Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

. (page 162 of 169)
Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 162 of 169)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

The affairs of the community are administered by
a chief rabbi ("hakam bashi"; officially recognized
by a decree of the sultan), a l^et din or religious
court, and a council of notables; from the taxes
levied by the last-named the chief rabbi, the judges,
and theschoolsare supported, and the poor relieved.
There are three synagogues and fi ve batte midrashot ;
a large Talmud Torah with 250 children; a boys'
school with 150 pupils, founded in 1895, and sub-
sidized by the Alliance Israelite Uiiiverselle and the
Anglo-Jewish Association; a girls' school with 110
pupils, also aided by the Alliance; and day-nurseries
that care for about 120 infants. Its two hebra kad-
dishahs date back to the first settlement of the
Jews in the city. The occupations followed by the
ronimunity are as follows: 600 merchants, including
hankers; 150cobblers; 150tailors; 150 blacksmiths;
50 tinsmiths; 250 porters; and 150 dealers in old
clothes (in which the Jews have the monopoly).
The Jewish workmen belong to unions. Formerly




they lived in "cortijos," or groups of houses enclosed
by a wall, but most of these have been destroyed
by the frequent fires. Down to the beginning of
the last century the Monastir Jews put no inscrip-
tions on their tombstones.

The following have occupied the rabbinate of
Monastir: Joseph Jacob Israel (c. 1768); Joseph
Israel (c. 1790); Jacob Joseph Israel (1854-89; au
thorof "Yismah Moshch," a book of devotions in
Judaeo-Spanish, published by his grandson; Bel-
grade, 1896); Abraham Levi of Janina (1896-98).
Bibliography: M. Schwab, HMnirc des Jsraelitfs, p. 238:
Bulletin All. Ikt. 1884, 1900, 1901; M. Franco, Histoirc (ks
IsraelitcK de V Empire Uttoman, p. 206: FA Avenir di Salo-
nica. Dec. 31, 1902 ; Jacob Joseph Israel, Yismah Mosheh, Bel-
grade, 1896.
1). -M Fk.

THXJMS : The oldest and most important monthly
devoted to the science of Judaism. It was founded
by Zacharias Fr.\nkel in Dresden in the year 1851,
in continuation of his "Zeitschrift furdie Religiosen
Interessen des Judenthuins," which had been sup-
pressed in 1846. Frankel believed that the objects
striven for in the contest of 1848 had been attained,
and that the Jews no longer had separate political
interests. He therefore considered that the time had
arrived for them to undertake a scientific investiga-
tion of their history and literature.

The first seventeen volumes of the " Monatsschrift "
were edited by Frankel, who was succeeded by
the historian Heinrich Graetz. The latter edited
vols, xviii. to xxxvi. inclusive, being assisted by
Pinkus Fraukl of Berlin in vols, xxxiii. to xxxv.
Publication was stopped in 1887, but was resumed
in 1892, with M. Braun and David Kaufmann as
joint editors (vols, xxxvii. to xliii.). Upon Kauf-
mann's death (1899) Braun became sole editor. Since
Jan., 1904, the "Monatsschrift" has appeared as the
organ, of the Gesellschaft zur F5rderung der Wis-
senschaft des Judenthums.

The " Monatsschrift " was first published in Dres-
den. Some volumes were then issued at Krotoschin
and some at Berlin; but the greatest number ap-
peared in Breslau. A complete table of contents
for the first seventeen volumes is appended to vol.
xvii., and a similar table for the years 1869 to 1887
is given at the end of vol. xxxvi. This table has
been published separately also.
Bibliography: Monatsschrift, vol. 1., Preface; S. P. Rabbi-

novvitz, Zacharins Frankel (in Hebrew), pp. 143 et seq.,

Warsaw, 1898. An exhaustive criticism, by Atlas, of vol.

xxxiii. appears in Ha-Asif, ii. 432-450.

