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23, 1783, it is recorded that a congressional commit-
tee reported that in its opinion " it is not convenient
to take any order therein." During the Revolu-
tionary war Levy took the oath of allegiance to
the state of Pennsylvania. In 1785 he acted as
one of the administrators of the estate of Haym
Solomon (see "Pennsylvania Journal," Jan. 15,

Bibliography : Friedenwald, Memorials PreMnted to the
Continental Congress, in Publications Am. Jew. Hist. Soc.
li. 123-126; Westcott, Test Laws of Pennsylvania, Philadel-

T^'"^- A. S. W. R.

LEVY, EMIL : German philologist ; born at
Hamburg Oct. 23, 1855; educated at the universi-
ties of Heidelberg and Berlin (Ph.D. 1880). The
following two years he spent in Paris and Montpel-
lier; he became privat-docent at the University of
Freiburg-im-Breisgau in 1883, and was appointed
assistant professor in 1887.

Levy is known principally as the author of the
great dictionary, begun in 1894 and still (1904) unfin-
ished, entitled " Provenzalisches Supplement-Wor-
terbuch. Berichtigungen und Erganzungen zu
Raynouards Lexique Roman" (vols, i.-iv. covering
A to L). Among his other works are " Der Trouba-
dour Bertolome Zorzi," Halle, 1883, and "Bemer-
kungen zum Engadinischen Hiob," Freiburg-im-
Breisgau, 1895.

s. F. T. H.

L]6VY, EMILE : French rabbi ; born at Mar-
moutier, Alsace, Jan. 28, 1848. Educated at the
lyceum at Strasburg and the seminary at Paris, he
became rabbi of Verdun in 1876, which position he
held until 1892 ; in that year he became chief rabbi
of Bayonne.

Levy has been a contributor to the " Revue des
Etudes Juives " and is the author of " La Monarchic
Chez les Juifs en Palestine," Paris, 1885. In collab-
oration with M. Bloch he has written also " Histoire
de la Litterature Juive Depuis I'Origine Jusqu'a
Nos Jours."

s. F. T. H.

LEVY, ERNST : German physician ; born at
Lauterburg, Alsace, March 5, 1864 ; educated at the
universities of Strasburg, Heidelberg, and Paris
(M.D. 1887). Settling in Strasburg, he became privat-
docent in hygiene at the university there in 1891 and
assistant professor in 1897.

Levy has written several monographs and essays
in the German and French medical journals, and
is the author also of the two following works:
"Grundriss der Klinischen Bacteriologie," Berlin,
1894 (2d ed. 1898): " Bacteriologischer Leitfaden,"
Strasburg, 1897 (2d ed. 1901).

Bibliography : Pagel, Biog. Lex.

8. F. T. H.

LEVY FAMILY (of America) : The follow-
ing is a genealogical tree of the family descended
from Benjamin Levy of Philadelphia:

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LEVY, GUSTAVE: French engraver; born
at Toul June 21. 1819; died at Paris in 1894; a pu-
pil of Geille. He exhibited first at the Salon of
1844, and engraved the portraits of Madrazzo, Ri-
gaud, and a number of others. Special mention
may be made of the following engravings by him:
" The Family of Concina " (from the Veronese in the

Levy, Hayman
Levy, Judith



Dresden gallery); Raphael's " Sistine Madonna " and
"Diademed Virgin"; Caracci's "Madonna of Si-
lence"; Couture's "Damocles"; and Rembrandt's
"Good Shepherd." Still more popular are his en-
gravings of the King of the Belgians (from Winter-
halter's portrait), Berangcr, the poet Ventura de la
Vega, and the engraver Wille. The plate of Levy's
last engraving, " The Fair Gardener," was framed on
his tombstone in the cemetery of Montmartre.
s. J. Ka.

