Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

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rousse Illustre.
s. F. T. H.

entalist; born at Altona March 11, 1817; died at
Breslau Feb. 22, 1872. Having received a rabbin-
ical education, he became teacher in the Synagogen-
Gemeinde of Breslau, where he was active for nearly
thirty years. For his scientific labors he received from
the King of Prussia, in 1865, the title of professor.

Levy was preeminent in the field of Sepiitic pale-

ography. He was the first person after Gesenius tO'
treat the subject in a comprehensive manner. In
the deciphering and interpretation of Phenician, old
Hebrew, Punic, Aramaic, Himyaritic, and later He-
brew coins, seals, gems, and niouunients his pecul-
iar intuition guided him more surely than mere
philological knowledge did others; such, for exam-
ple, was the case with his deduction from the in-
scriptions found on the Ilauran that at the beginning
of the Christian era an Arabic people lived there
which used the Aramaic language and alphabet.

Levy's first published essay, in 1855, was on the in-
scriptions on certain Aramean bowls ("Z. D. M. G."
ix. 465 et seq.). This was followed by the first and
second parts of his " Phonizische Studien " (Breslau,
1856 and 1857) ; his decipherment of the Eshmunazar
inscription won him immediate recognition. He next
published a study in Jewish history, " Don Joseph
Nasi, Herzog von Naxos, Seine Familie und Zwei
Jiidische Diplomaten Seiner Zeit " (Breslau, 1859).
In 1860 and 1861 other essays by him appeared (" Z. D.
M. G." xiv. 365 et seq., 594, 710 et seq. ; xv. 615 et
seq., 623 et seq.; xvii. 75), dealing with Phenician
numismatics. In 1862 was published " Die Gesch.
der Jlidischen Miiuzeu Gemeinfasslich Dargestellt "
(Breslau). " Eine Lateinisch - Griechisch - Phoni-
zische Inschrift aus Sardinien " appeared iir " Z. D.
M. G." (xviii. 53 et seq.). In 1863 he published the
third part of his " Phonizische Studien," and in 1864
his " Phonizisches Worterbuch" (Breslau). In 1865
Levy edited, at the request of the Deutsche JVIor-
genlaudische Gesellschaft, the material which Osi-
ander had left bearing on Himyaritic paleography
and archeology ("Z. D. M. G." xix. 159 etseq., xx.
305 et seq. ; an essay on Jewish gravestones in Aden
appears in xxi. 156 et seq.). His " Systematisch Ge-
ordnetes Spruchbucli als Leitfaden fiir den Jildischen
Religionsunterricht " was published in Breslau in
1867 ; " Siegel und Gemmen mit Aramaischen, Pho-
nizischeu, Althebraischen, Himyarischen, Nabathai-
schen und Altsyrischen Inschriften Erklart" ap-
peared in 1869. In 1870 he published the fourth part
of his " Studien, " and " Die Biblische Gesch. nach
den Worten der Heiligen Schrift der Israelitischen
Jugend Erzahlt," both at Breslau. "Das Mesa
Denkmal und Seine Schrift," and various essays in
"Z. D. M. G." (xxv. 439 et seq., xxvi. 417), appeared
in the following year.

Bibliography : Siegfried, in AUgemeine Deutsche Biogra-
phie. _ „ »«

s. F. T. H.

VARD MARIUS) : Danish physician ; born in
Copenhagen Sept. 8, 1808; died there Dec. 30, 1865.
He graduated as M. D. from the University of Copen-
hagen in 1833, having in 1830 won the university
gold medal for a medical essay.

From 1833 till 1836 Levy traveled abroad, making
a special study of obstetrics, and upon his return to
Copenhagen he became resident physician of the
Nursery Institute ("Plejestiftelsen ").

In 1838 Levy accepted baptism and assumed the
name "Carl Edvard Marius," thereby removing an
obstacle in the way of his becoming a university
professor. In 1840 he was appointed lector, in 1841
assistant professor, and in 1850 professor at Copen-

Levy, Nathan



hagen Universit}' ; and at the same time lie became
obstetrician to tiie city of Copenhagen.

