Isidore Singer.

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the World's Fair at Chicago for the best epic on the
discovery of America); and three others who be-
came prominent lawyers, one of them, James C.
Moise, being at the time of his death (1901) judge
of the criminal court of New Orleans.

A. L. C. H

MOiSEVILLE. See Agricultural Colonies
IN Tui': Augkntine Rkpiblic.

MOKAMES, DAVID AL-. See David (Abu
Sulaiman) ibn Merwan ai.-Mukammas.

MOKIAH, MORDECAI. See Mordecai Mo-


MOLAD. See Calendar.
MOLDAVIA. See Ru.mania.

MOLE: Traditional rendering of the Hebrew
"haparparah" (Isa. ii. 20). Some give "mole" as
the translation also of "holed" (Lev. xi. 29), which
is, however, generally assumed to mean Weasel.
"Tinshemet," which the Septuagint, the Vulgate,
and the Targum take for some kind of mole, is
commonly admitted to mean either a lizard (Lev.
xi. 3) or some kind of bird (ib. verse 18).

The mole proper ( Tttlpa) does not occur in Pales-
tine. The animal which would answer the descrip-
tion of Isa. ii. 20 is the mole-rat (Spalax typhlm),
which is common about ruins, loose debris, and
stone heaps, and which in external appearance re-
sembles the mole.

The Talmud has for the mole the terms "tinshe-
met" (Hul. 63a) and "ishut" (Kelim xxi. 3; comp.
Targ. to Lev. xi. 30). The mole is described as hav-
ing no eyes (comp. Aristotle, " History of Animals."
iv. 8, 2, and Pliny, " Ilistoria Naturalis," xi. 37, 52)




and as being destructive to grain and plants (M. K,
fib). In Ber. 57b (comp. Tos. to M. K. 6b) ■'N-|Enp.
wliicl. Rashi explains by "talpa," is incnlioncd
alongside of the bat and weasel, wliose appearance
in dreams is a bad omen.

Bibliography: Tristram. \at. HUit. p. !-'(): Lewysohn, Z. T.
p. 101.

E. G. II. I M. r.


See MoLLN, ,J.\coi5 ben INIosks.

MOLINA, ISAAC: Egyptian rabbi of the six-
teenth century, a native of Venice. He had a con-
troversy with Joseph Caro on the subject of K.
Gershoni's "takkanot" (comp. Caro, Kesponsa on
Eben ha-'Ezer). There is also a responsum of
Molina in Caro's"Abkat Kokel," No. 130, the fol-
lowing number being Caro's answer. Molina col-
lected all the responsa of Asher b. Jehiel and some
of other rabbis into one volume, which lie entitled
"Besamim Kosh," providing it with notes and with
u preface (Berlin, 1793). In his preface he claims to
have written responsa and novella- on the Talmud
and on Maimonides' " Yad."

BlBi.iOGR.^PMV: Aziilai, Shem ha-dcitnUm, i. 106; tonfort«,
Kore lia-Dnrot, p. 36b; Fiirst. Bibl. Jud. il. 387; Stein-
sVhneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 1139.
K. C. M. Sel.

tian cabalist ; born J une 8, 1779, in Ober Ursel, in the
Taunus; died in Frankfort-on-the-Main March 28,
1860. Early in life he interested himself in the iihi-
losophy of Kant, Fichte, and Schelling, writing under
the influence of the's teachings " Ideen
zu einer Klinstlichen Dynamik der Geschichte "
(1805). In the same year he published his " Ueber
den Wendepuuktdes Antiken und Modernen," whicli
sliows the influence of Baader's theosophy. " Ueber
die Philosophic der Modernen Welt " came out in
1806. About this time Prince von Dalberg founded
an institution for the uplifting of Judaian, and
Molitor became teacher there. Becoming interested
in the various pliases of Judaism, he began the
study of Hebrew and Aramaic, then Talmud, and
later, actuated by an insight into the Cabala he had
received from the Jewish cabalist Metz in 1813, he
turned his attention to the study of the Zohar, to
which henceforth he devoted himself entirely. He
wrote the first volume of his "Philosophic der Ge-
schichte oder liber die Tradition " in 1824, as a re-
sult of his cabalistic studies. The second volume
(1834) contains a compendium of the Cabala and a
reference to the need of divine revelation. This was
followed by a third volume (1839), containing a gen-
eral account of paganism, Christianity, and Judaism,
and a discussion of the Jewish laws of impurity.
The fourth volume of this work, published in 1853,
shows the relation of the Cabala to Christianity.
The fundamental object of this work is to show
the superiority of cabalistic mysticism over that
of the Christian, and that Christianity is Judaism
obscured by a false mysticism.