LEVY, HAYMAN : Colonial merchant of New
York; born in 1721 ; died in New York in 1789. He
engaged in business at an early age, and is men-
tioned as the owner of a privateer and as engaged
in the fur trade in 1760 (see "New York Mercury,"
Aug. 17, 1761). In 1765 the signature " Ilayman
Levy, Junior," was appended to the Non-Importa-
tion Resolutions drawn up by merchants in Phila-
delphia, but it can not be said with certainty that it
was the signature of the Hayman Levy treated here.
In 1770 Levy signed in New Y'ork resolutions of a
similar but more stringent character. In 1768 he
failed in business, but soon recovered his losses.
The occupation of New Y^ork by the British caused
him to remove to Philadelphia. On July 20, 1776,
he is mentioned in the Journal of the Continental
Congress. Hayman Levy was one of the founders
of the Congregation Mickve Israel, organized in
1782, and served on the first board of trustees. In
1784 he returned to New York and aided in the re-
establishment of the congregation in that city. He
was one of the most widely known merchants of
New York, and was probably the first employer of
John Jacob Astor. He had sixteen children, some
of whom were prominent citizens of New Y^ork.

Bibliooraphy: Puidicationx Am.. lew. Hist. Soc. i. U, 60,
88; iii. 81; iv. 89, 210; vi. 130. i;« ; ix. 88: x. 13, 6;i; Daly,
The Settlement of the Jews in North America, pp. 52, 53.

A. A. S. W. R.

LEVY, HENBI L:60P0LD : French painter;
born at Nancy Sept. 23, 1840; pupil of the Ecole des
Beau.\-Arts and of Picot, Cabanel, and Fromentin.
His first exhibit was "Hecuba Finding the Body of
Her Son Polydorus on the Shore," at the Salon of
1865; at the following Salons he exhibited "Joash
Saved from the Massacre of the Grandsons of Atha-
liah " (1867); "Hebrew Captive Weeping over the
Ruins of Jerusalem" (1869); "Herodias" (1872):
"Sarpedon"; "The Sermon." For the Church of
Saint Merri in Paris he painted mural pieces rep-
resenting .scenes in the life of Saint Denis; these
were exhibited at the Exposition of 1878. His " Cor-
onation of Charlemagne " is intended as a mural
piece for the Pantheon at Paris. At the Interna-
tional Exposition in 1900 Levy won a gold medal
for his "Eve Plucking the Apple," "Deucalion and
Pyrrlia," and "Samson and Delilah."

"s. J. K.\.

LEVY, ISAAC : French rabbi ; born Jan. 20,
1835, at Marmoutier, in the old department of Bas-
Rhin (Alsace). When sixteen years old he entered
the rabbinic school of Met/., and was graduated
thence at the age of twenty-three, receiving the di-
I)loma of a chief rabbi. In Feb., 1858, he was called
as rabbi to Verdun (IMeuse); in 1865 to Luneville

(Meurthe); and in 1869 to Colmar as chief rabbi of
the district of Haut-Rhin.

When Alsace was annexed by Germany, Levy de-
cided to remain a Frenchman ; and the French gov-
ernment created a new chief rabbinate for him at
Vesoul (Ilaute-Saone). Here heolficiated for fifteen
years, and then (1887) went as chief rabbi to Bor-
deaux. Levy is a chevalier of the Legion of Honor
and an officer of public instruction. Besides a num-
ber of single sermons he has published the following:
" Veilleesdu Vendredi "(2ded., Paris, 1869); "R6cits
Bibli(iucs " (2d ed., Paris, 1873) ; " Defense du Juda-
isme " (ih. 1867) ; " Histoire Sainte " (ib. 1869 et »eg.);
"Alsatiana" {ib. 1873); "Nathan le Sage" (Vesoul,
1881); " Les Recreations Israelites " (2d ed., Paris,
1899) ; " Developpement des 13 Articles de Foi " {ib.
1895); " Heures de Recueillement " {ib. 1898).

Levy edite<l also a supplement, entitled " Le Foyer
Israelite" (1862-65), to tlie periodical for the young,
"La Verite Israelite." S.

LEVY, JACOB : German rabbi and lexicog-
rapher; born .May, 1819, at Dabrzyze, Posen; died
at Breslau Feb. 27, 1892. Having received his Tal-
mudic education from his father, Isaac Levy, who
was district rabbi at Schildberg, and from Akiba
Eger, he entered the Matthias Gymnasium at Bre-slau,
after leaving which he studied philosophy and ori-
ental languages at Breslau University, and received
his doctor's degree from the University of Halle in

He accepted a call to Rosenberg, Upper Silesia,
Avhere he officiated as rabbi until 1850. Wishing to
live in an intellectual center, he moved to Breslau
without any prospect of employment. In 1857 he
became associate rabbi of the Breslau community ;
in 1864 he was appointed admonitor to the local
court, his duty being to admonish the Jews who
had to take the oath " More Judaico " ; and in 1878
he was appointed instructor at the Mora-Salomon
Leipziger Stiftung, an office which he continued to
hold till his death.