Levy was a prolific scieutitic writer. Of his pub-
lications the following may be mentioned : "' De Bym-
podia seu Moustrositute Sireniformi, cum Auatonuca
EjusmodiMonstri Descriptione," Copenhagen, 1833;
" Oni CoUisionen Imellem Perforation og Kaisersnit.
Et Bidrag til Uudersogelsen : De Jure Vita; et
Necis quod Competit Medico in Partu," ib. 1840;
" Udtog af Fodselsvidenskaben som Lajrebog for
Jordemodre," ib. 1843. Levy was coeditor of the
" Journal for Mcdlcin og Chirurgie, " to which he con-
tributed extensively. A number of essays and trea-
tises from his pen have ai)iieared also in the German
and the English medical periodicals.

Bibliography: C. F. Bricka. Dansk Bio<jfafi.-<h Lexicon:
Ersiew^s Forfatter-Lexicon.

s. F. C.

LEVY, NATHAN : Founder of the first Jewish
cemetery in Philadelphia; born in Feb., 1704; died
in Philadelphia Dec. 23, 1753. He probably went
there from New York, for in 1730 a merchant of
his name was a member of the Shearith Israel con-
gregation of the latter city. Upon his arrival in
Philadelphia he engaged in the general commission
business with David Franks under the firm name of
Levy & Franks, and continued in that business un-
til his death. According to a letter of Richard Pe-
ters dated Sept. 20, 1738, there was laid out by Mr.
Thomas Penu ("proprietary governor of Pennsyl-
vania "), " for a burying-place for Mr. Nathan Levy
and family," a plot of ground on Spruce street near
Ninth street. Peters was evidently mistaken in the
date, for it was on Sept. 25, 1740, that Nathan Levy
ob^tained the first grant of thirty feet square; on
June 27, 1752, he secured from the proprietary
government the adjoining lot, thirty feet wide and
si.xty feet in depth. It was evident!}' the intention
of Levy to permit the cemetery to be used by the Jews
of his adopted city, and not to retain it for the use
of his family alone, lie had the ground boarded in.
In 1751 he complained to the "Pennsylvania Ga-
zette "that "unthinking persons had fired several
shots against the Jews' burying-ground " ; he had
therefore enclosed it with a brick wall. At liis
death, two years later, his remains were interred in
the cemetery he had founded. It is now the prop-
erty of the Congregation Mickve Israel (see Piiii-a-

BiBi.iOGUAPHY : Morals, in I'lMicatinns Am. Jeu: Hist. Soc.
IHiW, i. -ti-ril ; Rosenbach, The Jews of Philadelphia Prior to
ISW, pp. 8-9, Philadelpliia, 1883.

A. A. S. W. R.

LEVY, SAMSON : Colonial merchant of Pliila-
delpliia. lb' was one of the originators, in 1748, of
the City Dancing Assembly, a famous social organi-
zation of Philad<l|)liia. In Nov., 1765, lie signed,
with other mcreiiants of tiie city, including six
Jews, the celebrated resolutions not to import goods
from England until the Stamp Act had been re-
pealed. He had two sons, Moses ami Samson.
Moses Levy (b. Philadelphia 1757; d. there ilay 9,
182G) was edufiitcd at the I'nivcrsity of Pennsylva-
nia, from which he graduated in 1776. On March
19, 1778, he was admitted to the bar; from 1802 to
1822 he was recorder of Philadelphia; from 1822 to

1825, presiding judge of the district court for the
city and county of Philadelphia. At one time he
was a member of the Pennsylvania legislature, and
he was a trustee of the University of Pennsylvania
for twenty-four years. Samson Levy (b. Philadel-
l)hia 1761; d. there Dec. 15, 1831) studied law with
liis brother Moses Levy, was admitted to the bar on
June 9, 1787, and became one of the best-known
lawyers of the city. He was one of the incorpora-
tors of the Pennsj'lvauia Academy of the Fine Arts.

Bibliography : Brown, Tlie Furum ; Martin, Tlic Bench and
Bar of Philadelphia; Morals, The Jews of Philadel2}hia;
Rosenbach, The Jews of Philadelphia Pr-ior to 1800 ; Pub-
lications Am. Jew. Hist. Soc. 1. 60.