Bibliography : AUg. Deutsche Binp., s.v. ; La Grande En-
cyclnpedie, s.v. ; Allg. Zeit. Itteo, Supplement to April 21; J.
E. Erdmann, Grundriss der Oesch. der Philologie, 3d ed.,
vol. 11., pp. .506 rt s'eq.
6. S. J. L.

MOLKO, SOLOMON: Marano cabalist; born
a Cliristian in Portugal about 1500; died at Mantua
in 1532. His baptismal name probably was Diogo
Pires. He held the post of secretary in one of the
higher courts of his native country. When the adven-
turer David Reubeni came ostensibly on a political
mission from Khaibar, in Africa, to Portugal, Molko
wished to join him, but was rejected. He then cir-
cumcised iiimself, though without thereby gaining
Reubeni's favor, and emigrated to Turkey. Highly

Autograph of Solomon Molko.

(Aft«r s manuscript in the possession of the Alliance Israelite Universelle.)

endowed, but a visionary and believer in dreams,
he studied the Cabala with Joseph Taytazak and
became acquainted with Joseph Caro. He then
wandered, as a preacher, through Palestine, where he
achieved a great reputation and announced that the
Messianic kingdom would come in 1540. In 1529
Molko published a portion of his sermons under the
title "Derashot," or "Sefer ha-Mefo'ar." Going to
Ital}', he was op-posed by prominent Jews, wIk)
feared that he might mislead their coreligionists,
but he succeeded in gaining the favor of Pope
Clement VII. and of some Judeophile cardinals at
Rome. He is said to have predicted to the pope a
certain flood which inundated Rome and various
other places. After his man)' cabalistic and other
strange experiments, Molko felt justified in pro-
claiming himself the Messiah, or his precursor. In
company with David Reubeni, whom he came across
in Italy, he went in 1532 to Ratisbon, where the
emperor Charles V. was holding a diet. On this
occasion Molko carried a flag with the inscription
^330 (abbreviation for " Who among the mighty is
like unto God?"). The emperor imprisoned both
Molko and Reubeni, and took them with him to
Italy. In Mantua an ecclesiastical court sentenced
Molko to death by fire. At the stake the emperor
offered to pardon him on condition that he return
to the Church, but Molko refused, asking for a mar-
tyr's death.

Bibliography: G ratz, Gesc/?. 3d ed., ix. 234 et seq., note 5:
Neubauer, M. J. C. il.; Vogelst«in and Rleger, Oesch. der
Juden in Rom.
s. P. B.

MOLL, ALBERT : German physician ; born at
Lissa Mav 4, 1862: educated at the universities of




Breslaii, Freiburg, Jena, and Berlin (M.D. 188*)).
During the following two years he took postgrad-
uate courses at Vienna. Budapest, London, Paris,
and Nancy, and in 1S87 established himself as a
neuropathologist in Berlin. In 1894 lie visited the
leading medical institutions of eastern Europe, and
in 1898 those of North America.

Moll has written several essays in the medical
journals, and is the author of : " Der Hypnotismus,"
Berhn, 1889 (3d ed. 1895); "Die Kontrare Sexual-
empfindung," ib. 1891 (3d ed. 1899); "Der Rapport
in der Hypnose," Leipsic, 1893; "Untersuchuugen
liber die Libido Sexualis," ^■6. 1897; "DasNervose
Weib," ib. 1898; and "MedizinischeEthik," <7<. 1900.

s. F. T. II.

MOLLN (MOLIN) : Name of a family of ^Ma-
yence. The name p^io, which, according to D. Kauf-
mann (" Der Grabstein des 11. Jacob ben Moses ha-
Levi," in "Mouatsschrift," xfii. 26), is to be read
" Molin " rather than " Molln," is not intended to in-
dicate the place from which Moses came, but is a
personal name, as is evidenced by the fact that one
of the sons of MaHaRIL is called simply "Molin,"
after the name of his grandfather. " Molin " is usu-
ally considered to be a pet name for " Moses " ; the
correctness of this theory, however, is doubted by
Salfeld ("Martyrologium," p. 406).

