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Land, Damascus, St. Petersburg, and Rome. By
her linguistic abilities she was enabled to materially
assist her husband in iiis self-imposed tasks. Dur-
ing the journey to Russia, in 1846, she was indefat-
igable in her efforts to alleviate the miserj' she saw
everywhere around her. The wife and daughter of
the Russian governor paid her a ceremonious visit
and expressed the admiration she had inspired among



Montefiore



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



668



all classes. Her sympathies were greatly widened
by travel; two journals of some of these travels
were published anonymously by her. The last years
of her life were spentalternately in London and Rams-
gate. At her death iSir Moses founded in her memory
the Judith Moutetiore College at the latter place.

Bibliography: Lurien Wolf, Life of Sir Mnsex Mnnteptrc,
pp 18i>-:iW; Morals, Eminent Ixraeliles, pp. 240-242; Jew.
Chron. Oct. 3, 1862; KayserlinR, Die Jildischen Frauen. pp.
272-275, a)8: L. Loewe, Diaries of Sir Moses and Ladij
Montefiore, 1890.
J. ^ ^•

Leonard Montefiore : English author and piii-
lanthropist; brother of Claude G. Montefiore; born
in London May 4, 1853;
died at Newport Sept. G,
1879; educated at Balliol
College, Oxford, where
he came under tiie intlu-
euce of Jowett, T. H.
Green, and of his fellow
student Arnold Toynbec.
Even before he left col-
lege he had contributed
to some of the principal
periodicals, as " The
Nineteenth Century "
and "The Fortnightly
Review," and was at the
time of his death devo-
ting himself to the study
of the German struggle
for emancipation, on
which he published some
preliminary essays.
Montefiore was associ-
ated with many philan-
thropic movements, es-
pecially with the move-
ment for women's
emancipation. His
"Literary Remains"
were privately printed
by his family after liis
death (1880).

BrBLiOGRAPHY: Memoir in
his Literarii Reniaiif:
AthenctumtiudEramiiifi.
Sept. 13, 187i); Wowoi'^
Union Journal, Nov. ^ lS7!t;
Jew. Chrnn. and Jin-.
World, Sept. 12, 1879.

J.




Sir Moses Monte-
fiore (Bart.): Eiiglisii
philanthropist; born in
Leghorn, Italy. Oct. 28,

1784; died at Rumsgate, England, July 25, 18S.5.
Moses Hayyim Montefiore and his wife, botli of Leg-
horn, settled in London in the middle of tlie eigiit-
ecnth century. One of llieir seventeen children, Jo-
seph Elias Montefiore, took liis young wife, Hacliel,
daughter of Abraham Lumbrosode Mattos Moeatta.
on a business journey to Legiiorn, where their eldest
fliild, Moses, the subject of this article, was born.
On their return they lived at Kenningtoii, where
Moses went to school and was apprenticed to a pro-
vision merchant. Later lie entered a counting-house



in the city of London, and ultimately became one
of the twelve Jewish brokers then licensed by the
city. His career was not entirely un-
Je-wish. checkered by adversity. In 1806 he
Broker. was deceived by a man wliom he had
trusted in a large transaction in E.\-
chequer bills, and had to ask for time in which to
settle certain obligations. This his high character
and popularity enabled him to secure. His brother
Abraham joined him in business; and they re-
mained in partnership till 1816. Moses married
(1812) Judith, daughter of Levi Barent Cohen.
Levi Barent Cohen was an Ashkena/.i, and it was

a sign of indillerence, on
the part of the Monte-
fiores, to current preju-
dice that, although tiiey
belonged to the London
Sephardim, they married
German Jewesses. Mo-
ses lived in New Court,
close to his friend Roths-
child ; and the brothers
Montefiore, as the bro-
kers of that financial gen -
ins, became wealthy men.
Moses was able to retire
from the Stock Exchange
in 1821; and in 1824 he
assisted in founding the
Alliance Assurance Com-
pany, of which he was
the first president. He
was among the founders
of the Imperial Conti-
nental Gas Association,
wiiich extended gas-
lighting to the principal
European cities; and lie
was one of the original
directors (1825) of the
Provincial Bank of Ire-
land, which guined for
him the hosKir^ry free-
dom of Londonderry.
For a short time lie was
also a director of tiie
South Eastern Railway.
In 1836 he was made a
Fellow of the Royal So-
ciety; and in 1837 he
was elected sheriff of
the city of London, being
the second Jew to fill that
office (see Salomons, Sir
David). In the same year lie was knighted by Queen
Victoria on her accession. He had become ac-
(|uainted witii lier in 1834, wliile slie was staying at
Broadstairs witli lier motiier, the Dudiessof Kent,
to wliom he iiad been able to siiow
Dignities, courtesy by placing at her disposal the
secluded grounds of his house near that
seaside I'esort. In 1H46 he was created a baronet, and
in 1847 became high sherilT for Kent. lie was a
deputy lieutenant and a magistrate in more than one
jurisdiction. At an earlier ]H'rii>d nf his life (1810-