Levy published in 1867-68 at Leipsic his"Chal-
daisches Worterbuch iiber die Targumim " (3d ed.,
ib. 1881), with notes by Prof. H. Fleischer. In rec-
ognition of this work the Prussian ministry granted
him in 1875 the title of " Ivoniglicher Professor."
His chief work, however, is his "Neuhebraischesund
Chaldaisches Wiirterbuch iiber die Talnuidim und
Midraschim " (with notes by Fleischer; 4 vols., ib.

Levy was the first to apply modern scientific
methods to rabbinic lexicography ; and he aided
considerably toward rousing Christian scholars to
an interest in rabbinical literature. All subsequent
work in the field of Talnuidic lexicography has
been based on Levy's labors (comp. "Z. D. M. G."
xlvii. 494 et aeq.).

Bini.iooRAPHY: Schvf&b, Repertoire, s.v.; AUg.Zeit.desJud.

1892, No. 11.

s. C. L.

LEVY, JONAS PHILLIPS : American mer-
clnuil; son of jMichael Lev}- and Rachel Phillips;
born in Piiiladelphia 1807; died in New York 1883.
He was granted the freedom of the country by the
govenunent of Peru for signal services rendered in



Levy, Hayman
Levy, Judith

the navy of that country. He commanded the U. S. 8.
" America " during the Mexican war, and was as-
signed to the transportation of troops to Vera Cruz,
at the surrender of which port he was appointed its
captain by Gen. Wintield Scott. He left three .sons
(Jefferson M., Louis Napoleon, and Mitchell
A. C.) and two daughters.

A. S. Wo.

LEVY, JOSEPH HIAM : English economist ;
born 1S;}8; educated at the City of London School
and City of Loudon College. He entered the Brit-
ish Civil Service, Avas assigned to the Board of Edu-
cation in 1862, and rose to the position of examiner
of school accounts. He was one of the most impor-
tant members of the National Liberal Club; he
founded its Economic Circle, became its chairman,
and edited its "Transactions." Levy was lecturer
and examiner in economics at the Birkbeck Institute
and City of London College. He was editor of
"The Individualist" and of "Personal Rights," the
organ of the Personal Rights Association, and has
written much on economic and social topics. He
retired from tlie Board of Education in 1902.

Bibliography: Jew. Chron. Nov. 1, 1901; American Jewish
Year Book, 1904.

ti .


rabbi; born Nov. 24, 1865, in London; educated at
Jews' College and University College (B.A.), Lon-
don, at Bristol University, England, and at Western
University of Pennsylvania (D.D.). Levy was rabbi
of the Bristol Hebrew Congregation (1885-89) and of
Bnai Israel Congregation, Sacramento, Cal. (1889-
1893) ; associate rabbi of the Kenescth Israel Congre-
gation, Philadelphia (1893-1901) ; and, since 1901, has
been rabbi of tlie Rodeph Shalom congregation, Pitts-
burg. In 1898 he was elected chaplain of " Keegan's
Brigade," with which he served through the Span-
ish-American Avar. Levy was the organizer of a
number of charitable and religious societies among
the Jews of Philadelphia. He is the author of a
translation of the tractate Rosh ha-Shanah of the
Babylonian Talmud (Philadelphia, 1895). He pub-
lished also "The Greater Lights" (tb. 1895); "Home
Service for the Passover " {if>. 1896) ; " The Nine-
teenth Century " {ib. 1901) ; " A Book of Pi-ayer "
(Pittsburg, 1902); "The Jew's Beliefs" {ih. 1903);
"The Children's Service and Hymnal" {ib. 1903);
"Te.xt-Bookof Religion and Ethics for Jewish Chil-
dren" {ib. 1903); "Sabbath Readings" {ib. 1904);
and eight volumes of Sunda}' lectures. Levj- is the
editor of the "Jewish Criterion," published at Pitts-

Bibliography: American Jewish Year Booh, 190-1.
A. I. G. D.