Jacob ben Moses Mblln (MaHaRIL) : Rabbi
and teacher of Mayence; born about 1365; died in
1427.. The fact that he is termed "Maharil," "Ma-
Iiari Segal," or "Mahari Molln" has caused much
confusion. Ilis father's name being Closes, his own
name was really R. Jacob b. Closes ha-Levi. He was
a pupil of R. Shalom of Austria, rabbi at Wiener-
Neustadt, and won a reputation even in his youth for
Talmudic learning and piety, while in problems of
ceremonial law his responsa were sought. At Ma-
yence he attracted many pupils, the most noteworthy
of whom was Jacob Weil (MaHaRIN; rabbi at Nu-
remberg, Augsburg, and Erfurt), whose responsa
were considered authoritative. Molln and his teacher
were the first two rabbis to bear the title " Morenu, "
which was at that time applied to scholars in order
to put an end to the abuses practised by unauthor-
ized persons in performing marriage ceremonies or
in granting divorces (comp. in regard to this point
David Gans, "Zemah Dawid," ed. Offenbach, 30a,

s.v. ^nno).

Mijlln lived during the period of the Hu.ssite wars,
which brought misery ujion the Jews of the Rhine,
of Thuringia, and of Bavaria, all of whom appealed
to liim to intercede with God for them. Accord-
ingly lie sent messengers to the neighboring com-
munities (which were in their turn to commission
others), urging them to institute a general season of
fasting and prayer. The German communities,
obeying the call, fasted for seven days(Sept., 1421).
Soon afterward the imperial army and the mer-
cenaries mobilized at Saaz, dispersed, and the very
soldiers wIk) had threatened the Jews now came to
them to beg bread and received food from them
(comp. G. PoUak, "Halikot Kedem," pp. 79 ef .w/. :
Gratz, "Gesch." 2d ed., viii. 136; Zunz, " S. P."
p. 48).

Jacob Molln was considered the greatest author-

ity of his lime. Communities far and wide sought
his advice; and his discourses and responsa, in which
he emphasized the importance of tradition, and
in general followed Alexander Slisslein ha-Kohen
(d. 1349), the author of the " Aguddah " frequently
mentioned in the codes, were regarded as authori-
tative in the congregations and exerted a decisive
infiuence, not only on his contemporaries, but
also on later teachers. His death occurred before
he could publish his responsa, which he had col-
lected carefully, but a part of them appeared at
Venice, 1549, and frequently later. His ihief work
is the "Sefer ha-Maharil " or "Minhagim," pub-
lished by his pupil Zalnian of St.
Works. Goar at the request of his contempo-
raries. This book is frequently quoted
in the codes and commentaries, and has become
a valuable source for later scholars. In addition
to sermons, regulations of the ceremonial law, and
textual comments, it contains a detailed description
of religious observances and rites within and with-
out the s3'nagogue, and outlines, therefore, a faith-
ful picture of the life of the German Jews. It was
first published, with various additions, at Sabbio-
iietta, in 1556, and frequently later. It exerted
great intluence on the Jews of central Europe, being
largely responsible for the high esteem accorded to
religious tradition (" minliag ") in tin; communities.
Molln frowns upon any changes, and demands im-
plicit obedience to the time-honored observances,
even in regard to the liturgical melodies and the
piyyutim (comp. R. Moses Isserles to Orah Hay-
yim, 619). According to tradition he composed
most of the synagogal hymns, and his " Minhagim "
actually contain many references to the use of cer-
tain melodies. A third work, "Bi'urim " to Yoreh
De'ah, is extant in manuscript (comp. Wolf, "Bibl.
Hebr." i. 604).

BIBIJOORAPHY : (iratz, GcurJi. 2d ed., vlii. 136; Winter and
Wiinsche, Die JUtlische Litteratui-.n.iitH et seq., 661 ct scq.,
iii. .")1.'); Giidemann, (Jescli. iii. 17, 111; Or ha-Ha\i]jim,
Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1891, pp. 497 etscg.
s. E. N.

