitants were
summoned to lend the city money for fortifications
against the English, he was the only Jew among
them: he lent the city 100 florins.

It is as a litigant, however, that Levy figures most
prominently in the Dutch records, his name often
appearing for days in succession. He invariably
argued his own case and was almost invariably suc-
cessful. Only on two or three occasions did he fig-
ure as defendant. No other Jew seems to have had
so many dealings with Christians, or to have been
on more intimate terms with them. As a litigant
he is named also in the records of Gravesend in
1674. Levy's trading relations extended to New
England, and he frequently appeared as attorney
for merchants in Holland. In 1671 he lent the
money for building tlie first Lutheran church in
New York. About 1678 he built a slaughter-house
in the east end of what is now known as Wall street,
where he appears to have been the owner of a fa-
mous tavern.

Instead of being unpopular on account of his
many lawsuits, the contrary seems to have been the
case. The confidence reposed in his honesty by his
Christian fellow citizens appears frequently from
the court records. Property in litigation was put
into his custody; he is named as executor in the
wills of Christian merchants, and figures as both
administrator and trustee in colonial records. His
influence was not confined to New York; in tiie co-
lonial records of Connecticut he appears as interve-
ning to obtain the remission of a fine imposed upon
a Jew there. Tiie court remitted the fine with the
comment that it did so "as a token of its respect to
the said Mr. Asser Levy." He left a considerable
estate, over which there was a long legal contest.
A second Asser Levy appears in the Connecticut
records as late as 1725, and a third, presumably a
grandson, was an officer in a New Jersey regiment
during tlie American Revolution.

Bibmoorapiiy: The Records of New Amsterdnni, ed. B.
Fernow, New York, 1897; Leon Hiihner, yl.s.scr Levy. In I'ub-
Ucntionn Am. Jew. Hixt. .Sor.; Thomas F. De Voe. The
Market Book, 1. 45, 46. 49, .>!, .55; E. B. O'Callahan, Hixt. of
New NetherlancL^, li. 2Hfi. New York, 1848 ; Calendar of New
York HMorical Mammrripts (Dutch), ir>SO-W0i,, pp. 151.
1.55. 184. 310; Simon W. Uosendale, An Enrlu Ownerxhi)) of
Real Eiitnte, in PnhUcatiini.'< Am. .Inr. HiM. Sue; V(den-
f ine'.s Mnnnal, 18«.5, pp. f)9]. 701 ; 27ie Puhlic Ref.irdn of the
Coloni/of Connecfirul. Hartford. 1872 : Docnmentu Rrhttini,!
to Colonial Historu. ed. Brodhead. xii. 96. xlv. M\. :V)1. Al-
bany. 1877 ; .1. Pearson. Karlu Recordsnf the Citjiof Alhanji.
passim; Va,\v, Settlement of the Jews in North America,
New York. 1893; F. B. Heltman. Historical Register of Offl-
cera of the Continental Armti, p. 363.
A. L. HI'.

L:6vY, august MICHEL : French engi-
neer, geologist, and mineralogist; born at Paris
Aug. 17, 1844; son of Michel Levy. In 1862 he en-
tered the Ecole Polytechnique, and two years later
the school of mines, becoming engineer in 1867, and
cngineer-in-chief in 1883. After 1876 he took an
important part in the preparation of the detailed
geological map of France published by the ministry
of public works. In 1887 he became director of this
important undertaking, and in tiie following year
took charge also of the underground topographic
survey. In addition to articles and notes scattered
in various scientific periodicals, he has written:
"]Memoire sur les Divers Modes de Structure des
Roches Eruptives Etiidiees au Microscope," Paris,
1876; ".Alemoire pour Servir a I'Explication de la
Carte Geologique Detaillee de la France," ib. 1879;
"Introduction a I'Etude des Roches Eruptives
Fran^aises," ib. 1879 ; " Synthase des Mineraux et des
Roches," ih.lS82 (the three preceding in collaboration
with Foque); "Les Mineraux des Roches," ib. 1888;
"Etude Geologique de Serrania de Ronda," ib. 1888
(in collaboration with Bergeron); "Tableaux des
Mineraux des Roches," z6.1890 (in collaboration with
Lacroix) ; " Etude sur la Determination des Feld-
spaths dans les Plaques Minces," ^■^>. 1894; "Structure
et Classification des Roches Eruptives," ib. 1899.

s. J- Ka.

LEVY, BENJAMIN : Coloinal resident of
Philadelphia. On Nov. 7, 1765, he signed, with
other citizens of Philadelphia, the celebrated agree-
ment not to import merchandise from England until
the repeal of the Stamp Act. On Dec. 27, 1776, he
was appointed, upon the recommendation of the
treasurer of the United States, an authorized signer
of the bills of credit (see "Journal of the Continen-
tal Congress ").
BiBLior.RAPHV: Rosenbach. Tlie Jews in Philadelphia Prior

to 1300, p. 13. Philadelphia, 1883; Puhlicaliom Am. Jew.

Hist. Sac. 1. 60, 86. , „ ttt t^

A. A. S. W. R.

musician; born ]\Iarcli 3, 1796, at Sanct Avoid, Lor-
raine; died June 3, 1846, at Vienna. He received
his first lessons in music from his father, a musician
to the Duke of Zweibriicken. As the protege of a
French officer he entered, at the age of fourteen, the
Paris Conservatoire, where he became proficient in
the bugle (which he chose as his favorite instrument),
the cello, and the violin. He joined the French
army in 1812, served with the Old Guard through
the Waterloo campaign, and at the Restoration was
appointed bandmaster and drum-major. After re-
tiring from the service he went on concert tours
througli France and Switzerland, married at Ba-
sel, and in 1824 went to Vienna, wliere he became
soloist in the K. K. Hof-Oper. In 1834 he was
appointed professor at the Vienna Conservatorium,
and in 1835 became a member of the Imperial Hof-

Levy's three ciiildren inherited his musical talent:
Karl was a pianist, Melanie a harpist, and Rich-
ard Eduard a cornetist. In 1838 they accompa-
nied their father on concert tours through Russia
and Germany.
Bibliography : Rlemann, Musikalisches Lexikon.

s. E. J.



Xevy, Asser
Levy, Gustave

LEVY, ELEAZAR : Colonial resident of New
York city prior lo the Revolution. He fled from
New York on account of the British occupation and
took up his residence in Philadelphia, wliere he en-
gaged in business. On Aug. 26, 1779, he presented
a memorial to the Continental Congress, claiming
that the United States had erected fortifications on
lands at West Point on which he held a mortgage,
and asking for compensation for his loss. On May

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