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within twenty-four hours. In 1890 he merged the
various hebras in llie East End of London in the
Federation of Synagogues, of wliicli he became the
first president.

In the general community Sir Samuel is or has



been a justice of the peace for Loudon and Hamp-
shire; deputy lieutenant for the Tower Hamlets;
member of the Gold and Silver Commission (1887-
1890); and member of Parliament in the Liberal in-
terest for the Whitechapel Division of the Tower
Hamlets (1885-1900). He was created a baronet by
.>Ir. Gladstone in 1894. In Oct., 1900, he contested
unsuccessfully the parliamentary seat for Central
Leeds. He has taken great interest in the proposal
to introduce decimal coinage into England.

Bibliography : Banker's Magazine, Sept., 1888 ; Jew. Chrnn.
Aug. .5. 1892; Sept. 28, 1800.

.T. G. L.

MONTALBAN: City in Aragon ; not to be con-
fused with Montalban in Castile, in the archbishop-
ric of Toledo, which was also inhabited b}' Jews.
jVIontalban possessed a Jewish community as early
as the fourteenth century. In 1306 the governor of
the place received permission to admit ten Jewisli
families which had been expelled from France. He
was then given charge of the Jews and was empoAV-
ered to adjust all their litigations. At the disputa-
tion in Tortosa tlie Montalban community was rep-
resented by Abu Ganda. A certain Jacob of Mont-
alban died a martyr at Ancona in 1556.

Bibliography: Isaac b. Sheshet, Respnnsa. § 510; Shehet
Yelindfili, p. 68 ; K. E. J. xi. ISi; Jacobs, Sources, Nos. 7-59',
109.5, 1197.
.T. M. K.

MONTALTO, FILOTHEO ELIAU (ELI-
JAH) : Portuguese physician; born at Castello
Branco in the middle of the sixteenth century ; died
at Tours, France, in 1616. According to Kayser-
ling (■' Die Juden in Navarra," p. 146), Montalto was
a brother of the physician Ainatus Lusitanus; but
this supposition is not sufficientlj' corroborated to
make it probable.

Montalto was brought up b)' his Marauo parents
in the Jewish religion, and to this he remained
faithful during his entire life. Having graduated as
physician, he left his native country, where he was
always exposed to the rigors of the Inquisition, and
went to Italy. He settled first at Leghorn {c. 1598),
and several years later at Venice. In the latter city
he made the acquaintance of Concino Concini, on
whose recommendation he was invited by ^laria de
Medici to come as phy.sician to the French court.
Montalto had declined many high positions in Italy
— chief among them being that of successor to the
renowned Mercurial in the University of Padua —
because he feared that if he accepted them he would
not be able to perform his religious obligations. In
accepting Maria de Medici's invitation, therefore, he
made it a condition that he should have complete
religious freedom, and l)e exemjit from any service
on Saturday, although the rabbis of Venice decided
that in cases of emergency lie might travel on that
day.

Montalto, who became a general favorite, was ap-
pointed councilor ; and he remained at the French
court until his death, whicii ofcurred suddenly while
lie wasaccompauying Louis XIII. to Tours. Maria
de Medici caused the body to be cmlialmed, and
sent it, accompanied by Morteira and certain of Mont-
alto's relatives, to Amsterdam for burial.

Montalto was considered a higli authorit}', not



663



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Hontag-u
Hontenore



only in medicine but in all branches of science.
Among bis numerous works on medicine the most
important were; (1) "Optica Intra Pbilosophioe et
Medicinfe Aream de Visa, de Visus Organo et Ob-
jecto Theor. Accurate Complectens" (Florence, 1606) ;
(2) " Arcbipathologia in Qua Internarum Capitis
AlTectionum, Essentia, CaussE Signa, Prtesagia, et
Curatio Accuratissiraaludagine Disseruutur " (Paris,
1614; St. Gervais, 1618; Nuremberg, 1686); (3)" Con-
sultatioues Medicie Itemque de Sensu et Sensato
Super Aristotelem " (1614). Montalto was the author
also of the following polemical works, still extant
in manuscript: (1) " Sobre el Capitulo 53 de Ezayas
e Outros Textos da Sagrada Escritura," divided into
three parts (Columbia University [New York] MS.) ;
(2) "Livro Fayto . . . em Que Mostra a Verdade
de Diversos Textos, e Cazos, Que AlegaoasGentili-
dades para Confirmar Suas Seictas" (Wolf, "Bibl.
Hebr." iii. 104); (3) " Razonamiento del Seiior H.
M .... em Paris, por Mandado del Rey Enrique
IV. Delante de los Mayores Teologos y Doctores de
Su Corte."