MONCALVO (Tl^pjID) : Small town in the prov-
ince of Alessandria, IMedmont, Italy. Jews settled
there after their expulsion from France. The com-
munity, like those of Asti and Fossano, long retained
the old French ritual, and still uses the Ger-
man Mahzorwith several additions from the French
rite. The history of the community is similar to
that of the other communities of Savoy. In 1866 it
contained 220 persons, including a large number of
artisans engaged in various trades, but it is now
considerably smaller. It formerly had various phil-
anthropic societies and foundations, ritual institu-
tions, etc. Joseph Lattes (d. 1880) officiated for a
time as rabbi.

Bibliography: Luzzatio. in Hoiifcot t^edem, p. 51: Idem,
Meho l6-Mahzor, p. ? ; Zunz, Hitiui, p. W ; Curriere Israe-
litico, Iv. 315.
G. L E.

MOND, LT7DWIG: English chemist; born at
Casscl, Germany, March 7, 1839; educated at the
Polytechnic School, Cassel, and at the universities
of Marburg and Heidelberg. In 1862 he went to
England and engaged in the Le Blanc soda indus-
try, introducing his process for recovering sulfur
from alkali waste. In 1873 he established, in part-
nership with T. T. Brunner, at Winnington, North-
wich, Cheshire, the manufacture of ammonia soda
by the Solvay process, which he has perfected; and
the works there now constitute the largest alkali
establishment in the world. Mond has patented
many inventions of great scientific and commercial
importance. He also founded and endowed the
Davy-Faraday Research Laboratory of the Royal
Institution in 1896.

Mond has held various high scientific positions.
He is fellow of the Royal Society ; a vice-president
of the Royal Institution ; vice-president of the
Chemical Society; ex-president of the Society of
Chemical Industry; and ex-president of the chem-
ical section of the British Association for the Ad-
vancement of Science (1896). He has written nu-
merous papers and addresses which have been pub-
lished in the transactions and proceedings of these
societies and institutions.

Bibliography: Who's Who, 1904: Jeivish Year Book, 1903.
.J, G. L.


See Liturgy.

MONEY. — Biblical Data : I. As far back as the
history of Israel can be traced, gold and silver were
used as standards of value and mediums of exchange,
and, as the Egyptian tribute-lists show, they were
thus employed in Canaan even before the Israelites
inhabited it. The general use of the word " kesef,"
meaning "silver," to designate money shows that
silver was the prevailing medium of exchange. Up
to the time of the Exile, and even later, the metals
were not coined, but were weighed (Ex. xxii. 16;
II Sam. xviii. 12; I Kings xx. 39; see Numismat-
ics). The scales and weights were carried about
with the precious metal in a bag attached to the
girdle (Deut. xxv. 13 et seq. ; Isa. xlvi. 6; Prov. xvi.
11). An adulteration or debasement of the value of
the precious metals bj' meansof certain alloys seems
not to have occurred; at least the practise was not
given any thought, and warnings are uttered only
against false measures (Deut. I.e. ; Lev. xix. 36).

To disprove the opinion that during the whole
period before the Exile coined money was unknown —
that is, money under state control in regard to
weight, purity, etc. — the passage in I Sam. ix. 8 is
cited. Here it is related that Saul's slave gave him
the fourth part of a shekel of silver, which he had
with him. The conclusion, however, that this is a
reference to coined money is too hasty. The only
inference to be drawn is that at the time M'hen the
author of I Sam. ix. lived silver pieces of a certain
weight may have existed and that they were cast
into certain shapes known to every one, in order to
obviate the necessity of weighing them at each




transaction. Perhaps the name for " talent " (" kik-
kar" — "ring") is derived from such forms, since
Egyptian documents show tliat it was quite usual
to cast the metals into such rings or into bars. These
forms were not found among the Assyrians, who,
however, used wedge-shaped pieces of gold, which
are mentioned in Josh. vii. 21.

For money, as for weight, the shekel was the
standard unit, the pieces of metal being either frac-
tions or multiples of the shekel. The
The struggle between the Egyptian deci-

Shekel. mal system and the sexagesimal meth-
od of the Babylonians first made itself
felt in regard to weights of gold and silver. The
Phenicians were probably the mediators ; and a mina
of 50 shekels was established as a standard. Ac-
cording to certain indications, the relative value of
gold to silver was as 10 to 1. Later, inconsequence
of the great increase in the supply of silver, the
relative value was as 40 to 3. This may, perhaps,
liave affected the possibility of introducing the sex-
agesimal system.

