Isidore Singer.

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ant professor.

In 1880 Lewin became a member of the imperial
department of health, and in 1884 received the title
of "Geheimer Medicinal rat." In the same year,
through the influence of Bismarck, Lewin s clinic
was divided into two departments, Lewin retaining
the class in syphilis, while Schweninger, Bismarck's
physician, was appointed chief physician for derma-
tology. This action of the government aroused
much indignation in the medical faculties of most
of the universities of Germany, and much public
sympathy was expressed for Lewin.

Lewin was very successful in his profession. He
introduced several new methods in the treatment of
syphilis and in dermatology, among which may be
mentioned the subcutaneous injection of mercuric
chlorid and the spray application in diseases of the

He was an industrious writer, and contributed
many essays to the medical journals. He was also
the author of the following works: "Klinik der
Krankheiten des Kehlkopfes," 2d ed., Berlin, 1863;
"Inhalatioustherapie und Krankheiten der Respira-
tionsorgane," 2d ed., ib. 1865; "Behandlung der
Syphilis Durcli Subcutane Sublimatinjectionen," ib.

Bibliography: Paget. Buig. Le.r.; Meyers konvrr'<ntiov»-
Lex ikon.
8. F. T. H.

LEWIN, LOUIS : German pharmacologist and
toxicologist: born at Tuchel, West Prussia, Nov. 9,
1850. He received his education at the gymnasium
and the University of Berlin (M.D. 1876). The two
years following his graduation he spent at Munich,
in the laboratories of Voit and Pettenkofer. Re-
turning to Berlin, he in 1878 became assistant at the




pharmacological institute of tlie university, which
position he resigned in 1881. In the same year he
was admitted to the medical faculty at the univer-
sity as privat-docent, and in 1897 he was appointed

Lewin is a prolific writer. Among his many es-
says may be mentioned :

" Ueber Morphium-Ititoxication," in "Deutsche Zeltschritt
fur Praktische Medizin," 1874, No. 26; " Experinientelle Unter-
suchungen uber die Wirkuntreii des Aconitin auf das Herz," in
" Centralblatt fur die Medizinische VVissenscbaft," 1875, No. 25;
'* Ueber die Verwertliung des Alkohols in Fieberhaf ten Krank-
helten," In "Deutsches Archiv fiir Klinische Medizin," 1876;
"Ueber Maximale Dosen der Arzneimittel," in "Transactions
of tlie International Medical Congress," ninth session, Washing-
ton, 1887; "Ueber Allgeineine Hautvergiftung Durch Petro-
leum," in Vlrchow's " Archiv," cxii., 1888 ; " Ueber Anhalonium
Lewinli und Andere Cacteen," in "Archiv fur Experimentelle
Pathologic und Pharmakologie," 1894; "Die Behandlung der
Lepra," in " Deutsche Medizinische Wochensehrift," 1898 ; " Die
Untersuchungen von Blutflecken," ih. 1899; "Die Vergiftungen
in Betrieben," ih. 1890 (also translated by Pannier in "Bulletin
G^n^ral de Therapeutique," 1902); " Ueber die Behandlung der
Lepra," ih. 1900.

Lewin is also the author of: "Die Nebenwirk-
ungen der Arzneimittellehre," Berlin, 1881, 2d ed.
1893 (translated into Russian) ; " Lehrbuch der Toxi-
cologic," Vienna, 1885, 2d ed. 1897 (translated into
French by Pouchet, Paris, 1902); "Ueber Piper
Methysticum (Kawa Kawa)," Berlin, 1886; "Ueber
Areca Catechu, Chavica Detle, und das Betelkauen,"
Stuttgart. 1889.

s. F. T. H.

LEWIN, WILLIAM C. J. See Terris,


LEWINSKY, ABRAHAM: German rabbi;
bora March 1, 1866, at Loslau, Upper Silesia. He
studied at the University of Breslau from 1884 to
1887 (Ph.D.), pursuing at the same time his rabbin-
ical studies at the Jewish Theological Seminary. In
1890 he was called as district rabbi to Weilburg-on-
the-Lahn; and two years later he took charge of the
district rabbinate of Hildesheim, which position he
still (1904) occupies.

Lewinsky has published: "BeitrSge zur Kennt-
niss der Religionsphilosophischen Anschauungen des
FlaviiLs Josephus"; "Dor Hildesheimer Rabbiner
Samuel Hameln " (in " Kaufmann Gedenkbuch " and
printed separately); and "Ausdem Hildesheimer
Stadtarchivc." S.