A. S. W. R.

LEVY, SARA: German philanthropist; born
in Berlin June, 1761; died there March 11, 1854.
She was a daughter of Daniel Itzig, and was well
educated according to the fashionable French
standards of her time. Her husband was Samuel
Levy, one of the first bankers of Berlin. During
the time following the battle of Jena she was much
sought after b}' Bignon, the French ambassador to
Berlin, atfd the other French officials. She retained
her Judaism, though most of her relatives deserted
their faith ; at her death she left thirty thousand
thalers to the Jewish Orphan Asylum of Berlin,
and bequeathed her house to King Frederick Will-
iam IV.
Bibliography : Kayserllng, Jlldische Frauen, pp. 22S ct seq.

s. J.

LEVY, SIMON : French rabbi; born in 1829 at
Lauterbourg, Alsace; died at Bordeaux Nov. 29,
1886. He studied first under Solomon Ulmann,
and then at the Rabbinical School at Metz, which he
left in 1853 to accept the rabbinate of Luneville.
In 1864 he was called as chief rabbi to Bordeaux,
where he remained until his death. Besides a pam-
phlet, " Renan etla Synagogue," Levy wrote " Moise,
Jesus, ^lahomet," which work was published pos-
Bibliography : Archives Israelites, Dec. 9, 1880.

s. I. Lev.

LEVY, URIAH PHILLIPS : American naval
officer; born in Philadelphia April 22, 1792; died in
New York March 22,
1862. Levy was a
cabin-boy before the
age of eleven ; he was
apprenticed as a sailor
in 1806; in 1810 he be-
came second mate of
a brig, and later first
mate of anotiier. He
purchased a one third
interest in the .schooner
" George Washington,"
of whi<;h he was mas-
ter until 1812. On Oct.
23, 1812, he received a
commission as sailing-
master in the United
States navy, serving

on the siiip "Alert," and later on the brig "Argus,"
bouiwl for France. The "Argus" captured several
prizes, and Levy was placed in command of one, but


Uriali Phillips Levy



Levy, Nathan

the prize was recaptured by the English, and Levy
and the crew were Ivept as prisoners in Enghmd for
sixteen months. In 1816 he was assigned as sailing-
master to the "Franklin," 74 guns, and in iNhirch,
1817, he was appointed lieutenant, his appointment
being confirmed by tlie Senate.

Lcvj' had many ditliculties in the navy, possibly
due to anti-Jewish prejudice. He fought a duel,
killed his opponent, was court-martialed six times,
and finally dropped from the list as captain, to
which rank he had been jiromoted. He defended his

conduct before a

court of inquiry in
1855, Avas restored Id
the navy as captain,
and subsequently
rose to the rank of

Levy always ac-
knowledged his Jew-
ish allegiance. He
was a great admirer
of Thomas Jefferson ;
he purchased Mon-
ticello, the home of
Jefferson (still owned
by Levy's descend-
ants), and presented
to the United States
government a statue
of Jefferson, which
is now in the Capitol
at Washington. The
freedom of the city
of New York was
voted to him by the
common council on
Feb. 6, 1834, as a
testimonial to his
character, patriotism,
and public spirit. He
is buried in that por-
tion of Cypress Hills

Cemetery in use by the Congregation Shearith
Israel, and on his tombstone is recorded that " he
was the father of the law for the abolition of the
barbarous practise of corporal punishment in the
United States navy."

American Jeivish Year Book, 1902-3, pp.

S. Wo.

Tombstone of Uriah Phillips Levy, Cypress Hills Cemetery, New York.

(From a photograph.)

Lycee Charlemagne and the Ecole Normale Superi-
eure. In 1879 he received the degree of "agr^ge en
philosophic," and was at once called to a professor-
ship in phih)sophy at the Lycee of Poitiers, which
he lesigned two years later for a professorship at
Amiens. In 1SS4 he received the degree of Ph.D.,
and the year following was apjiointed i)rofessor of
jihilosophy at the Lycee Louis-le-Grand, succeeding
Burdeau. For several years he held the same chair
at the Seminaire Israelite de France, which lie re-
.signed in ISO.") to become "maitrc de conferences" at

the Ecole Normale

Superieure. In 1899
he was api)ointed to
a similar jjosition at
the University of
Paris, where, in 1902,
he became "charge
de cours" of the his-
tory of modern phi-
lo.sophy. Since 1886
Levy-Bruhl has lec-
tured, at the Ecole
Libre des Sciences
Poliliques, on the
history of political
movements and on
the development of
public spirit in Ger-
many antl England
during the last two