Sir Mosps Montenore in 1818.

(From 11 Hkilrh liy Oighlon.)



669



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Monteflore



1814) he had been captain in tiic Surrey local niilitiu
and practised assiduously the bugle calls and drill.
In part he owed his stately bearing to these early
days of military training.

While Sir Moses was winning wealth and social
distinction, he was living the life of a most pious
and observant Jew. His diaries record his regular
attendance at the synagogue, his scrupulous per-
formance of the functions of a member of the ancient
Society of Lavadores, which made it a sacred duty to
perform the last rites for members of the synagogue ;
and they show also that under great difficulties he
strictly complied with the dietary laws as well as
with those which enjoin rest and forbid travel upon
Sabbaths and festivals.
In pursuance of inflex-
ible principle, he re-
sisted all attempts at
congregational reform.
The following is an
account in his own
language of his life in
1820:

" With God's blessing, rise,
say prayers at 7 o'clock.
Breafctiist at 9. Attend the
Stock Exchange, if in Lon-
don, 10. Dinner, 5. Read,
write, and learn, if possible,
Hebrew and French, 6. Read
Bible and say prayers, 10.
Then retire. Monday and
Thursday mominRs attend the
Synagogue. Tuesday and
Thursday evenings for visit-
ing." " I attended," he says
on another occasion, "many
meetings at the City of Lon-
don Tavern, also several
charitable meetings at Bevis
Marks, in connection with
the Spanish and Portuguese
Synagogue; sometimes pass-
ing the whole day there from
ten in the morning till half-
past eleven at night (Jan.
25, 1820) , excepting two hours
for dinner in the committee-
room ; answered in the eve-
ning 350 petitions from poor
women, and also made fre-
quent visits to the Villa Real
School."

He cooperated also
with the Rothschilds and
the Goldsmids in the
movement for parlia-
mentary emancipation

of the Jews. In 1814 he became treasurer of the
Sephardic Synagogue in London, and in due
course passed through all its highest offices, be-
ing si.x times warden-president. From 1888 to
1874 he was president of the Board of Deputies of
British Jews; and on his retirement £12,000 was
subscribed as a testimonial to him and was used
by his wish in aid of building industrial dwellings
at Jerusalem. His time in office was vigorously
employed in the relief of his suffering brethren.

Seven times Sir Moses Monteflore visited Pales-
tine, in 1827, 1838, 1849, 1855, 1857, 186G, and 1875;
being accompanied by his wife each time before her
death in 1862, and making the last journey when he




(From a photograpli when 100 years old.)



was ninety -one years old. Another regular compan-
ion was Dr. L. Loewe, who became his literary ex-
ecutor. In the Holy Land he endowed
Visits to hospitals and almshouses, set on foot
Palestine, agricultural enterprises, pUinted gar-
dens, and built s^'nagogues and tombs.
He not only gave bounteously of his own means,
but administered public and private subventions,
among others a fund bequeathed by Judah Touro
of New Orleans, who left §50,000 to be applied, as
Sir Moses thought fit, for the benefit of the Jews
in the Holy Land. The events of thepe journeys
were carefully narrated in his own diaries and in
those of Lady Montefiore, some of which have been