LEWINSOHN, JOSHUA: Russian teacher and
writer; born 1833 at Vyeshiuti, government of
Kovno. He received his Talmudical education at
Zhagory, in the house of his uncle Simon Hurvitz,
and graduated in 186-5 from the gymnasium at
Mitau, remaining there until 1874, -when he was ap-
pointed inspector of tlie Jewish school at Tukum.
Courland. His first articles in Hebrew appeared in
" Ha-Maggid " in 1857; and since then lie has con-
tributed extensively to tiiat paper and to "Ha-
Meliz," " HaShahar," and other Hebrew periodicals.
He was also for many years a contributor to the
German "Rigasche Zeitung."

Lewinsohn has published : " Erez Russia u-Me-
lo'ah " (Wilna, 1868), a geograpiiy and topography
of Russia: "Toledot Anshe Shem be-Yi.srael," biog-
raphies of about fifty Jewish authors; and "Toledot
Sehar ha-Yehudim" (in " Ha-Shahar "), a history of

Jewisii commerce. He has likewise written numer-
ous articles on Jewish history which have appeared
in various periodicals.

Blbliography: Sokoiov, Sefer Zihkaron, p. 64.

u. K. J. G. L.

LEWINSTEIN, JOSEPH : Russian rabbi and
author; born at Lublin. Russian Poland, 1840. He
is a member of a family of rabbis and Talmudists
which includes the author of the " Lebushim " and of
"Pene Y'ehoshua'." At tlie age of twenty he became
rabbi of Karol, in the government of Plotzk ; in
1868, rabbi of Zaklikov, in the government of Lub-
lin ; since 1875 he has been rabbi of Serotzk, govern-
ment of Lomza.

Lewinstein has written " Birkat Abraham," on
Pesahim, Bezah, and Hagigah; "Peue Abraham,"
commentary on Genesis; a commentary on the Hag-
gadah of Passover; "Dor Dor we-Dorshaw," a col-
lection of 6,600 names of the great of Israel of all
generations, with the dates of their deaths. He has
contributed biographical articles, which are of
special genealogical value and which have won him
recognition as an autliority in this field, to "Ha-
Goren" (ed. Horodetz'ky), lo "Ha-Eshkol," and to
other periodicals. He has written also appendixes
to " 'Ir Gibborim " and " 'Ir Tehillah."

Bibliography: B. Z. Eisenstadt, Dor Rabbanaw we-Sofe-
raw, i. 36, Warsaw, 1895.

n. R. A. S. W.

LEWIS, DAVID : English merchant and phi-
lanthropist; born in London 1823; died in Liver-
pool Dec. 4, 1885. Settling in Liverpool in 1840,
he by 1856 had accumulated sufficient capital to
commence business on his own account as a boys'
clothier in Bold street. Subsequently he opened a
second establishment ; and thereafter he gradually
developed one of the largest retail businesses of the
kind in England, erecting an establishment of the
"Universal Provider" or department store class.
Similar ones were founded by him in Manchester,
Sheffield, and Birmingham. No firm in tlie prov-
inces did more than his to bring cheap and durable
clothing within the reach of the masses.

Lewis' ample means were freely given in aid of
charitjibleand philanthropic works. He headed the
local subscription list for the persecuted Jews of
Russia with a donation of £1,000 ($5,000), and gave
large sums in support of the synagogue. For many
years he held the position of warden and treasurer
of the Old Hebrew Congregation, Liverpool. At
his death he bequeathed very large sums (nearly a
half-million sterling) for the erection of hospitalsand
other philanthropic institutions, which constitute
some of the most important in Liverpool.