LEVY, JOSEPH MOSES : Founder and pro-
prietor of the Loudon " Daily Telegraph " ; born Dec.
15, 1812; died at Ramsgate Oct. 13, 1888. He was
educated in London and Germany. After spending
the earlier part of his life in commercial ])ursuits he
became the owner of a printing establishment near
Fleet street. In this waj'he became connected with
the "Sunday Times," of which he was chief propri-
etor in 1855. The " Daily Telegraph and Courier"
was founded in June, 1855, and by September had

come entirely under Levy's management, wlio re-
duced its price, making it the tirst London penny
daily paper; and it was through his genius that it
became a great power in journalism. When he
assumed the proprietorship of the paper its fortunes
were at so low an ebb that the jjurchase-money was
only £1,000. Levy worked in the interests of the
paper with unflagging zeal, many members of his
family also becoming connected with it; and he col-
lected round him a band of able writers, including
Sir E. Arnold and G. A. Sala. In politics the paper
was Liberal until 1886, when Liberal-Unionist princi-
ples were adopted.

Levy left several children. His eldest son, Ed-
ward, who assumed the name of "Lawson," became
chief proprietor of tlie "Daily Telegraph," and was
created a baronet in 1892, and a peer in 1903 with
the title of Lord Burnham.

Bibliography: Daily Telegraph, Oct. 13, 1888; Jew. Chrmi.
Oct. 19, 1888; Times (London), Oct. 13, 1888; Diet. Nat.
J. G. L.

LEVY, JUDAH : Tunisian rabbinical author;
lived at Tunis and died there in the middle of the nine-
teenth century ; son of Nathan Levy. He was orig-
inally from Gibraltar. He published under his own
name only one Hebrew work, "Mahane Lewiyyah."
This work consists of four parts; namely: (1) a
commentary on the treatise " Hilkot Semahot " of
Mei'r of Rothenburg; (3) a collection of rules on the
duties of the " Nezirim " ; (3) a treatise entitled " Ma'a-
mar Nezirut Shimshon " ; (4) a treatise on questions
of Levitical impurities, "Hilkot Tum'ah." He pub-
lished also, in collaboration with David Bonan, two
works with the same title, "De Hesheb " (Leghorn,
1857), responsa and studies on the treatise San-

Bibliography : Cazes, Notes Bibliographiques, pp. 44-50, 237-
s. s. M. Fr.

LEVY, JUDITH: English philanthropist; born
in London 1706; died tliere Jan. 20, 1803; a daugh-
ter of Moses Hart, founder of the Great Synagogue,
London; married Ellas Levy, a Avealthy fiuancicr
and government contractor. This lady, who livetl
to a great age, enjoyed after her husband's death an
income of £6,000 a year, and dwelt in great splen-
dor at a house formerly belonging to Heydigger,
master of the revels to King George II. She fre-
quented many of the nobility's social gatherings and
played half -guinea quadrille with the Countess of
Yarmouth, Lady Holdernesse, Lord Stormont, and
other persons of rank.

Judith Levy was a generous benefactress to her
coreligioni.sts, and in 1790 contributed £4,000 toward
the cost of rebuilding the Great Synagogue. The
last years of her life were spent in seclusion, now at
Bath, sometimes at Richmond, and occasionally in
Albermarle street, where she died. Slie died intes-
tate, leaving a sum of £125,000 at her bankers; and
was buried on Jan. 21 in the Jewish cemetery at
Mile End.

Bibliography : Lvsons, Environs of London, Supplement,
p. 68 ; Cat. Anglo-Jew. HiM. Krh. 1887 ; Notes and Queries,
2d series, xii.; Picciotto, Sketches of Anglo-Jeivish History,
p. 9ti.

.1. G. L.

Lievy, Louis
Levy, Moritz




Poet aud cautor of the Berliu syuagogue; died Jan.
25, 1853. He wrote "Tekufat ha-Shanah" (Berlin,
1842), poems on the four seasons, in imitation of
Thomson's "Seasons." The preface includes " Na-
'al Yad," a translation of Scliiller's "Haudschuh."
He wrote also some songs for festivals.