Levy-Bruhl has
written: "L'Idee de
Responsabilite " and
■' Quid de Deo Seneca
Senserit" (Paris,
1884; his two gradu-
ating theses); "L'Al-
lemagne Depuis
Leibnitz" (ib. 1890);
"Essai sur la Forma-
tion de la Conscience
1890); "La Philoso-
" History of IModern
1899); "Lettres


author of the beginning of the sixteenth century.
Expelled from Spain in 1492, he settled at Tunis,
where in 1507 he wrote " Sefer ha-Zikkarou," a su-
percommentary on Rashi. The manuscript remained
unprinted till 1845, when it was discovered in a
Jewish library in Tunis. The work has several
prefaces, one of which, written by the author him-
self, recounts his sufferings at the time of the expul-
sion from Spain.
Bibliography : Cazes, Notes Bibliographiques.

8. s. M. Fr.

LEVY-BRTJHL, liXTCIEN : French philoso-
pher; born at Paris April 10, 1857; educated at the

Natiouale en AUemagne " (ib.
phie de Jacobi " (ib. 1894);
Philosophy in France " (Chicago
Inedites de John Stuart ]\Iill a Auguste Comte"
(Paris, 1899; containing the answers of Comte);
"La Philosophic d'Auguste Comte" (ib. 1900); "La
Morale et la Science des Manirs" (ib. 1903). Levy-
Bruhl is a chevalier of the Legion of Honor.

s. J. K.\.


Danish musician and critic; born in Copenhagen
Oct. 14, 1858. He studied at the University of Co-
penhagen and at the Polytechniske lustitut until
1878, when he decided to devote liimself to the study
of music. From 1884 to 1896 he was conductor
of the Academical Song-Society (StudenterSang-
foreningeu) ; in 1891 he was appointed keeper of the
archives of music at the Kongelige Theater in Co-

Levysohn has translated into Danish the texts
of several operas, including " Don Juan " and
"Othello." He has written also a number of crit-




ical essays in " Morgcnbladet " and in other Danish


BiBLiotiRAPHY: Salmotuseu's Store Illustrercde Konverm-


s. F. C.

IiEWALD, FANNY: German autlioress; born
May 24, Kuuigsberg, Prussia; died Aug. 5,
1889, in Dresden. In her seventeenth year she
entered the Evangelical Church. In 1831, in com-
pany with her father, she made a tour through Ger-
many and France, i)r()longing her stay in Breslau and
Berlin. In 1834, to while away tlie hours of an in-
valid sister, she wrote a book of fairy-stories. It was
not, however, until 1841 that she entered the literary
arena with a novel entitled "Der Stellvertreter,"
ptiblished in serial form in the "Europa," a paper
owned by a relative likewise named Lewald. Sub-
sequently were published anonymously : "Klemen-
tine," 1842; "Jenny," 1843; " Eine Lebensfrage,"
1845; "Das Arme Mildclien," 1845. In the spring
of 1845 she made a tour of Italy, after which she
settled in Berlin, where she married (1854) Adolph
Stalir, the literary critic. In company with her hus-
band she undertook a series of tours through Eu-
rope, her mind storing a wealth of impressions wliich
were later to be called into requisition. Hei* literary
productiveness during the years followingupon this
extended tour knew no bounds. One book followed
another in quick succession, astonishing the reading
public by their variety of subject and fertility of
resource: " Italienisches Bilderbuch," 1847; "Dio-
gena Jtoman von Iduna Grilfin H.-H. ," giving a
humorous portraiture of the Countess Hahn-Hahn;
"Prinz Louis Ferdinand," 1849; "Erinnerungen aus
dem Jahre 1848"; "Liebesbriefe," 1850, previously
published 1845; "Duneu- und Berggeschichten,"
1850; "Reisetagbuch Durch England und Schott-
land," 1852 ; " Das >Iadcheu vou Hela," 1853 ; " Meine
Lebensgeschichte," 1861 ; "Von Geschlecht zu Ge-
schlecht,"a novel in eight volumes, 1863-65; "Oster-
briefe f iir die Frauen, " 1863 ; " Erzahlungen, " in three
volumes, 1866-68; " Villa Riunione," 1868; "Sommer
und Winter am Genfer See, " a diary, 1869 ; " Fiir und
Wider die Frauen," letters, 1870 ; " Nella," Christmas
story, 1870;" Die Erloserin," a novel, 1873; "Bene-
dikt," 1874; "Benvenuto," a novel from the world
of art, 1875; " Reisebriefe aus Italien, Deutschland,
und Frankreich," 1880; "Helmar," a novel, 1880;
" Vater und Sohn." a novel, 1881 ; " Vom Sund zum
Posilipp," letters of travel, 1883; "Stella," a novel,
1884; "Die Familie Darner," a novel, 1887; "Zwolf
Bilder nach dem Leben," 1888; etc. These are only
a few of the productions of this versatile writer.
In all more than fifty volumes can be accredited
to a pen never idle. Fanny Lewald is remarkable
for her keen observation of men and manners,
for the firmness with which her characters are out-
lined, for the grace and finish of her style; a harsh
realism, however, pervades her works. This tend-
ency to realism prompts her to seek an ideal in tlic
dispassionate man of alTairs, who according to her
standpoint may be relied upon to solve the problem
of human existence. As a rule, this view precludes
the possibility of frequent excursions into the world
of the imagination, and except in rare cases is apt to
stamp the work of the writer as devoid of that