Bibliography: Barrios, Relacion de Ins Poetas y Escritores
Espannles dela Nacinn Jvdayca, p. o5; Manasseh ben Is-
rael. Milfweh Yisrciel, p. 57; Griitz, Gesch. ix. 485-490; Kay-
serling, Bibl. Esp.-Port.-Jnd. p. 73.
D. I. Br.

MONTANA : One of the northwestern states of
the American Union. It was organized as a territory
in 1864, and admitted as a state in 1889. It has the
following Jewish communities : Helena, the capital
of the state, with a benevolent association founded
in 1872 and a congregation, Emanu-El, founded in
1887. Its rabbi is Jacob Mielziner. Helena has
also a social club and a ladies' auxiliary society.
Butte, with two congregations. Of the oldej;, tlie
B'uai Israel, founded in 1897, the present rabbi is
Harry Weiss; the community has a Hebrew benevo-
lent association founded in 1881. Anaconda, with
a congregation, B'nai Israel. A.

MONTAUBAN, B. ELIEZEB. See Dau

PIIINE.

MO]yTE DI PIETA. See Pawnbrokers.

MONTEFIOBE : Anglo-Jewish family which
derives its name from a town in Italy. In 1856 there
were three towns so named in the Pontifical States,
but from which of the three the family came is not
definitely known. As far back as 1630 the Monte-
fiores were settled at Ancona as merchants. From
Ancona they, or some of them, seem to have gone to
Leghorn. Thither, about the end of the seven-
teenth or the commencement of the eighteenth
century, Judah Montefiore went, and was taken
into business by his uncle, Isach Vita Montefiore.
Judah married a daughter of the Medinas, by whom
he had four sons. The third son, Moses Vita
(Haim) Montefiore, married, in 1752, Esther Han-
nah, daughter of ]Massahod Racah, a Moorish mer-
chant of Leghorn. Moses had seventeen children.
The third, Samuel, married Grace, daughter of
Abraham Mocatta, and became the grandfather of
Haim Guedalla. The fourth, Joseph Ellas, was
the father of Sir Moses ]VIontefiore. The seventh,
Eliezer, married a granddaughter of Simon Bar-
row of Amsterdam, and emigrated to the West In-
dies. He became the father of Joseph Barrow



Montefiore (1803-93) and Jacob Montefiore (1801-95),
both of whom were among the early pioneers of
Australia. But the most notable was the sixth son,
Joshua, who had seven children by a second mar-
riage.

Abraham Montefiore : Stock-broker ; born in
London 1788; died at Lyons 1824; son of Joseph
Elias Montefiore and brother of Sir Moses Monte-
fiore, with whose commercial career he was after-
ward identified. He first adopted a trade and was
apprenticed to Mr. Flower, silk-merchant of Wat-
ling street. In the silk trade he realized a small
fortune, but being ambitious to push forward more
rapidl}', he joined his l)n)ther Moses in business; the
firm of Montefiore Brothers thus formed carried on
business in Shorters' court, Throgmorton street.

Montefiore was exceptionally fortunate on the
Stock Exchange and left behind him a very large
fortune. In 1824 he died at Lyons, on his way
home from Cannes, whither he had gone for the
reestablishment of his health. He was twice mar-
ried: by his first wife, a daughter of George Hall
of the London Stock Exchange, he had one daugh-
ter, Mary, who married Benjamin Mocatta; and by
his second wife, Henrietta Rothschild, he had two
sons and two daughters.

BiBr.iofjRAPiiY: L. Wolf, Life of Sir Moses Montefiore, pp.
VS, !.'>. IH, :.'5, London, 18H5.

Charlotte Montefiore : Authoress; born in Lon-
don 1818; died there July 2, 1854. She took an
active part in the Jewish Ladies' Benevolent Loan
and Vi-siting Society as well as in the Jewish Emi-
gration Society, of which she was one of the found-
ers. She was the active friend of the Jews' Free
School, the Jews' Infant School, the West Metropol-
itan School, and of many other educational estab-
lishments. Her reading was extensive, especially in
moral and ethical philo.sophy. She was a contribu-
tor to many publications calculated to improve and
elevate Jewish youth. For the "Cheap Jewish Li-
brary" she wrote "The Way to Get Rich," "Tlie
Birthday," "Caleb Asher," etc. ; she wrote also "A
Few Words to the Jews" (London, 1851).