published in full, while
others have tinfortu-
nately been destroyed,
though not till extracts
from them had been
printed. Besides pass-
ing references to interest-
ing personages whom
the travelers met, the
diaries furnish inciden-
tally a history of the
gradual development of
the means of travel. In
their earl^' adventures
the courageous couple
encountered serious dan-
gers; even in England
they were shot at, pre-
sumably by highway-
men, on the Dover Road.
But they were not de-
terred by the fears of
slavery and imprison-
ment which then beset
travelers in the East, or
by breaking ice or by
wolves in Russia. On
one of his journej'S
(1840) Sir Moses obtained
from the Sultan of Tur-
key a firman denouncing
the inveterate charge of
ritual murder brought
against the Jews. He
obtained promises of
friendliness from two
czars (1846 and 1872),
crossed the desert of
the Atlas and at the age of sevent3 - nine won for
his brethren the favor of the Sultan of Morocco ; made
an unsuccessful journey to Rome to obtain the re-
turn to his parents of the boy IVIortara
(1858), and went to Rumania (1867),
where he presented himself at an open
window to a mob at the imminent
risk of his life. It was at the age of seventy-six
that he went to the office of the London "Times"
after midnight, with a letter soliciting relief for the
Christians of Syria. His own contiibution was
£200, and he collected over £20,000. The alTection
wiiich his magnetic personality and his native good-
ness inspired can not be exaggerated. In Palestine



Visits
Morocco.



Montefiore
month



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



67(>



his brethren flocked to kiss the hem of his garment.
On liis entering into his one hundredth year (Nov. 8,
1883) Queen Victoria, Albert Edward
His Popu- Prince of Wales, and many hundreds
larity. of his most distinguished fellow citi-
zens sent telegrams of congratulation.
The birthdaj^ was a public festival at Ramsgate,
where he passed the evening of his days.

Sir Moses was buried at Ramsgate, near the syna-
gogue he had founded, side by side with his wife in the
mausoleum which he had erected for the purpose, a
reproduction of the building known as the Tomb of
Rachel on the Bethlehem road. By his will (proved
at £370,000) he directed the continuance of many



Bibliography: Tlie Times (London), Oct. 22, 23, 1883; July
39, 1885; Jew. Chron. Aug. 28, 1885; June 13, 20, 1903; L.
Loewe, Diaries of Sir Moses and Ladji Montefiore, 1890 ;
Israel Davis, Sir Moses Monteflore : a Biographical Sketch,
1884; Lucien Wolf, Sir Moses Monteflore: a Centennial
Biography, London, 1884; Lady Judith Monteflore, Dlarif
of a Visit to Egypt (privately printed, n.d.); Liebermann,
Internationales Montefiore-Album, 1884 ; Hayylm Guedalla,
Keter Shem Tob, 1887.

J. ■ I. Da.

Nathaniel Montefiore : English communal
worker; second son of Abraham Montefiore and
Henrietta, daughter of Mayer A. de Rothschild;
born in London 1819; died there 1883. He married
Emma, the youngest daughter of Sir Isaac Lyon
Goldsmid. He was trained for the medical profes-
sion at Guy's Hospital and was elected a member of




Synagogue and Tomb of Sir Moses montefiore, Ramsgate, England.

(From a photograph.)



and various charities, and among others added to
the endowment of the Montefiore College and Li-
brary, Ramsgate, whicli he had first established in
memory of his wife. The college is now devoted to
a few learned men who spend their days in the study
of tlie Law. For a time an institution for younger
students was also maintained, but the trustees in
lieu thereof make an annual subvention to Jews'
College, London.

Sir Moses Montefiore had no children ; but tlie
baronetcy was revived by the crown in favor of
Francis Montefiore, grandson of Abraham, Sir
Moses' brother and partner; while his seat at Rams-
gate became by his will the ])roperty of Jo-seph
Scbag (afterward Sir Joseph Sebag-Montefiore), son
of Sir Moses' sister.



the Royal College of Surgeons in 1858. He did not
establish a practise, but used his medical knowledge
for the benefit of the inmates of the Beth Holim Hos-
pital, an ancient charity of the Spanish-Portuguese
Jews of London of which he was treasurer for over
a quarter of a century. He filled also numerous
other communal oftices. He was president of the
Jewish and General Literary Institution, in Leaden-
hall street, which was known as "Sussex Hall";
president of the Jews' Infant Schools; and president
of the Jews' Emigration Society. But most of his
communal work was in connection witli the Span-
ish-Portuguese congregation, to which most mem-
bers of liis family belonged. He served as senior
warden of the congregation, president of the board
of elders, president of tlie Gates of Hope school, and



671



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Montefiore
Month



representative of the congregation on the Board of
Deputies. He was buried in the Balls Pond Ceme-
tery of the West London Reform Synagogue, by
the side of his son Leonard.