Moses ben Jekuthiel ha-Levi Molln : Rabbi
in Mayence in the second half of the fourteenth
century. In two ordinances concerning the admin
istration of the three communities, Speyer, Worms,
and Mayence ("Takkanot ShUM "), dated respect-
ively 1381 and 1380, his signature appears first
(see Moses Minz, Responsa, ed. Lemberg, 1851, p.
lib; Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 820).
A responsum of his, dated 1369, is preserved
among the responsa of his son IVIallaRIL (ed.
Ilanau, 1610, No. 233), who succeeded him in the
rabbinate of Mayence.

Of violin's other children are known by name:
Jekuthiel, Simon, Gumprecht, and two daugh-
ters, Simhah and Bonlin or Bonchin.

Bmr.iocRAriiv : (iiideinann, Oesch. i)i. 17; Michael, Or Jta-
lhi}iii'nn. N". 1121.

i). M. Sc.

MOLO, FRANCISCO : Dutch financier and
statesman ; lived in the sevent(!enth century. In
1679 he settled in Amsterdam as financial agent of
John III., King of I'oland a fact which hardly
agrees witli De Barrios' statement ("Panegyrico al
Laureado Juan Tercero, Rey de Polonia") that




Molo -was a Spanish Jew. He was held iu high
esteem on account of his ability in financial matters;
and in recognition of the services which he had ren-
dered to the Dutch state, he was exempted for two
years from the payment of taxes. Molo's influence
with the States General was so great that through
his mediation Louis XIV. was enabled to conclude
the treaty of Ryswick (1697).

Bibliography: Koenen, GexctuedcnU der Joden in Nedct-
laiid, p. 219, Utrecht, 184.3; Lanibertl, Mtmiiireg. i. 11, Ain-
sterdain. 17.57; Wagenaar, Vadeiiaiidsclie Histurie, \vi.. p.
321, ?7). 1757.
u. M. Sel.

MOLOCH (MOLECH).— Biblical Data: In

tlie Masoretic text the name is " Molecli " ; in the
beptuagint "Moloch." The earliest mention of
Molecli is in Lev. xviii. 21, where the Israelite is
forbidden to sacrifice an}^ of his children to Molech.
Similarly, in Lev. xx. 2-5, it is enacted that a man
who sacrifices his seed to Molech shall surely be put
to death. Then, curiously, it is provided that he
shall be cut off from the congregation. In I Kings
xi. 7 it is said that Solomon built a high place for
Molech in the mountain "that is before Jerusalem."
The same passage calls Molech an Ammonite deity.
The Septuagint as quoted in the New Testament
(Acts vii. 43) finds a reference to Moloch iu Amos
V. 26; but this is a doubtful passage. In II Kings
xxiii. 10 it is stated that one of the practises to
which Josiah put a stop by his reform was that of
sacrificing children to Molech, and that the place
wliere this form of worship had been ])ractised was
at Tophetli, "in the valley of the children of Hin-
nom." This statement is confirmed by Jer. xxxii.
35. From II Kings xxi. 6 it may be inferred that
this worship was introduced during the reign of
IManasseh. The impression left by an uncritical
reading of these passages is that Molech-worship,
with its rite of child-sacrifice, was introduced from
Ammon during the seventh century B.C.
Critical View: The uanie " Molech," later cor-
rupted into "Moloch," is an intentional mispointing
of " Melek," after the analogy of " bosheth " (comp.
Hoffmann in Stade's"Zeitschrift,"iii. 124). As to the
rites which the worshipers of Molech performed, it
has sometimes been inferred, from the
Nature phrase "pass through the fire to Mo-
of the lech," that children were made to pass
Worsliip, between two lines of fire as a kind of
consecration or februation ; but it is
clear from Isa. Ivii. 5 and Jer. xix. 5 that the chil-
dren were killed and burned. The whole point of
the offering consisted, therefore, in the fact that it
Avas a human sacrifice. From Jer. vii. 31 and Ezek.
XX. 25, 26, it is evident that both prophets regarded
tliese human sacrifices as extraordinary offerings to
Yhwii. Jeremiah declares tliat Yiiwii had not com-
manded them, while Ezekiel says Yhwii polluted
the Israelites in their offerings by permitting them
to sacrifice their first-born, so that through chastise-
ment they might know that Yiiwii was Yiiv.ii.
The fact, therefore, now generally accepted by crit-
ical scholars, is that in the last days of the kingdom
human sacrifices were offered to Yirwii as King or
Counselor of the nation and that the Prophets dis-
approved of it and denounced it because it was in-
troduced from outside as an imitation of a heathen

cult and because of its barbarity. In course of time
the pointing of " Melek " was changed to "Molech "
to still further stigmatize the rites.