The gold shekel originally weighed ■s\j of a mina.
TJie silver shekel, to have had an equal value, must
have weighed y^ x 5^5 = f of a mina. As this would
have been impracticable for use, it was decided to
make a smaller piece, one more suitable for circula-
tion. Two methods presented themselves: (1) either
the silver equivalent of the gold shekel could be
divided into ten parts, in which case a silver shekel
of 5^ = jV of a shekel of weight would result; or (2)
the silver equivalent could be divided into fifteen
parts, in which case a silver shekel would weigh y|^
of a mina.

When the decimal system made its way into use,
the gold mina as well as tlie silver mina was
reckoned at 50 such shekels. Conse-
The Mina. quently there was (1) the Babylonian
silver mina, equivalent to |g = y- of
a mina of weight; (2) the Phenician silver mina,
equivalent to f gf = |f of a mina of weight.

In tiie earlier system of Babylonian silver values
(which was used also in the Lydian and Persian
kingdoms) the silver shekel was divided into thirds,
sixtlis, and twelfths, whereas in the Phenician sys-
tem it was divided into halves, fourths, eighths, etc.

The Phenician silver shekel is found among the
Jews also. This is proved by tlie fact that they
liad the same method of division: the quarter-
shekel appears in I Sam. ix. 8; the half-shekel is the
Temple-tax in the Priestly Code. , The sliekcls of
the Maccabean period which have been preserved
vary between 14.50 and 14.65 gr., which is exactly
jI- of the large "common" (see Wkigiits and
Measures) Babylonian mina. The mina accord-
ingly weighed 727.7 gr., and the talent 43,659 kg.

In the Persian period tlie Babylonian shekel,
equivalent to one-tenth of the mina of weight, came
into use, since Nehemiah (x. 33 [A. V. 32J) assessed
the Temple-tax at one-tliird of a shekel. This Per-
sian system of coinage had the small mina as a basis.
The unit was the siglos, which cor-
The Sig'los. responded to one-half of a Babylonian
shekel. The relation between it and
the Jewisii one was 3 to 8. It was considered as the
one-hundredth i)art of aminaand not the fiftieth. It

amounted to 5.61-5.73 gr. ; the mina7to 561-573 gr. ;
and the talent to 33,660-34,380 kg. In the Macca-
bean period the Phenician silver shekel was again in
use. Consequently the Temple-tax was again a
half-shekel (Matt. xvii. 24, 27).

II. Coined money did not come into use among
the Jews until the time of the Persians. In the Old
Testament, Persian darics (A. V. "drams") are men-
tioned in Ezra viii. 27 and I Cliron. xxix. 7 as "adar-
kon, " and in Ezra ii. 69 and Neh. vii. 70-72 as " darke-
mon." They weighed 8.40 gr., thus corresponding
almost exactly to one-sixtieth of the Babylonian
light mina. The corresponding silver coin was one-
twentieth of the daric; which, perhaps, was meant
by the term "shekel" in Neh. v. 15, x. 33. See Nu-


BiBMOGRAPHT : Benzinger, Hehrilisclie Arcliilologic. pp.
189-198: Madden, Coins 0/ t/ie Jeu'.s, London, 1881 ; Nowack,
Lchrhucli der Hehriimfien Arcliilolouie, 1894; Herzfeld,
Handelfpeschichte der Judcn dcft Altei'thumx, Brunswick,
1879, pp. 171-18.1 ; F. de Saulcy, Rccherchefi sur la Nuiu i.tma-
tiqiie Judniqiic, 1854; Levy, Oescliichte der JUdischen
MUuzoi, 18«2.