BIBLIOGRAPHY : Jcw. Chrou. and Jew. WorM, March 30, 1883.
J. I. H.

MONTELIMAR (Hebrew, "HO^N or ^"'tSJID
"IIOTX) : Capital of the department of the Drome,
France. A large number of Jews lived here from
the beginning of the fourteenth century. They
possessed a synagogue in the Rue du Puits-JN'euf,
formerly the Rue de la Juiverie, as well as a school
situated near the Porte Saint-Martin, a cemetery,
and a slaughter-house, the privilege of maintaining
the latter being ratified by the Dauphin Louis in
1455.

The condition of the Jews of Montelimar was
comparatively prosperous. The following were the
principal men among them during the fourteenth
and fifteenth centuries: Solomon, Isaac Maignan,
Lionel de Livron, Josse Nercas, Isaac de Lattes,
Solomon Massip, Isaac Saul de Mornas, and Bonsen-
hor Bonafossa. In 1339 and 1340 Samuel ben Judah
of Marseilles revised at Montelimar his Hebrew
version (made in 1324) of the " Treatise on the Soul "
by Ale.xander Aphrodisius, a work which had been
translated from Greek into Arabic by Isaac ibn
Hunain.

In 1439 the lords of Montelimar required the Jews
of uhe city to wear the badge, from which the toler-
ation of the consuls had hitherto exempted them ;
and this decree was renewed two years later by Jean
de Poitiers, Bishop of Valence. In 1453 the Jews
were commanded to attend Christian worship, and
a preacher was appointed to convert them to Chris-
tianity. After this the Jewish community gradually
lost its importance; and in 1468 it contained but
seven families, which, on account of accusations —
admitted to be false by the parliament of Grenoble
— were maltreated by the inhabitants and expelled
from the city in that year.

Bibliography : De Costou, Histoire de Mntttelimar, 1878, i.
516, ii. 579 ; Gross, Gallia Judaica, pp. 319, 381 ; R. E. J. ix.
237.
G. S. K.

MONTEZINOS, ANTONIO DE (AARON
LEVI ): Marano traveler of the seventeenth century.
He claimed that while journeying in South America
about 1641 near Quito, Ecuador, he met with sav-
ages who practised Jewish ceremonies and recited
the Shema' and who Avere of the tribe of Reuben.
He met other savages of the tribe of Levi. Going
to Holland in 1644 he told this story to Manasseh ben
Israel ; the latter repeated it to Thomas Thorowgood,
by whom it was printed in his "Jews in America,"
pp. 1-9 et seq. It was also published by Manasseh
ben Israel in his "Hope of Israel," pp. 1-7.

Bibliography: L. Wolf, Menas^neh hen Israel's Mission to
Oliver Cromwell, pp. xxiv.; xxvii., 154.
D. J.

MONTEZINOS LIBRARY : Division of the
library of the Portuguese Rabbinical Seminary 'Ez
Hayyim at Amsterdam, Holland. It was be-
queathed in 1889 by D. R. Montezinos (b. Dec. 6,
1829), the well-known bibliophile of that city, and
was dedicated on April 10, 1891, after the seminary



had enlarged its structure in order to accommodate
the valuable collection.

The Montezinos Library consists of 20,000 vol-
umes of Hebraica and Judaica, including a number
of incunabula and about seventy volumes of re-
sponsa. Besides, it contains more than 1,000 pam-
phlets and about 300 portraits of Jewish celebrities.
The collection includes a number of very rare He-
braica and Judaica, several of which are not re-
corded b}^ Jewish bibliographers. Among its man-
uscripts are to be found a few by Isaac Cohen
Belinfante, Isaac Sasportas, and David Franca
Mendes.

Montezinos, who for some time was in charge of
the 'Ez Hayyim librar}-, supervised the arrangement
of the entire library of the seminary, when his col-
lection was added to it.

J. I. G. D.

MONTGOMERY. See Alaba.via.