The motive for these sacrifices is not far to seek.
It is given in Micah vi. 7: "Shall I give my first-
born for my transgression, the fruit of mj' body for
the sin of my soul? " In the midst of the disasters
which were befalling the nation men felt that if the
favor of Yiiwii could be regained it

Motive of was worth anj' price they could pay.

Sacrifices. Their Semitic kindred worshiped their
gods with offerings of their children,
and in their desperation the Israelites did the same.
For some reason, perhaps because not all the priestly
and prophetic circles approved of the movement,
they made the offerings, not in the Temple, but at
an altar or pyre called "Tapheth" (LXX.), erected
iu the valley of Hinnom (comp. W. R. Smith, "Rel.

Babylonian Cylinder Representing Sacrifice of a Child.

(From Menant, '*Glyptique Orieut.sle.")

of Sem."2d ed., p. 872). "Tapheth," also, was later
pointed " Topheth," after the analogy of " bosheth."
In connection with these extraordinary offerings the
worshipers continued the regular Temple sacrifices
to Yiiwii (Ezek. xxiii. 39).

From the fact that I Kings xi. 7 calls Molech the
"abomination of the children of Ammon" it was
formerly assumed that this worship wasan imitation
of an Ammonite cult. But so little is known of the
Ammonite religion that more recent scholarship has
looked elsewhere for the source. Because of the
mention in II Kings xvii. 31 of Adrammelech ( =
Adar-malik) and Anammelech ( = Anumalik) as gods
of Sepharvaim transplanted to Samaria, it has been
inferred that this form of worship was borrowed
from Babylonia (comp. Bathgen, "BeitrSge zur
Semitischen Peligionsgesch." pp. 2ii8 et aeg.). This
view rests on the supposition that "Sepharvaim " is
equal to "Sippar," which probably is not the case.
Even if it were, Anu and Adar were not gods of
Sippar; Shamash was god of that city. From this
verse, therefore, a Babylonian or Assyrian origin can
not be demonstrated.

Support for this view has been sought also in
xVmos v. 26. If, as is probable, Siccuth and Chiun
in that passage are names or epithets of Babylonian
deities (comp. Chiun), the use of "Melek" in con-
nection with these affords no sound basis for argu-
ment. The whole passage may be, as Wellhausen
and Nowack believe, a late gloss introduced on ac-
count of II Kings xvii. 31, and is in any case too
obscure to build upon. Furthermore, tliere is no




evidence that the sacrifice of the first-born was a
feature of the worship of Babylonian deities. Be-
cause child-sacrifice was a prominent feature of the
worship of the Phenician Malik Baal-Kronos, Moore
(inCheyneand Black, "Encyc. Bibl.") seeks to prove
that the worship of Moloch was introduced from Phe-
nicia. The evidence of its existence in Phenicia and
her colonies is especially strong. Diodorus Siculus
(xx. 14) tells how the Carthaginians in a siege sacri-
ficed two hundred boys to Kronos. Burning was an
important feature of the rite.

BIBLIOGRAPHY : W. R. Smith, Rcl. of Sem. 2d ed., pp. 37:i ct
Sep.; Bathgen, BeitrUqe zur Seniittechen RiUgiunsgescli.
1888, pp. 237 et seq.; Moore, The Image of Moloch, in Jour.
Bib. Lit. 1897, xvi. 161 et sea.; M. J. Lagrange, Etudes sur
Us Religions Seodtiques, 1903, pp. 99-109.

s. G. A. B.

and composer: born in Pfuugstadt 181!^; died at
London, England, Feb. 8, 1880. In 1828 he went
to London and received a good musical education
under Enoch Eliasson. On the election of Simon
Ascher to the position of reader at the Great Syna-
gogue, Mombach entered the choir. Subsequently
he became director of the choir, and held this posi-
tion till his death. He took part in all the services
at the Great Synagogue for a period of fifty-two
years; and threw all his energy into the task of im-
proving the musical poftion of the service. He a<"-
quired the reputation of a skilful pianist, and of a
clever composer of synagogue music. Nearly all
the music in use in the German synagogues of Eng
land and the English colonies was composed by