Bibliography: Jeiv. Chrnu. and Jew. World, Dec. 11, 1885;
Liverpool Leader, Dec. 6, 1875.
.1. G. L.

lawyer; born in London April 21, 1833; educated at
University College, London. In 1850 ho was arti-
cled to his father, James Graham Lewis (1804-
1869), founder of Lewis & Lewis, one of the best-
known firms of solicitors in the city of London.
George was admitted in Hilary term in 1856, and
was subsequently taken into partnership by liis
father and unde. He first made his name in prose-





v ^ — s^

Arms of Sir George Henry Lewis.

cutiiig the directors of tlio Ovcrcud iuul Gunicy
Bauk, who had causod tiic disastrous pauic of lhl(j(5.
and for a tiiiic lie devoted special altention to finan-
cial cases. In criminal cases lie drew public atten-
tion to himself by his cross-e.vamination in the Bravo

case in 187."), and from
tiiat time onward was
connected ■with most
criminal "causes ccle-
bres." being conspic-
uous in the prosecution
of fraudulent persons
like Madame Kachel
and Slade tiie medium.
Among other cases
may bi; mentioned the
Ilatton Garden dia-
mond robbery case ;
Belt versus Lawes ; and
the Baccarat case, in
which the Prince of
Wales's name was men-
tioned; and lie was
selected by the Parnell
commission to conduct
the case for Charles
Stuart Parnell and tlie Irish party against tlie London
"Times." Lewis has by fur the largest practise in
financial cases of any lawyer in London, and is
especially expert in libel cases, being retained by
some of the chief newspapers. He has shown him-
self especially skilful in exposing the practises of
usurious ni(mey-lenders. Lewis was knighted in
1893, and raised to the rank of baronet in 1902.

Bibliography: Meiiand Women of the Times; Who's Who:
Burke's Peerage, Baronetage, and Knighthood, 1903.

J .

LEWIS, HARRY S.: English author and
communal worker; born in London in 1861; edu-
cated at King's College School and St. John's Col-
lege, Cambridge (B.A. 1884). At Cambridge he
was one of the earliest to take honors in the Semitic
languages tripos (1886) and was Hebrew scholar at
his college. After leaving college he took residence
at Toynibee Hall, Whitechapel, and devoted himself
to social work among the Jews of the East End.
In connection with this he published, with E. J. Rus-
sel, "The Jew in London" (London, 1900). He
edited "The Targum on Isaiah i. 5, with Commen-
tary " (lb. 1889).
Bibliography : Jeivisli Year Booh, .5664 (19()4).


LEWIS, LEOPOLD DAVIS : English drama
tist; born in London 1828; died there Feb. 23, 1890.
Lewis was educated at the King's Collegiate School.
London, and upon graduation became a solicitor,
practising as such from 1850 to 1875. In 1871 he
translated Erckmann-C;hatrian's"Le Juif Polonais,"
giving it the name "The Bells," under which name
it was produced by Henry Irving at the Lyceum
Theatre, London, iSTov. 25, 1871. Original plays
from the pen of Lewis are: "The Wandering Jew "
(Adelphi Theatre, April 14, 1873); "Give a Dog a
Bad Name" (ib. Nov. 18, 1873); and "The Found-
lings " (Sadler's Wells Theatre, Oct. 8, 1881). From
February to December of 1868 he and Alfred Thomp-

son conducted a monthly, "The Mask," which failed.

In addition to the plays mentioned Lewis wrote a

number of tales under the title "A Peal of Merry

Bells" (1880).

Bibliography: Diet. National Biog. xxx. 191; The Times
(London), Feb. 2.5, 1890; The Era and St. Stephen's Revietc
(ih.), March 1, 18it().

.7. E. Ms.

LEWIS, SAMUEL: English money-lender and

philanthropist; born in Birmingham 1837; died in

London Jan. 13, 1901. Lewis began work when

thirteen years old. He became a salesman of steel

pens, then o])ened a jewelers shop, and linally en

lered tin? business with which his name was most

identified, that of moiu\\ -lending. He became the

most fashionable money-lender of his day. Nearly

every noble family in Great Britain is said to have

been more or less in business connecti(m with Lewis.

He left nearly twenty million dollars, of which

five millions are to go to charity on the death of his

widow, Ada Davis Lewis, a sister of Hope Temple,

the composer.

BIBI,IOGRAPIl^ : Jew. Chron. Jan. 18, 1901; The Sketch (Lon-
don), Jan. -Si, 1901.
.r. E. Ms.

LEWIS, SAMUEL A. : American politiciau
and philanthropist; born in New York city 1831.
He early engaged in business, and was so successful
that he retired with a competency in 1862. In 1868
he was elected a member of the board of education
of the city of New York, serving as school commis-
sioner and chairman of the financial committee.
When in 1869 the legislature changed the board
from elective to appointive, Lewis was confirmed
in his office of school commissioner, and in 1870
was reappointed for a term of five years. In 1871,
however, he was compelled to retire. One of his
first acts as a school commissioner was to abolish
corporal punishment. In 1874 Lewis was elected
alderman at large, and later in the same year presi-
dent of the aldermanic board, holding tiie presi-
dency for two consecutive terms.