Louis Lewandowski.

poetic charm so essential to the highest literary
achievement. Her activity was not confined to lit-
erature. She was one of Germany's foremost lead-
ers in the movement for the emancipation and ad-
vancement of women, favoring the opening to iheni
of new fields of employment. S.

LEWANDOWSKI, LOUIS: German composer
of synagogal music; born at Wresehen, province of
Posen, April 23, 1823; died Feb. 4, 1894, at Berlin.
At the age of twelve he
went to Berlin to study
pianoforte and singing,
and became solo soprano
in the synagogue. He
afterward studied for
three years under A. B.
Marx and also attended
the school of composi-
tion of the Berlin Acad-
emy, where his teachers
were Rungenhagen,
Bach, and Grell. Grad-
uated with liigli honors,
he was api^ointedin 1840
choirmaster of the Berlin
synagogue, in wliich ca-
pacity he rendered in-
valuable services in be-
half of ritualistic music. His principal works are:
"Kol Rinnah u-Tefillah," for chorus; "Todah
u-Zimrah," for mixed chorus, solo, and organ; 40'
psalms, for solo, chorus, and organ ; .symplionies,
overtures, cantatas, and songs.

In 1866 he received the title of "royal musical
director," and shortly afterward was appointed
choirmaster in the Neue Synagoge, Berlin, for
which he composed tlie entire musical service. His
aiTangements of ancient Hebrew melodies for choir,
cantor, and organ are considered masterl}- produc-
tions, and are characterized by great simplicity and
a profound religious sentiment. Many of Lewau-
dowski's pupils have become prominent cantors.
Lewandowski was the principal founder of the In-
stitute for Aged and Indigent Musicians, an insti-
tution wliich prospered under his management.

Bibliography : Mendel, Musikalisches Konversations-Lexi-
knn ; Champltn, Cyclopedia of Music and Musicians ; Rie-
iiiaDD, MuMk- Lex ikon.

s. J. So.

OMON) : Polish publisher; born at Wloclawek,
Russian Poland, 1839 ; died at Wiesbaden Sept. 24,
1902. In 1862 Lewental. the son of poor Jewish
parents, bought with his accumulated savings the
press of the Warsaw publisher John Gliicksberg (d.
1859), and began his ciiicer with the " Kalendarz
Ludowy," a popular almanac, which he continued
until 1866. In 1865, in conjunction with others, he
founded "Klosy," an illustrated weekly, which in
the next year became his exclusive property. Un-
der Lewental's management and under the editor-
ship of Adam Plug " Klosy "became the most widely
circulated illustrated weekly in Poland, and contrib-
uted in no small measure to the popularizing of
Polish art and to the development of Polish wood-




eugraviiig. lu 1871 Lcwental bought the "Kolko
Doinowe," a home inagaziue, and transfornied it into
the popular "Tygodnik Romansow i Powiesci " (dis-
continued in I'JOO). Lewental was tiie proprietor
also of the "Swit," edited for a few years by Mary
Konopnicka. lu 1871, also, lie issued au edition of
the works of Korzeniowski, which iirf>ved so popular
that it led later to similar editions of the works of
Kraszewski, Kremer, Rzewuski, Skarbek, Fredro,
Syrokomla, Eliza Orzeszko, Kaczkowski, Balucki,