E. G. H. W. N.

In Rabbinical Literature: In conformity

with the unvarying usage of the Mosaic law, the
Mishnah (B. M. iv. 1) treats both gold and copper
coins as commodities when they come to be ex-
changed for silver coins (see Alienation); but the
Gemara upon this section gives a glimpse into the
history of the battle of the gold and silver stand-
ards, which raged with varying fortunes from the
(lays of Hillel and Shammai, in King Herod's time,
to the compilation of the ^lishnah by Rabbi. Sham-
mai's leading disciple, H. Hiyya, addresses him:
" Rabbi, you teach us now in your old age that gold
[as a commodity] gives title to silver; but when you
were young you taught us the contrary ! " In the
discussion that follows the IMishnah is referred to
(Ma'as. Sh. ii. 7). The school of Shammai says:
" A man must not turn shekels into gold denarii [for
transport of second tithe to Jerusalem]." The
school of Hillel permitted it. The former school
seemed to look on gold as a commodity, at least as
compared with silver; the latter school was willing,
for this purpose, at least, to trea^ both alike as
money, if not to give gold a preference over silver.
The Ilillelites seemingly yielded to the Roman in-
fiuence of their time, which maintained the gold

The gold denarius passed generally for twent}'-
five silver denarii — that is, 6^ shekels. It is urged
in favor of gold as the true money that it was usual
in the redemption of the first-born son for the
father to give a gold denarius to the kohen, and for
the latter to return five ziiz, or silver denarii, in
cliange, though the rate of exchange between silver
and gold at tlie time might be such as to make the
former worth either more or less than twenty-five of
the latter. Another point is made in a responsum
by R. Hiyya himself, that a loan made in gold may
be recovered in gold, though it has risen in ex-
change value, without violating the law against
usury (B. M. 44b-45b). Rabbi, as most of the in-
tervening jiatriarchs, wasoneof Ilillel's descendants,
and naturally followed his teachings. It was prob-
ably a change in the Roman currencv laws and la




the habits of business which induced him in his later
years to reestablish the old silver standard among

the Jews.
8. L. N. D.


MONIES, DAVID : Danish portrait and genre
painter; born in Copenhagen June 3, 1812; died
there April 29, 1894. He was admitted to the
school of the Academy of Arts in 1824, and was
twice (1827 and 1832) awarded silver medals for
meritorious work. In 1830 he began painting, pro-
ducing and exhibiting portraits of eminent contem-

In 1833 Monies produced "En Kunstner som
spOger med en Bondepige." In 1835 he went to
Munich, and in the following year 400rix-dollarsper
annum was awarded to him from the public funds
to enable him to continue his studies abroad. In
1848 he was elected a member of the Danish Acad-
emy of Arts, and in 1859 he received the title of
professor. Among other paintings by Monies, the
following may be mentioned: "To B5ru ved et
Vandiob,"1838; "Erindringfra Danseboden," 1849;
" Konfirmanden " ; " Pengebrevet " ; " En Skovtur "
(in the royal gallery at Copenhagen). Monies es-
sayed also historical painting, and his " Episode af
Troppernes Hjemkomst," 1850, vividly expresses
the feeling of joy mingled with sadness which ani-
mated the Danish people on the occasion of the home-
coming of the troops after the Three Years' war.
This painting is in the museum in Frederiksborg Cas-
tle. Monies was less fortunate in the large pictures
in which he depicted scenes from the history of the
Jewish people.

Bibliography: C. F. Brlcka, Dansk Btograflsk LexiMn;
Weilbach, Nut KuiistnerUxicon.
s. F. C.

MONIS, JUDAH : American scholar. Hannah
Adams in her " History of the Jews " says that he
was born in Algiers about 1683, and that he died in
North borough, Mass., in 1764; while Josiah Quincy
in his " History of Harvard University " gives the
year of his birth as 1680 and that of his death as
1761. Little is known of his early career. He is
said to have received his education in Italy, and to
have emigrated to Boston in the early part of the
eighteenth century (Adams, I.e.). The first event of
his life of which there is authentic record is his bap-
tism (xMarch 27, 1722) in the College Hall at Cam-
bridge, Mass. After that he was an active and
energetic worker in the cause of his new faith, al-
though he observed throughout his life the Jewish
Sabbath. He held the appointment of instructor
in Hebrew at the university from 1722 till 1759,
when, on the death of his wife, he resigned and
removed to Northborough.