BIBLIOGRAPHY: Jew. Citron. July 14, 1854: Kayserling, Die
JlhUsclicn Fraueyi. pp. 275-270.

Claude Goldsmid Montefiore : English scholar
and philanthropist; younger son of Nathaniel Mon-
tefiore; born in 1858. He was educated at Baliiol
College, Oxford, where he obtained a first class in
the classical final examination, and where he came
under the influence of Jowctt and T. H. Green. In-
tended originally for the ministry of the Reform
congregation of England, he studied theology in
Berlin, but finding himself unable to sympathize
with the arrest of the Reform Movement, he devoted
himself instead to scholarly and philanthropic pur-
suits. He nevertheless continued to be a spiritual
teacher and preacher, tiiough in a lay capacity, and
published a volume of sermons, in conjunction with
Israel Abrahams, entitled "Aspects of Judaism"
(London, 1894). In 1886 he was selected by the
Hibbert trustees to deliver the Ilibbert course of
lectures for 1892 ("The Origin of Religion as Illus-
trated by the Ancient Hebrews"). In these lec-
tures Montefiore made a permanent contribution to
the science of theology. In 1896 he published the



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Hontefiore



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



666



first volume of bis "Bible for Home Reading,"
forming a commentary on the Bible with moral re-
flections from the standpoint of the "higiier criti-
cism"; the second volume appeared in 1899. In
1890 Montefiore founded and edited, in conjunction
■with Israel Abrahams, the "Jewish Quarterly Re-
view," a journal that stood on the very highest
level of contemporary Jewish scholarship, and in
which numerous contributions from his pen have
appeared.

Montefiore is one of the leading authorities on
questions of education; he was for some time a
member of the School Board for Loudon, and he is
(1904) president of tlie Froebel Society and the Jews'
Infant School, London, and a member of numer-
ous other educational bodies. Montefiore has been
mainly instrumental in enabling Jewish pupil teach-
ers at elementary schools to enjoy the advantages of
training in classes held for the purpose at the uni-
versities; he is on the council of Jews' College and
of the Jewish Religious Education Board. He
ranks as one of the leading philanthropists in the
Anglo-Jewish community and holds office in vari-
ous important bodies. He was elected president of
the Anglo-Jewish Association in 1895, and he is a
prominent member of the Council of the Jewish
Colonization A.ssociation.

Montefiore has shown great sympathy with all
liberal tendencies in Jewish religious movements in
London and is president of the recently formed Jew-
ish Religious L^nion. He was president of the Jew-
ish Historical Society in 1899-1900.
Bibliography: J. Jacobs, in Youug Israel. June, 1897.

J. G. L.

Sir Francis Abraham Montefiore (Bar!.): Eng-
lish communal worker and Zionist ; son of Joseph
M. ^lontefiore, president of the Board of Deputies;
born Oct. 10, 1860. In 1886 he took up the bar-
onetcy previously held by Sir Moses Montefiore.
He became high sheriff of the county of Kent in
1894, and of Sussex in 1895. He is chairman of the
executive committee of the English Zionist Federa-
tion and has represented the English section at re-
cent Zionist congresses. ]\Iontefiore was recently
elected chairman of Elders of the Spanish and Por-
tuguese congregation.

BiBt.iooRAPHV: JeicinJi Year Book (London). 'jfi.iO ( = 1898-
l^*99).
J. V. E.

Jacob Montefiore : Merchant ; l)orn in Bridge-
town, England, Nov. 23, 1801; died Nov. 3, 1895.
He entered into business with his brother Moses,
and Avhen in the early thirties the movement for
the financing of Australian colonization from Lon-
don was incepted ^Slontefiorc. who had been con-
nected with tlie Colonial produce trade, became
active in the various public schemes as a member of
the South Australian Colonization Association, or-
ganized to settle South Australia on the Wakefield
system. He was also appointed member of the first
board of commissioners entrusted l)y the Briti.sh
government with the administration of the colony.
He visited the colony in the year 1843 and again in
1854. His reception on his first visit by the gov-
ernor. Sir George Grey, and the people was enthu-
siastic. . During liis visit to South Australia in 1843



he acted as an agent for the Rothschilds, at the same
time holding a partnership with his brother Joseph
Barrow in the firm of Montefiore Brothers of Lou-
don and Sydney. The township of Montefiore, at
the confiuence of the Bell and MacQuarrie rivers, in
Wellington Valley, was founded by the brothers,
and they contributed actively to the establishment
there of places of worship for all denominations.
The organization of the Bank of Australasia was
largely due to their efforts. In Adelaide there is a
hill named after them. In 1885, at the request of
the directors of the Art Union Gallery of Adelaide,
Jacob sat for the artist B. S. Marks, the portrait
being hung in that gallerv.
.r. ' T. Se.