Lewis is one of the founders of the Mount Sinai
Hospital, and has served, since its organization in
1852, on its board of management as secretary, di-
rector, and vice-president, resigning the last-named
office in 1873. He founded (1872) the School-Teach-
ers' Life Assurance Society, and was in 1874 chair-
man of the relief association for the Ninth Ward.
In 1851 the Ladies' Benevolent Society presented him
with a gold medal in acknowledgment of the valuable
aid he had rendered that body. From 1868 to 1873
Lewis acted as a trustee of the College of the City
of New York.
Bibliography: New Forfc P^lblic SchoolJournal, Feh. ]S,

1871, April 6, 1873; New York Herald, March 13, 1874; Jew-

i.s?i Messenger, April 17, 1874; Daily Graphic, Jan. 22, 187.).

A. F. C.

LEWISOHN, LEONARD : American mer-
chant and philanthropist; born in Hamburg Oct.
10, 1847 ; died in London March 5, 1902. His father,
Samuel Lewisohn, a prominent Hamburg mer-
chant, sent him to the United States in 1863; about
tliree years later he was joined by his younger broth-
er, and they formed the firm of Lewisohn Brothers in
Jan., 1866. As early as 1868 the firm turned its atten-
tion to the metal trade, becoming prominent dealers in




lead during that year. Rocoguizing the commercial
future of electricit}^ and tlie need of copper for cou-
ducting-wires. Levvisohn specialized in that metal,
and by 1879 was recognized as an important holder
of "Lake Copper." Thenceforward his tirm occu-
pied a leading position in the copper markets of the
world. He was also president of the United Metals
Selling Company.

Lewisohn was equally prominent in the sphere
of philanthropy. He contributed largely to the
Alliance colony in New Jersey, founded in 1882, and
to almost every philanthropic institution in New-
York, regardless of creed. He likewise acted as
treasurer of the Hebrew Sheltering Guardian Society
in New York, to which institution he gave his
counsel and large sums of money. He was one of
the largest contributors to the Jewish Theological
Seminary of America and to the Montefiore Sanato-
rium for Consumptives.

A. J.

LEWITA, GUSTAW: Polish pianist; born at
Plock, Poland, 18")5; died at Paris Feb., 1889. After
graduating froui the Vienna Conservatorium with
distinction, he went to Paris, where he became a
member of the orchestra of the Pas de Loup con-
certs. In 1882 Lewita was called to a professorship
in tlie Conservatorium at Warsaw, and in 1885 was
invited to Vienna to give a concert at the court of
tiie archduke Charles. He then went to America,
where he gave concerts in the most Important cities
and before the Emperor of Brazil.

Bibliography: }Ia-Asif, 1893. p. 134; EncyWoptdja I'o-
u'>«zccfina, ix. 281, Warsaw, 1901.
H. u. A. S. W.

CARL: Danish cliemist; born in Copenhagen July
5, 1817; died there Jan. 1, 1863. He obtained the
degree of graduate of pharmacy in 1835, and then
studied chemistry for three years at the polytechnic
school. In 1839 he studied in Berlin (Ph.D.), and
spent the winter of 1839-40 in Pome. He then ob-
tained a position as assistant in the private labora-
tory of J. B. Dumas in Paris.

Lewy soon proved himself to be the possessor of
great experimental ability; so that the Academic
des Sciences in 1841 entrusted him with the task of
studying the atmospheric conditions around the
North and Baltic seas, as well as in Copenhagen.
Tiater he mad(!acf)mparative test of the atmospheric
conditions in Paris and in the surrounding country.

In 1847 Lewy was appointed professor of chemis-
try at Bogota. New Granada, where he enjoyed
great popularity and filled many honorary ollices.
He was decorated by the King of Denmark, and in
1859 was awarded the gold medal of honor. His
writings have appeared in " Annales do Chimie et de
Pliysique," "Comptes Bendus " of the French Insti-
tute (Academic des Sciences), and in "F'orhand-
linger ved de Skandinaviske Naturforskeres 4,
Mode "(1844).
BiBMOfjRAPiiv : f. F. Rrlcka, Dan!<k Biografisk Lexicon.

