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The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

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in 1903, to 2,201,404 kronen (§440,000). A conven-
tion of rabbis, teachers, and congregational officers,
called together by the government in the city of
Briinn Oct. 30, 1868, to consider the question of re-
ligious instruction and especially that of prepara-
tory theological education, did not reach any definite
results (" Allg. Zeit. des Jud." 1868, pp. 939 ct seq.).
Another peculiar Moravian institution was that
of the Landesrahbinek, which, according to the
"Generalordnuug " of 1754, existed "at all times" in
Nikolsburg. The " Landcsrabbiner " was nominated
by the six representatives of the congregations — those
siiuatcd in each of the six districts ("Kreis") sending
one elector — and appointed bj' the government.
Those known to have held the office are: JrD.\H
LoKW BEN BEZ.\LEEL,Yom-Tob Lipmann Hem.er,
Menahem Mendel Ki{ociim.\t„ Gershon Ashken.xzi,
David Oppenheimer, Gabriel EskkT;ES. iiis son Issa-
char Berush Eskelks, who however, held the office



merely nominally, as he was in the banking business
in Vienna. After him the office was held by Aaron
Lemberger (Lwow ; 1753-57) ; he lived in conflict with
the local rabbi Gershon PoUitzer, who succeeded him
as "Landcsrabbiner" (1758-72); Schmelke Horo-
witz, called Samuel Herschel Lewi (1774-78); Ger-
shon Chajes (1780-89); Mordecai Benet (1789-
1829); Nehemias Trebitsch (1832-42); Samson
llaphael Hirsch (1847-51). Hirsch was the last
regularly elected "Landcsrabbiner." After his res-
ignation Abratiam Placzek was appointed by the
govennnent as temporary "Landcsrabbiner," which
office he held until his death in 1884. During his
last years his son Baruch Placzek was made his as-
sistant. An attempt to provide for the office of
the "Landcsrabbiner" in the law regulating the af-
fairs of the Jews of Austria March 21, 1890, failed,
but the minister declared that the present law had
not abolished the office. Still it was not revived, al-
though tiie present (1904) incumbent, Baruch Plac-
zek, is given that title by the government. His
recent application to have Solomon Funk of Bosko-
witz appointed as his successor was not granted
(" Oesterreichische Wocheuschrift," 1904, p. 190).

Many famous rabbis occupied the rabbinical seat

in Nikolsburg and in other cities of Moravia, among

whom may be mentioned, apart from those already

noted, Shabbethai Kohen, Nathan

Distin- Adler, and Eleazar Loew, who made

guished Moravia a seat of Talmudic learning;

Rabbis. a number of Talmudic authors are
natives of the province or have lived
there, as Eliezer Nin of Nikolsburg, Samuel Loew of
Boskowitz, Naphtali Hirsch Spitz, and others. The
modern Haskalah movement had somedevoteesthere,
as Joseph Fleisch in Rausnitz ; and the science of Ju-
daism liad also a number of representatives, among
whom may be mentioned: Leopold Loew, Ad. Jel-
linek, Moritz Steinschneider, Isaac Hirsch Weiss,
Nehemias Bruell, and David Kaufmann. A printing-
office opened in Briinn during the latter part of the
eighteenth century by a convert named Neumann
did not produce anything remarkable.

While in the seventeenth and the eighteenth cen-
turj' complaints were constantly made that the
strictest rules against the increase of the Jewish
population were without avail, the Jewish popula-
tion decreased in the ten years from 1890 to 1900
from 45,524 to 44,255, though the general popula-
tion of the province during the same time increased
by 160,000.

Bibliography: Dudik, Maelireris Allgemeuie Oeschichte,
Briinn, 1800-89: D'Elvert, Zur GcschicMe der Juden in
Mdhren nnd OeKteri-eichisch-Sclilesien, Briinn, 1895; Wll-
libald Mullen Beitrilfje zur Gcxchichte der Mdhrischen Ju-
deuschnft, Olmutz, 1903: Abraham Trebitsch, Kornt hOr-'It-
tim, Brunii, 1801 ; Low, Das Mdhrii^che Landesrabhinat seit
HuDdert Jahren. in Gemmmelte Schriften, vol. li., pp. 16.-)
ft seq., Szepedin. 1890: Benjamin Frankel, in Knhrz 'al 1 ad
of the Mekize Nirdamini, Berlin : Von Scari, Siistematische
DarMiHuho der in netirff der Jitden in Miihren . . . Er-
iasseuen Gesetze .... Briinn, 1835.

D.



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Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 169 of 169)