Jacob Isaac Levi Montefiore : Australian mer-
chant; son of Isaac Levi and Esther Hannah Levi
(daughter of Eliezer Montefiore) ; born at Bridge-
town, Barbados, Jan. 11, 1819; died at Norwood,
London, 1885. In 1837 he proceeded to Sydney,
where he assumed his mother's maiden name. There
he became one of the leading merchants and took an
active part in the development of the city. In 1857
he was nominated a member of the first legislative
council of the colony of New South Wales. He
acted as president of the chamber of commerce, and
was for many years a director of the Bank of Aus-
tralasia. In 1876 he left Australia and .settled in
England, where he became a director of the Queens-
land National Bank, the Queensland Investment
Company, and several other important commercial
undertakings. One of his brothers is Edward Levi
Montefiore, a member of the financial house of
Cahen d' An vers et Cie., and another, George Levi
Montefiore, of Brussels, is a member of the Bel-
gian Senate; both are still living (1904).

Bibliography: Jeu-it<h World, Jan. 30 and Feb. 2, 1885.
J. I. H.

Joseph Barrow Montefiore : Merchant; son of
Eliezer Montefiore; born in London June 24, 1803;
(lied at Brighton, England, Sept. 4, 1893. In 1826,
during the mayoralty of Sir AVilliam Magnay, he be-
came one of the twelve "Jew brokers" in the city
of London, jiurchasing the privilege for £1,500. He
did not remain long in the city, but seized a favor-
able opportunity of emigrating to Australia, where
several meml)ers of his family were already settled.
In New South Wales he traded in purtner.ship with
his brother and made many fortunate speculations
in town allotments. lie helped to fnund the town-
ship of Montefiore and the Bank of Australasia, and
was one of the chief agents in the organization of
the Jewish congregation in Sydney. In 1832 he
obtained a grant of land from the government for a
Jewish buriali)lace. At the same time he helped to
organize the society which developed into the Syd-
ney Hebrew Congregation. On retiring from busi-
ness Montefiore settled in London and joined the
Reform Congregation.
BiBLionuAPiiv : ./« ic. ('Iii-i»i. and Jew. Worbl. Sept., 1893.

Joseph Elias Montefiore : Son of Closes Vita
(Haim) Montefiore; born in London 1759; married
Rachel Mocatta (1783). He became the father of
tliree sons and five daughters, the eldest son being
Sir Moses Montefiore. The second son, Abraham,



667



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Montefiore



•was twice married, and by his second wife, Hen-
rietta Rotliscliild, became tlie fatlier of Joseph Mayer
(father of Sir Francis Montefiore), Nathaniel (father
of Claude G. Montefiore), Charlotte (d. 1854: author
of " A Few Words to tlie Jews "), and Louisa
(afterward Iiady Anthony de Rothschild). The
third son, Horatio (1798-1867), became a merchant
in London, and was one of the principal founders of
the London Reform Community (1841). He married
a daughter of David Mocatta, by whom he had six
sons and six daughters. The youngest of these
sons, Emanuel Montefiore (b. 1842), became a
lieutenant-colonel in the Royal Artillery, assistant
secretary of the London Charity Organization Soci-
ety, commandant of the Jewish Lads' Brigade, and
a member of the council of the West London Re-
form Synagogue.

Of the daughters of Joseph Montefiore the eldest,
Sarah, married Solomon Sebag of London ; she be-
came the mother of Joseph Sebag, afterward Sir
Joseph Sebag-Montefiore (1822-1903), who had three
sons— Arthur (father of Robert Sebag-Monte-
fiore), Cecil, and Edmund. Surah had also live
daughters: Jemima (married Halm Guedalla), Es-
ther (died prematurely), Abigail (wife of Benjamin
Gompertz, the mathematician), Rebecca (married
Joseph Salomons, brother of the late Sir David Salo-
mons), and Justina (married Benjamin Cohen, father
of Arthur Cohen and Lioutd Benjamin Cohen).

Bibliography: Lncien Wolf, iiYe of Sir Moses Montefiore,
Loudon, 1883; Jew. Chron. April 28, 1876.
J. I. H.