8. F. C.

LEWY, ISRAEL : German scholar; born at In-
owrazlaw in 1847; educated at the Jewisli Theolog-
ical Seminary and the University in Breslau. In

1874 he was appointed docent at the Lehranslalt fur
die Wissenschaft des Judenthnms in Berlin, and in
1883, on the death of David JoOl, he was called to
the seminary at Breslau. Lewi's knowledge of
Talmudic literature is unusually wide; he is en-
dowed also with an e.vceptionally acute and disjjas-
sionate critic-il spirit and witii a faculty for grasping
the proper importance of details. His first publica-
tion was "Ueber Einige Fragmente aus der ]\Iisclina
des Abba Saul " (Berlin, 1870), in which he showed
tliat the jMishnah collections of the foremost teachers
in the period before the final redaction of the Mishnah
itself, including that of Abba Saul, agreed as regards
all the essential points of the Halakah. "Ein Wort
fiber die Mechilta des R. Simon " (Breslau, 1889) is
likewise an authoritative work in the field of hala-
kic exegesis. Lewy has published also " Interpreta-
tion des Ersten, Zweiten inid Dritten Abschnitts des
Palilstinischcn Talmud-Tiaktates Nesikin" (I'b. 1895-
1902), and " Ein Vorti'ag liber das llitual des Pesach-
Abends" (ih. 1904).


rabbi of Peiskretscham, Upper Silesia; born Dec. 6,
1805; died Feb. 14, 1860. He left a large number
of manuscripts — several hundred sermons in Hebrew
and German, novelhc on the Talmud, verses, a Ger-
man work on Hebrew grammar, and a work entitled
"Korot Tannaim wa-Amoraim," a history of the
Tannaim and Amoraim, the introduction to Avhich,
entitled "Parnasat Hakme ha-Talmnd," was pub-
lished in Kobak's "Jeschurun" (i., part 3, p. 81).
His published Avorksare: "Mekore Minhagim" (Ber-
lin, 1846), a critical essay on religious customs ac-
cording to the Talmud, Posekim, and Midrashim
(this work was afterward plagiarized by Finkelstein,
Vienna, 1851); "Shete Derashot " (Gleiwitz, 1856),
sermons; "Toledot K. Yehoshua' ben Hananyah,"
biography of 11. Joshua b. Hananiah (in Keller's
"Bikkurim," 1865); "Toledot Ilab." biography of
Rab or Abba Arika (Kobak's "Jeschurun," vi. and
vii.). Lewysohn was also a contributor to "Ha-
Maggid " and to Klein's " Jahrbuch."

Bibliography: Lndwip Lewysohn, in Ha-Maggid, vii. 364;
Zeitlin. Bihl. Pn!<t Meudels. pp. 2<)8 209.
B. M. Ski..

LEWYSOHN, LUDWIG: German rabbi;
born April 15. 1819. at Schwersenz, Posen; died at
Stockholm May 20. 1901. Graduating from the Re-
algymnasium, Berlin, in 1843, he studied Orientalia
in that city, and received his doctor's (U'gree from the
University of Halle in 1847, his dissertation being
"De Saciiticiis Veteris Testamenti." In 1848 he
became preacher at Frankfort-on-the-Oder. Three
years later he was called as rabbi to Worms, where
lie olliciated until 1858. He then accepted a call to
Stockholm, where he labored from 1859 to 1893, in
which year he resigned. Besides numerous contri-
butions to Jewish periodicals (especially "Ha-Mag-
gid"), he published " Nafshot Zaddikim" (Frank fort-
on-the-Main. 1855), on the epitaphs at Worms, and
"Zoologie des Talmuds" {ib. 1858).

Bibliography: Relnes, Tahleaiu HiKtnriquex, i. 133 et seq.;
Zeltlln, Jf.iruat Sefer, i. 209.
8 M. L. B




LEX TALIONIS. See Rktai.iation.
LEXICOGRAPHY. See Dictionauies.
LEYDEN. See Netheki-ands.
LHERIE. Sec Buunswick, Leon Levy.
LIADY, BAR of. See Ladieu, Dob Bar b.


LIBATION. See Sact^ikice.

LIBAU : Russian city in the government of
Couilaml. It has a population (1897) of 64,505, in-
cluding 9.700 Jews. Among the latter are 3.225 ar-
tisans (l.o09 being masters) and 117 day-laborers.
Among its educational institutions are a government
school for Jews (105 pupils), a Jewish general school
for girls (90 pupils), and a Talmud Torah (108 pu-
pils). The public schools have 333 Jewish children
on their rolls. A Jewish loan and savings associa-
tion was organized in 1901,

ir. H. S. J.