On the occasion of his baptism, after the sermon
of tiie officiating clergyman, he delivered a discourse
in which he formulated and defended his confession
of faith. The title of this address (printed by S.
Kneeland for O. Henchman "at the Corner Shop on
the South Side of the Town House," Boston, 1722) is:
" The Truth, Being a Discourse which the Author
delivered at his Baptism, Containing Nine Principal
Arguments the Modern Jewish Rabbins do make to
VIII.— 42

prove the Messiah is j'et to Come ; With the Answers
to each . . . not only according to the Orthodox
Opinion, but even with the Authority of their own
Authentick Rabbins of Old, and Likewise, With the
Confession of his Faith, at the Latter End. Dedi-
cated to the Jewish Nation and Prefac'd by the Rev-
erend Increase Mather, D.D." Monis was the author
also of two short essays, both treating of the same
subject as his address.

In 1735 he published in Boston the first Hebrew
grammar printed in America. It bore the title:
" Dickdook Leshon Gnebreet. A Grammar of the He-
brew Tongue, Being an Essay To bring the Hebrew
Grammar into English to Facilitate the Instruc-
tion of all those who are desirous of acquiring a
clear idea of this Primitive Tongue by their own
studies; In order to their more distinct Acquaint-
ance with the Sacred Oracles of the Old Testament,
according to the Original. And Published more
especially for the Use of the Students of Harvard
College at Cambridge, in New England."

BiBLiofiRAPHY : Joseph Leboylch, Judah Mnnis, In Jewish
Comment, Baltimore, Aug. 22, 1903; Hannah Adams, His-
tory of the Jews, London, 1818 ; Josiah Quincy, History of
Harvard Universilv, Cambridge, Mass., 1840 ; G. A. Kohut,
in American Journal of Semitic Languages, xiv. 217 etseq.;
Publ. Am. Jew. Hist. Soc, i. 10, 423 ; x. 32.
T. F. T. H.

MONOGAMY: In Judaism the Law tolerated
though it did not enact polygamy ; but custom stood
higher than the Law. From the period of the re-
turn from the Babylonian Exile, monogamy became
the ideal and the custom of Jewish married life.
That monogamy was the ideal may be seen from
several facts. Not only does the narrative of Gen-
esis, containing the story of the first man and woman,
point to monogamy, but Gen. ii. 24 is best explained
in the same sense. So, too, in the
Monogainy story of the Flood, in which the res-
the Jew- toration of the human race is depicted,
ish Ideal, the monogamous principle is as-
sumed. Also the polygamous mar-
riages of some of the patriarchs are felt by the nar-
rator (J) to need excuse and apology, as being
infringements of a current monogamous ideal.
Even more unmistakable is the monogamous ideal
displayed in the Wisdom literature. The " Golden
A B C of the Perfect Wife " in Prov. xxxi. 10-31
is certainly monogamous; in fact, throughout the
Book of Proverbs " monogamy is assumed " (Toy,
"Proverbs," p. xii. ; comp. Cheyne, "Job and Solo-
mon," p. 136). Ben Sira, moreover, as well as Tobit,
confirms this conclusion (comp. History of Susanna
23, 69), though, while Ben Sira's view of woman is
lower on the whole than that of the canonical Prov-
erbs, Tobit's is quite as high as the highest ideal.
Job is monogamous. So is the Song of Solomon.
Harper gives a most convincing argument in
this sense in his edition of the Song of Solomon
(Cambridge, 1902; comp. especially pp. xxxi.
and xxxiv.).

From another side the monogamous ideal is illus-
trated by the prophetic use of marriage as typical
of the relation between God and Israel. In this
sense monogamy becomes the corollary of the divine
Unity (comp. Hamburger, "R. B. T." i., s.v. "Viel-
weiberei "). It is a commonplace of prophetic im-




agery to describe God as the husband and Israel as
the bride (comp. Hosea, passtyn ; the exquisite passage
Jer. ii. 2; also ib. iii. 14, xxxi. 32), in contrast to idol-
atry, which is typical of impure married life (Isa.
liv. 5, and many other passages). Infidelity toward
God is expressed under the figure of whoredom (see
Driver on Deut. xxxi. 16). The same figure of the
relation of God to Israel passed over to the later Ju-
daism; and a similar figure is prominent in Chris-
tianity also.