Bibliography: Pteinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 1619; Furst,
Bibl. Jud. ii. -iiZ. ,, ^

S. M. Sc.

LEVY, LOUIS EDWARD: American photo-
chemist ; born at Stenowitz, Bohemia, Oct. 12, 1846.
He went to America in early life, and was educated
at Detroit ; he studied especially mathematics and as-
tronomy at ^licliigan University in 1866, and optics
at Detroit. He w'as connected with the meteorolog-
ical observatory of the United States Lake Survey
District in 1866, and engaged in researches in micro-
scopic photography during 1869 and 1870. This led
to his invention of a method of photochemical en-
graving, the "Levytype," which was patented in
1875. He established a company in Baltimore, but
removed to Philadelphia in 1877, in which year he in-
vented the "Levy line-screen," which was perfected
by his brother Max. For this lie received the Jolin
Scott Legac} - medal at the Franklin Institute in
1897. He invented a new process of intaglio en-
graving, the "photo-mezzotint," in 1889. In 1896
he invented a new method of etching, the "Levy
acid blast," for Avhich he received the Elliott Cresson
gold medal at the Frankhn Institute in 1899. He was
awarded a medal and diploma at the World's Colum-
bian E.xposition in 1893, and decorations and di-
plomas from the Imperial Pliotographic Society of
Moscow and at the recent Paris Exposition.

From 1887 to 1890 Levy was publisher and editor
of the Philadelphia "Evening Herald," and at the
same time of the "Mercury," a Philadelphia Sunday
paper. In 1896 he edited and published " Cuba and
the Cubans." He is the author of "The Russian
Jewish Refugees in America " (1895), an English ver-
sion of Cabrera's "Cuba y sus Jueces," and "Busi-
ness, Money, and Credit" (1896), a brochure on the
relations of exchange to the medium of exchange.
He has contributed to many technical journals, and
represented the Franklin Institute at the Scientific
Congress of the Paris Exposition. In Jewish mat-
ters he is associated with many communal organi-
zations, and he was editor, author, and publisher
of "The Jewish Year" (1895) and of other publi-

BiBLiofiKAPnv: ir7io'.s Who in AmeHca.


LEVY, LUDWIG : German architect; born
March 14, 1852, at Landau. After his return from
Italy, wiiere he completed his studies, he was en-
trusted with the building of the new synagogue in
Kaiserslauteru. He was the architect also of the
church at OlsbrUcke near Kaiserslautern, of tlie
synagogues in St. Johann, Strasburg (Alsace), and
KleinwJlldc near Kaiserslautern.

Levy is at present (1904) professor in the Bauge-
werkschule at Carlsruhe. S.

Li:VY, MAURICE: French engineer and
member of the Institut; born at Ribeauville, Al-

sace, Feb. 28, 1S38. Educated at the Ecole Poly-
tecliuique aud the Ecole des Ponts et Cliaus.sees, he
became an engineer in 1863. During tlie Franco-
German war (1870-71) he was entrusted by the Gov-
ernment of National Defense with the control of a
part of the artillery. During the next decade he
held several educational positions, becoming pro-
fessor at the Ecole Centrale in 1875, member of the
commission of the geodetic survey of France in 1879,
and professor at the College de France in 1885.

In 1888 Levy inaugurated a system of boat-trac-
tion by means of overhead cables. A trial system
was installed between Joinville-le-Pont and Saint-
jVIaurice; it consisted of an endless cable which was
kept in motion by powerful steam-engines and to
whicli boats were attached and thus kept at a speed
of four kilometers an hour. The system proved un-
satisfactory, however.

Levy is the author of several works, of which may
be mentioned: "La Statistique Graphique et Ses
Applications a I'Art des Constructions" (1874; 2d
ed. 1887); "Sur le Principe d'Energie" (1888);
"Etude des Moyens de Traction des Bateaux: Le
Halage Funiculaire" (with M. G. Pavie, 1894). He
has written also papers on kinematics, mechan-
ics, physical mathematics, geometry, etc., in the
" Comptes-Rendus de I'Academie des Sciences," the
"Journal de I'Ecole Poly technique, "and the "Jour-
nal des Mathematiques Pures et Appliquees."

He is an officer of the Legion of Honor and of
public instruction, and a member of the Academy
of Sciences and of the Royal Academy of Sciences
of Rome.

Bibliography : Curlnier, Diet. Nat.