Joseph Mayer Montefiore : English communal
worker ; nephew of Sir Moses Moutefioj-e ; born in
London May 10, 1816 ; died there Oct. 9, 1880. In
1844 he was elected a member of the Board of Dep-
uties, London, as one of the representatives of the
Spanish-Portuguese congregation. He retired from
the office in 1853, but was reelected in 1857. In
1858 he became vice-president of the board, acting
«s president during the absence abroad of Sir Moses,
whom he succeeded, Oct., 1874. Montefiore was
elected treasurer of the Spanish-Portuguese Syna-
gogue in 1846, and warden in 1851. He was a lib-
eral subscriber to and took much interest in the char-
itable and educational institutions connected with
the congregation. He was a director of the Alli-
ance Insurance Compauj' for twenty-three years, and
acted for some years as director of the National
Provincial Bank of Ireland. He was a justice of
the peace and deputy-lieutenant for Sussex, and
served as liigh sheriff of that county in 1870.
Bibliography : Jew. Cln-on. and Jew. Tl'oj/d, Oct. 15, 1880.

Sir Joseph Sebag-Montefiore : Stock-broker ;
son of Solomon Sebag and Sarah, eldest sister of
Sir Moses Montefiore; born in 1822: died at London
Jan. 18, 1903. On succeeding (1885) to the estateof
his maternal uncle he assumed the name of ]\Iontefiore
by royal license. He was one of the leading mem-
bers of the London Stock Exchange, on which he
amassed a large fortune.

He was a justice of the peace for Kent and the
Cinque Ports and lieutenant of the city of London;
and in 1889 he served as high sheriff for Kent.
He was for many years a leading member of the
Spanish-Portuguese congregation and was presi-



dent of the elders of that body. In 1895 he became
president of the Board of Deputies, after having
been vice-president for many years; and in 1896 he
was appointed by the King of Italy Italian consul-
general in London. He was knighted in 1896.

Bibliography: Jeiv. Chron. May S'.J, 1896; Jewish Year
Book (London), 5659 ( = 1898-99).

Joshua Montefiore : English lawyer, soldier,
and journalist; born in London Aug. 10, 1762; died
at St. Albans, Vt., Jude 26, 1843. After graduating
at Oxford he studied law and was admitted to the
bar in 1784. Y/hile practising in London he attained
considerable success as an author, his " Connnercial
Dictionary " being regarded as the standard work of
its kind. In 1791 he joined a band of adventurers
under Moses Ximenes, who purposed establishing a
colony on the coast of Africa; Montefiore took
charge of the military side of the expedition. The
party occupied the Island of Bulama and raised the
British flag ; but after several conflicts with the na-
tives, they were compelled to withdraw. Of this
early attempt at African colonization he has left a
lively account. Before the settlement was broken
up Montefiore attempted to establish schools for the
children of his companions. On his return to Eng-
land he declined the honor of knighthood and entered
the army as a captain, being the first Jew to hold a
military commission in England. He was present
as an officer of the York Light Infantry at the taking
of Martinique and Guadalupe in 1809. After serv-
ing in various parts of the world, he resigned his
commission and emigrated to the United States; foi
some time he published and edited in New York
"Men and Measures," a weekly political journal; he
afterward took up his residence at St. Albans, Vt.

Montefiore published : " Commercial Dictionary "

(1803); "Commercial and Notarial Precedents"

(1804); "Trader's Compendium"; "United States

Trader's Compendium " : " Law of Copyright " ;

"Synopsis of Mercantile Laws" (1830); "Law and

Treatise on Bookkeeping" (1831); "Laws of Land

and Sea" (1881).

Bibliography : Jew. World, Oct. 31. 1884 : L. Wolf, Centen-
)ual Bio(i. of Sir Moses Montefiore, London. 18JH: Cyelope-
din of American Dioy.

Lady Judith Montefiore : Wife of Sir Moses
Montefiore; daughter of Levi Barent Cohen: born
in London in 1784; died Oct. 1, 1862. She was an
accomplished linguist and musician. She married
Moses Montefiore in 1812. For thirteen years they
lived at New Court, Saint Swithiu's Lane, London.
Her prudence and intelligence influenced all her
husband's undertakings, and when he retired from
business the administration of his fortune in phil-
anthropic endeavors was largely directed by her.
Lady Montefiore accompanied her husband in all his
foreign missions up to 1859, and was the beneficent
genius of his memorable expeditions to the Hoi}'



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 164 of 169)