As to the Law, the facts have already been treated
in part under Bigamy. Monogamy was not legally
enforced. In the case of the Levirate Makuiage,
monogamy was legally invaded; otherwise, polyg-
amy was merely tolerated and not set up as a laud-
able rule. But on the otlier hand the Law made sev-
eral provisions which are of a nature to act as bars
to polygamy. By positively prohibiting an Israelite
eunuch-class (Deut. xxiii. 1) the possibility of the
large Oriental harem was much d'-
Legal minished (see, however. Eunuch).
Aspects. Royal license in the matter of polyg-
amy is denounced (Deut. xvii. 17),
and in later times it is chiefiy the un-Jewish Herod
who is represented as having a large harem. The
high priest, in the traditional explanation of Lev.
xxi. 13, was restricted to one wife (Yoma i. 1 ; Yeb.
59a; Maimonides, "Yad," Lssure Biah, xvii. 13).
Perhaps the most effective deterrent of polygamy
was the equality of rights established among a
man's wives if he took more than one. The law of
Ex. xxi. 10, "if he take himself another wife, her
food, her raiment, and her duty of marriage, he
shall not diminish," must in ancient as in medieval
times have made polygamy unattractive, if not im-
possible, except to the very wealthy (comp. Luck-
ock, "History of Marriage," 1894, pp. 13 et seq.).
Again, the law of inheritance, by which the child
of a second and favorite wife could not be preferred
to the child of a less-beloved wife, must have stood as
a bar to a second marriage. This law (Deut. xxi.
15), by its use of the terms " hated " and " beloved "
of the two wives, also gives incidentally the main
social objection to polygamy, namely, the difficulty
of maintaining under a polygamous regime cordial
relations within the liome (Nowack, "HebrUische
Archaologie," i. 159). It is certain that polygamy
did not largely prevail in Israel {ib. 158). Until
strict monogamy generally established itself after
the Exile, the Jew had for the most part only
one wife, with, perhaps, a secondary consort of
lower status (a similar custom is revealed by the
code of Hammurabi; see Johns in Hastings, "Diet.
Bible," extra vol.. p. 599a).

It was the consideration of the difficulty of main-
taining a happy home-life that practically abrogated
polygamy among the Jews after the Exile. The
ideal of Jewish family life is very high in the Wis-
dom literature ; and the ideal continually rose with
subsequent centuries. Giidemaun rightly sees in
this argument the strongest evidence of the monog-
amous condition of the Jews for centuries before
monogamy was legally enforced (comp. Glidemann,
"Das Judenthum," 1902, pp. 7 et seq.). It may be
clearly seen from Ps. cxxviii., in which the do-
mestic happiness of the monogamist God fearer is

depicted. This psalm has thus been appropriately
introduced into the Church marriage service, as
well as into the Synagogue processional for the
Bridegroom of the Law.

That polygamy survived into the Christian era
is, however, asserted by Josephus ("Ant." xvii. 1,
§2); and he himself ("Vita," § 75) seems to have
had one wife in Palestine and another
Josephus in Egypt (comp. Low, " Gesanimelte
and the Schriften," iii. 47). Such a practise is
Talmud, forbidden by a baraita in Yeb. 37a ; and
this prohibition is (with certain limita-
tions) introduced into the Shulhan 'Aruk (Eben ha-
'Ezer, ii. 11). The Talmud certainly does not enact
monogamy (see Bigamy); and as far as the Law is
concerned, Justin Martyr ("Dial. cumTryph." t^ 134)
is not wrong in asserting that in his time (2d cent.
c.E.) Jews were permitted to have four or five
wives. But it is very doubtful whether they availed
themselves of the permission. Frankel ("Gruud-
linien des Mosaisch-Talmudischen Eherechts," 1860)
maintains the prevalence of monogamy ; and his

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 162 of 169)