V. E.

LEVY, MAX : American inventor ; born at De-
troit 1857. He invented the etched screen and the
machinery for producing it now generally used in
the half-tone process of photoengraving. After serv-
ing an apprenticeship of three years with an archi-
tect, he became chief draftsman in his brother's
(Louis E. Levy's) photoengraving establishment at
Baltimore during the early struggle to establish
and perfect that branch of the graphic arts. He
accompanied his brotlier to Philadelphia, and for a
time was in charge of the entire business. After
the introduction of the half-tone process he spent
over two years of constant and close application de-
vising and perfecting the mechanism of his new in-
vention. Levy is also an inventor in other lines,
and is a constant and indefatigable experimenter.

A. D. Ba.

LEVY, MEYER: German jurist; borninWoll-
stein, province of Posen, Jan. 17, 1833; died in Ber-
lin Oct. 18, 1896. After practising as an assessor in
Berlin, he received the appointment of "Rechts-
Anwalt " in Fraustadt, where he at once began his
literary activity, delivering lectures on legal sub-
jects. Among liis writings of this period are to be
noted: " Der Staatund die Juden im Norddeutschen
Bunde: Ein Mahnruf an das Norddeutsche Parla-
ment," Lissa, 1867, and "Die Zweite In.stanz in
Bi'irgerlichen Rechtsstreitigkeiten," Berlin, 1871. In
1872 he returned to Berlin and engaged in practise
there, first at the Stadtgericht, then at the Land-



Levy, liouis
Levy, Moritz

gericht, finally gaining admission to the Kammer-
gericht. He secured a very large and influential
clientage. Levy was president of the Berlin Bar
Association. He was killed by a robber.

Of Levy's works other than the above-mentioned
may be cited the following: (with G. von Wilmow-
sky) "Civilprozessordnung uud Gerichtsverfass-
ungsgesetz fiir das Deutsche Reich," Berlin, 1877-
1878 (2d ed. 1880; 6th ed. 1892); "Zur Practischen
Anweuduug der Deutschen Civilprozessordnung,"
lb. 1880; "Handausgabe der Civilprozessordnung,"
ib. 1884 (2d ed. 1889; 3d ed. 1894).

s. M. Co.

LiJVY, MICHEL : French publisher; born at
Pfalzburg Dec. 20, 1821 ; died in Paris May 6, 1875.
Li 1836 he settled in the latter city, where, together
with his brothers Caiman and Nathan, he engaged
in the publishing business. His firm soon became
one of the most important publishing-houses in
France and the center of modern belletristic litera-
ture. The most noteworthy of its publications are
the works of the elder and the younger Dumas,
George Sand, Balzac, Alfred de Vigny, Lamartine,
and Victor Hugo, and the scientific writings of
Guizot, Renan, and Michelet. Levy published also
the collections "La Bibliothoque Dramatique," "Le
Theiltre Contemporaiu," "La Bibliotheque Contem-
poraine," and "La Collection Michel Levy."

Of famous foreign authors whose works were

published by the Levy firm may be mentioned:

Heine, Thackeray, and Macaulay. After Levy's

death the business was continued by his brother

Caiman Levy (b. in Pfalzburg Oct. 19, 1819; d.

at Paris June 18, 1891), and since the death of the

latter it has been conducted by Caiman's three sons,

Paul, Georges, and Gaston.

Bibliography : Nouv&au Larousse Illustre ; Meyers Kon-
versat ions-Lexikon.

s. F. C.

L3EVY, MICHEL: French physician; born at
Strasburg Sept. 28, 1809; died at Paris March 13,
1872; educated at the Uuiversitj'^ of Montpellier
(M.D. 1834). In 1836 he became professor of hy-
giene at the Val-de-Grace in Paris; in 1845 he was
appointed professor of pathology at Metz; two
years later he returned in this capacity to the
Val-de-Grstce, of which medical school he became
director in 1856. In the Crimean war he had for a
few months charge of a hospital in Constantinople.
He was the author of "Traite d 'Hygiene Publique
et Privee," Paris, 1843-45 (5th ed. 1869); "Sur la
Rougeole des Adultes," ib. 1847; "Histoire de la
Meningite Cerebro-Spinale Observeeau Val-de-GrSce
en 1848 et 1849," ib. 1850 ; " Sur 1' Hygiene Militaire,"
ib. 1867; "Sur les Hopitaux-Baraques," zJ. 1871.

Bibliography : La Grande Encyclnpeclie ; Nouveau La-

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 17 of 169)