MONTH (Hebrew, "yerah," "hodesh " ; plural,
"yerahim," "hodashim"): A unit of time; the
period between one new moon and another. Ac-
cording to the account of Creation in Genesis, it
was decreed that the "lesser light " should "rule the
night" and serve "for signs and for seasons" (Gen.
i. 14). The Psalmist also says, "He appointed the
moon for seasons" (Ps. civ. 19). In round numbers
thirty days constituted a mouth, as is evident from
the Flood narrative, counting 150 days for five
months from the 17th of the second to the 17th of
the seventh month (Gen. vii. 11, 24; viii. 4); and
the mourning period, reckoned as a full month la
Deut. xxi. 13, is elsewhere fixed at thirty days.
That twelve months constituted a year also is evi-
dent from the Flood narrative (Gen. viii. 5-13).

Undoubtedly there was an occasional interpola-
tion of an extra month to correct the lunar j^ear to
the solar cycle ; and it is evident from the fact that
the festivals named in given months — such as Pass-
over, Pentecost, and Tabernacles — all had to do with
crops, and therefore solar seasons, that this correc-
tion to solar time is of the highest antiquit3\ The
relation of the months to the signs of the zodiac is
a further evidence that the solar-lunar year was
employed.

From the first Babylonian exile the Jews adopted
the Babylonian names of the months (R. Hanina, in
Yer. R. H. i. 2). Prior to the Exile the months
were designated partly by names and partly by
numbers. Thus Nisan was called " Abib " (Ex. xii.
2), lyyar = " Ziw " (I Kings vi. 1, 37), Tishri = " Ye-
rah ha-Etanim" {ib. viii. 2), and Heshwan = "Yerah
Bui" {ib. 6, 38). The Babylonian name "Ara-ah-
sham-nu " means the eighth month = ^J'OKrmv
According to Kimhi, }1fniO is transposed from
pDtJ'"n"l(')- The pronoun "Mar" was at a later
period sometimes dropped, leaving the name " Hesh-
wan."

The following names of the months are mentioned
in post-exilic Biblical writings: Kislew, the seventh
month, and Shebat, the eleventh month, in Zech. i.
7, vii. 1 ; Kislew, Nisan, and Elul in Neh. i. 1, ii.
1, vi. 15; Nisan, Siwan, Tebet, and Adar, the
twelfth month, in Esth. ii. 16, iii. 7, viii. 9. The
montlis Tishri, Marheshwan, lyyar, Tammuz, and



Honti
Hontpellier



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



672



Ab are not mentioned in the Bible, but are found in
the Talmud. Tishri is characterized as the month of
the birth of the Patriarchs ; Tebet, as the month of
marriages (Meg. 13a) ; Nisan, as the month of coro-
nations (Shab. 87b); Adar, as that of rejoicing; and
Ab as the month of mourning (Ta'an. 26b, 29a). In
the Middle Ages Elul became the month of repent-
ance. See Almanac; Calendar; New Moon;
Zodiac.



Anton de Montoro, who was welcomed by the
noblest families of Cordova, and whose verse was
valued highly by some of the best poets of his time,
as by the Marquis de Santillana, Juan deMena, etc.,
was treated with contumely by poets of his own
race. At sixty-five he wrote a poem to Queen Is-
abella in which he complains that he is still treated
as a Jew and called "the old, contemptible Jew."
Commendador Roman, who posed as a pious Chris-



Table op the Jewish Months.



Hebrew Names.


AssyriaQ Names.


No. of
Days.


During 20th Cent.

First of Month

Occurs Between


Constellations of

Zodiac Corresponding

to the Months.


1 ^■>*'^^ Tistiri


Tash-rl-tu


30

29-30

29-30

29

30

29-30

29

30

29

30

29

30

29


Sept. 6-Oct. 5


DUIMD Libra.




A-ra-ah-sbam-nii


Oct. 6-Nov. 4


aipj; Scorpio.
na'p Sagittarius.


Q ^^n1 Ki^Ipw


Ki-si-li-mu


Nov. 4-Dec. 3


i. mr-^ Tphpt


Ti-bi-tu


Dec. 4-Jan. 2


^.ij Capricornus.


fi MT^ Shphat


Sha-ba-tu


Jan. 2-Jan. 31


^7T Aquarius.




Ad-da-ru


Feb. 1-March2


D^JT Pisces.


>jtt^ n-iN We-Adar (Leap- Year)


Arhu-na-ak-ru Ad-da-ru

Ni-sa-an-nu


March 3-March 13

March 13-April 11

April 12-May 11


hSb Aries.