LIBERTINES. See Slaves and Slavery.

LIBIN, Z. See Hurewitz, Israel.

LIBOSCHtJTZ, JACOB: Russian physician;
born in 1741 ; died at Wilna Feb. 10, 1827. After
studying at the University of Halle he went to St.
Petersburg. His religious belief, however, rendered
it impossible for him to settle there, and he estab-
lished himself at Wilna, wliere he became celebrated.
When the famous physician Professor Frank was
leaving Wilna and was asked in whose charge he
had left the public health, he answered, "In the
charge of God and the Jew" ("Deus et Judeus,"
meaning "God and Liboscliutz "). Liboschutz was
celebrated also as a diplomat and philanthropist
(Fuenn, "Kiryah Ne'emanah," p. 260, Wilna, 1860).

H. K. A. S. W.


Russian physician ; died at St. Petersburg in 1824;
probably the son of Jacob Liboschutz. He studied
medicine at Dorpat (M.D. 1806, his graduating
thesis being " De Morbis Primi Paris Nervorum ").
He then settled at St. Petersburg, where he became
court physician, and founded a hospital for sick
children. Liboschutz wrote: "Tableau Botanique
des Genres de Plantes Observes en Russie " (Vienna,
1811); "Description de Mousses Qui Croissent aux
Environs de St. Petersbourg et de Moscou " (St. Pe-
tersburg, 1811; with Trinius); "Flore des Environs
de St. Petersbourg et de Moscou " {ib. 1811).

BiBLiOGRAPHT: EntziMopedichesM Slovar, xvii. 643, St. Pe-
tersburg, 1893.
H. R. A. S. W.

sian Hebrew scholar and author; born Jan. 3, 1862,
at Kolno, government of Lomza (Lomzha). He
studied Talmud under R. Elijah Hasid and then un-
der his own father, Isaac Libowitz; in addition
he devoted himself to Hebrew literature, reading
especially works on criticism. In 1881 he emigrated
to the United States and settled in New York, where
he still (1904) resides, devoting his time in part to
business and in part to literature.

Libowitz is the author of: "Iggeret Bikkoret "
(New York, 1895), against I. H. Weiss ; " Rabbi Ye-

liudah Aryeh Modena" (Vienna, 1896; 2d ed.. New
York, 1901), his most important work, a collection
of materials for a biography of Leon of Modena;
"Ephraim Deinard " {ib. 1901), a harsh criticism of
Deinard ; and several other pamphlets. Libowitz
has also contributed to the Hebrew periodicals in
the United States: "Ner Ma'arabi," "Ha-Modia' la-
Hadashim," and "Yalkut Ma'arabi."

IJiBLiooRAPiiY: Benzion Eisenstadt, Hakme Yisrael be-Ame-
rika, p. 62, New York, 1903.

H. R. A. S. W.

LIBRARIES : Very little is known concerning
the methods employed by Jews in tlie collection and
preservation of books. The Biblical writings are
silent on this point. That there were royal archives
in Jerusalem may be surmised witli some show of
reason, even though the terms "mazkir" (A. V.
" recorder " ; II Sam. viii. 16, xx. 24, and several
other passages) and " sofer " (A. V. " scribe " ; tb.
viii. 17, and often elsewhere) do not necessarilj' point
to the office of archivist. Nor does the place-name
Kirjath-sepher (Josh. xv. 16; Judges i. 11-12),
which the Septuagint translates U6/Jc Tpa/jfiaruv
(Vulgate, "Civitas Litterarum " = " Book Town"),
afford any further evidence ; though Quatrem&re in
1842 deduced from it the existence of a library there,
and Sayce in 1895 called it "the literary center of
the Canaanites in the south of Palestine " (" Patri-
archal Palestine," p. 220; "Higher Criticism and
the Monuments," p. 54).

Nor is there any fuller information with regard to

Talmudic times and the Middle Ages. The scrolls

seem to have been kept in a cover or sheath of

leather or of metal (p^D; ^w; see

Preserva- passages in Krauss, "LehnwOrter," ii.

tion of 588), a custom which was observed in

Books. Eastern countries for many centuries.
Sambari {c. 1672) speaks of the scroll

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