In 1874 Lewental commenced the publication of
the best productions of European literature under
the title "Biblioteka Najcelniejszych Utworow Lit-
eratury Europejskiej." They were edited with the
greatest care by Peter Chmielowski and, after him,
by Stanislaus Krzcminski. The "John Matejko
Album" and many other well-known works were
issued from his i)ress. In 1887 Lewental became
one of the proprietors of the " Ivuryer Warszawski."
Though he avoided politics he did not succeed in
escaping a conflict with the Russian government;
he was arrested in 1900, was compelled to discon-
tinue all his publications, and was sentenced to de-
portation for three years to Odessa. After a year
there he obtained a passport for foreign travel.
Lewental enjoyed the friendship of many literati,
among them being J. I. Kraszewski, for whose re-
lease from imprisonment at Magdeburg he offered
to furnish the bail required by the Prussian govern-

H. H. W. Pk.

LEWI, JOSEPH : American physician ; born
at Radnitz, Bohemia, Aug. 17, 1820; died at Al-
bany, N. Y., Dec. 19. 1897; educated at the univer-
sities of Prague and Vienna. After graduating from
the latter imiversity (M.D. 1846) he was appointed
assistant at the Vienna Lying-in Hospitiil. In 1847
he began to practise in Radnitz, but in the follow-
ing year, that of the Revolution, emigrated to Amer-
ica, settling in Albany in 1849. There l^e was ap-
pointed on the staff of the Albany hospital, and be-
came a member and later president of the Albany
County Medical Society, and senior censor of tiie
State Medical Society. Lewi was one of the forty-
two citizens of Albany who organized, in 1863, the
Union League in that city.

Thirteen of Lewi's fourteen children survived
him. The oldest son is the journalist Isidor Lewi
(b. Albany May 9, 1850). He was educated at the
Albany Academy, became connected with several
newspapers, and is at present (1904) an editorial
writer on the " New York Tribune " and publisher
of the "New Era Illustrated Magazine." Another
son, Maurice J. Lewi (b. Albany Dec. 1, 1857), is a
physician in New York city. He graduated from
the Albany Medical College in 1877. After a post-
graduate course in Heidelberg and Vienna he began
to practise in his native town (1880). He became
lecturer at the Albany Medical College and pro-
fessor of medical jurisprudence at the Albany Law
School. In 1891 he was appointed secretary of the
state board of medical examiners, which office lie still
(1904) occupies. In 1892 he removed to New York

A. F. T. H.

LEWIN, ADOLF : German rabbi and author ;
born at Pinne, Posen, Sept. 23, 1843. Lewin was edu-
cated at the Jewish Theological Seminary and at tlie
University of Breslau. In 1872 he was appointed
rabbi in Kozmin, later in Col)lenz, and in 1886 was
called to the rabbinate of Freiburg-im-Breisgau.
He wrote: "Die Religioustlisputation R. Jehiels,"
a prize essay (Breslau, 1869); "Die ]Makkabili.sche
Erhebung," a dissertation (<6. 1870); "Zur Juden-
frage: Naturwisseiischaft oder Judenhass" {ib.
1880); "Juden in Freiburg-im-Breisgau " (Treves,
1890); "Das Judenthum und die Nichtjuden " (t6.
1891); "Geschichte, Geographic, und Reiselittera-
tur der Juden " (in Winter and Wilnsche, "Die Jil-
discheLitteratur," ii. 287-473V

s. M. K.

matologist; born at Sondershausen April 25, 1820;
died at Berlin Nov. 1, 1896. He was educated at
the universities of Halle and Berlin, graduating as
doctor of medicine in 1845. After a postgraduate
course at the universities of Vienna, Wiirzburg, and
Paris he settled in Berlin, where he practised as a
specialist first in otology, and later in dermatology
and syphilis. In 1862 Lewin was admitted to the
medical faculty of his alma mater as privat-docent
in otology. In 1865 he became chief physician in
the department of dermatology and syphilis at the
('harite Hospital, and in 1868 was appointed assist-

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 18 of 169)