Mombach's services as choirmaster were sought
on almost every occasion of special importance in
the history of the London and chief provincial syna-
gogues; and many of the readers in English and
colonial synagogues owed their training to him. He
taught the singing of hazzanut to the students of
Jews' College; was a member of the Committee for
the Diffusion of rJeligious Knowledge; and directed
the singing of the senior pupils of the Sabbath classes
of the Association for Religious Instruction. For
several years he conducted the concerts at the Jew-
ish Workingmen's Club, Aldgate.
Bibliography : Jcir. Chron. and Jew. World, Feb. 13, 1880.

.1, G. L.

THEODOR : Jurist, archeologist, and historian;
born Nov. HO, 1817, at Garding, Sleswick-Holstein ;
died Nov. 1, 1903, at Charlottenburg, near Berlin.
His most important work is his "ROmische Gesch."
(vol. 1., 9th ed., Berlin, 1903; vols, ii., iii., 8th ed.,
1889; vol. v., 3d ed., 1886; vol. iv. was not pub-
lished). In vol. iii. he treats exhaustively the posi-
tion and influence of the Jews in the Roman empire;
and in vol. v. he devotes a ciiapter headed "Judila
und die Juden " to the spiritual and religious devel-
opment of Judaism in the Persian, Greek, and Ro-
man periods.

As a member of the Prussian Diet (1873-82) and
of the German Reichstag (1881-84), Mommsen be-
longed to the Libgral party and strongly opposed
the anti Seniitic movement. In his pamphlet " Audi
ein Wort Dber Unscr Judentum " (1881). which was
written in reply to Treitschke's arguments in "Ein

Wort liber Unser Judentum," he warmly pleaded for
tolerance and humanity, and argued that the Jewish
element in the German empire is a wholesome one.
He was among the first who signed the declaration
of German notables (Nov. 12, 1880) in which Jew-
baiting (" Judenhetze ") was de.signated a "national
disgrace." The passage in his " Roniische Gesch."
(iii. 350), "Aueh in der alten Welt war das Juden-
tum ein wirksames Ferment des Kosmopolitisinus
und der nationalen Dekomposition und insofern ein
vorzugsweise berechtigtes Mitglied in dein ciisa-
rischeu Staate, dessen Politik docheigentlich niclits
als Weltbiirgertum, dessen Volkstiimlichkeit ini
Grunde niehts als Humanitat war," having been
misunderstood and misinterpreted by the anti Sem-
ites, was omitted by Mommsen in a later edition.

Mommsen was an active member of the Verein
zur Abwehrdes An tisemitismus (founded 1891) until
his death. He also declared himself against the ac-
cusation of ritual murder. In a prefatory letter to
Errera's "Les Juifs Ru.sses" (see Jew. Encyc. v.
203, s.v. Erueua, Leo-Abram) he expressed the
hope " that the statesmen of a great empire and the
sovereign arbiter of Europe may no longer be dom-
inated by the blind action of a resuscitated Tor-
quemada. "
Bibliography: Brockjmwf Konversations-Lexikon; Mit-

theVungcti aus dem Verein zur Abwehr des Aiitisemiti.'t-

inus, 1H93, p. 177 ; 1894. p. 55; 1897, p. 387 ; 1903, pp. 345, 381 ;

Hermann Vogelstein, in AUg. Zeit. des Jud. 1904, pp. 103-106.

n. S. Man.

MONASTIR : Capital of Rumelia, European
Turkey; 400 miles west of Constantinople; the an-
cient Vitolia. It has a population of 65,000, in-
cluding 6,000 Jews. There are no documents re-
ferring to Jews in Monastir before the arrival of the
Spanish exiles in 1492. In the middle of the six-
teenth century there was a Talmudic school in
Monastir which was under the direction of R.
Joseph ibn Leb, the author of four volumes of
responsa (see " Kore ha-Dorot," ed. Cassel, p.
37b). In 1863a terrible fire swept over the city;
1,008 out of the 2,080 houses and shops that were
burned belonged to Jews. In 1884 there were 4,000
Jews in Monastir. In 1900 the Jews were accused
of ritual murder in connection with the disappear-
ance of an Orthodox Bulgarian, sixty 3'ears of age.

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 161 of 169)