A-a-ru


nits' Taurus.


9 1VD Siwan


Si-ma-nu


May 11-June 9


O^DiNH Gemini.


10 nnn Tanimii7 .. .


Du-mu-zu


June 10-July 9


joiD Cancer.


11. 2N Ab

12 h^^ti Elul


A-bu . . ...


July 9-Aupr. 7


nnN Leo.


U-lu-lu


Aug. 8-Sept. 6


nSina Virgo.











Bibliography : Benzlnger, Arch. pp. 198-203 ; Epstein, Mi-
^admoniyyot ha-Yehudim, 1.1-30, Vienna, 1887; Leven-
sohn, '?"3-i t3ipV\ p. 62, Warsaw, 1878; Weiss and Fried-
mann. Bet Talmud, 11. 20, 54. 348.
A. J. D. E.

MONTI, ANDBEA DI. See Joseph Zarfati.

MONTICELLI : Small town in the province of
Piacenza, northern Italy, with a Jewish community
dating from the expulsion of the Jews from the
duchy of Milan in 1597. The first settlers were the
Soavi and Sforni families of Cremona. The com-
munity brought its GeiTnan ritual from Lombardy,
and has retained it until the present time. A soci-
ety for nursing and for study, entitled "5ebrat
Bikkur Holim," founded in the sixteenth century,
is also still in existence. In 1865 the Jewish inhab-
itants numbered 143; but in 1901 they had become
reduced to 32. Flaminio Servi officiated as rabbi in
1863.

Bibliography : Orrrierc Israelilico, v. 338.

G. I. E.

MONTORO, ANTON DE : Spanish poet of the
fifteenth ccutury; boru in Montoro 1404; died after
March, 1477; son of Fernando Alfonso de Baena
Ventura, and a near relative of the poet Juan xVl-
fonso de Baena. His vocation was that of a " ropero " ;
he calls himself "el Ropero " or" Aljabibe," both sig-
nifying a dealer in old clothes. When advanced in
years he was baptized, but despite his baptism he re-
mained a Jew at heart throughout liis life; and in a
poem to a magistrate in Cordova, his place of resi-
dence, he laments that, driven by hunger, he had
bad to break the oatli of iiis ancestors and buy pork,
as he found no other meat in the butciior's .shop.
Even in his old age ho took a lively interest in his
persecuted coreligionists. TIius he addressed a pa-
thetic complaint to King TIenry IV. in rcferonce
to the plundering of the houses of the Maranos of
Carmona.in 1474.



tian, taunted Montoro with the fact that his father
had been a hazzan; Juan de Valladolid, Rodrigo
Cota, and others scorned him because of his former
faith. He -was in high favor with D. Pedro de
Aguilar and with his son D. Alonso Fernandez de
Aguilar, the noble protector of the Maranos, whom
he celebrated in several poems. After the persecu-
tion of the Maranos in March, 1473, Anton de Mon-
toro, who was also made to suffer under this calam-
ity, found protection and refuge with D. Alonso de
Aguilar. He settled in Seville, but soon returned
to Cordova, where, old and weak, he made his will
March, 1477, and soon afterward died. His poems
were collected by Emil Cotarelo y Mori, and pub-
lished with an excellent introduction and valuable
notes under the title " Cancionero de Anton de Mon-
toro " (Madrid, 1900).
Bibliography : Kayserling, Sephardim, pp. 85 et seq.; R. E.

J. xliii. 261 et seg.; Gratz, Oesch. vlii. 306.

J. M. K.

MONTPELLIER (Hebrew, T'^t^QDJID or
l^^ti'SJIO) : Capital of the department of Herault, a
part of the old province of Lauguedoc, France. It
is sometimes called also " liar Ga'ash " = "Mountain
of Trembling, " " Har ha-Nikra Pissulano " = " Mount
Pessulanus," or simply " Har " = "Mountain." In
the Middle Ages Montpellier was divided into two
distinct cities, one being the capital of the Guillems,
and the other the fief of the bisiiops of Maguelone.
One of the most important communities of Langue-
doc existed lure from the second half of the
eleventh century. Through their relations with
their coreligionists all over the world, the Jews of
Montpellier helped enorninusly to build up tiie
commerce of tlie city; and they at tiie same time



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