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Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

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Counselor at Law; President, Independent
Order B'nai li'rith, \Va.sLington, D. C.

T Crawford Howell Toy, D.D., LL.D.,

Professor of Hebrew, Harvard I'nivi-rsiiy.
CambridRe, Mass.

U. C Umberto Cassuto,

Editor of " La Uivista Israelitica," Florence.
Italy.

V. C Vittore Castigrlione,

Chief Kal)bi. Rome, Italy.

V. E "Victor Rousseau Emanuel,

Laurel, .Md.



W. B Wilhelm Bacher, Ph.D.,

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary, I'.uda-
pest, Hungary.

W. H. C W. H. Cobb,

Boston, .NIass.

W. M William Milwitzky,

Cambridfje, Ma,ss.

W. M. M....W. Max Muller, Ph.D.,

Professor of Bible Kxegesis, Reformed Episco-
pal Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, Pa.

W. N Wilhelm Nowack, Ph.D. ,

Professor of Old 'IVstameiit K.xegesis. Uni-
versity of Stiasburg, Germany.

W. P William Popper, M.A., Ph.D.,

(iustas (iottlieil Lecturer in Semitic" Lan-
guages, Columbia University, New York Cit.y.

W. Pe W. Perkowski,

New '\'ork City.

W. R William Rosenau, Ph.D.,

Uubbi of Kutaw Place Temple, Baltimore, Md.

W. Wi W. Winner,

Itaiiiii, Meridian, Miss.

Z. K Zadoc Kahn,

Chief Uabbiof France; Honorary President. of
the Alliance Israelite I'niversclle : officer of
the Legion of Honor ; Paris, Krance.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLUME YIII



N. B.— In the following list subjects likely to be sought for under various headings are repeated under
each heading. Cross-references in this list are to other items in the list, not to articles in the Ency-
clopedia.



I'AGE

"Abudarham," Page from the, Lisbon, 1489 105

Alexander I., Medal Commemorating the Emancipation of the Russian Jews by 403

America: see Michigan.

Archeology: see Coin ; Lul.\b; Moabite Stone; Moloch; Tombstones.

Architecture: see Jew's House; Synagogues; Tombstones.

Ark of the Law of the New West End Synagogue, London 169

Representation of an, on a Glass Dish Found in the Jewish Catacombs at Rome 005

Arms of Sir George Henry liewis 69

Art: see Archeology; Akciiitectore ; Levy, Alphonse; Lilien, Ephraim Mosks: Mantle ok

the Law; Manuscripts; Mizrah; Typography.
Autographs: see Maimonides, Moses; Manasseii ben Israel; Marx, Karl; Mendelssohn, Moses;

MoLKO, Solomon ; Montefiore, Sir Moses.

Babylonian Cylinder Representing Sacrifice of a Child 658

Bar Kokba, Coin of. Bearing a Lulab 205

Baths, Jewish, of the Sixteenth Century "iBS, 589

Bible : see Leviticus ; Masorah ; Mkgillot.

"Blessing of the New Moon." From a Drawing by Alphonse Levy 57

Board of Guardians, Jewish, Building of the, London 164

Breslau Wilhelmschule, Medal Commemorating the Founding of the 403

Candlestick, Golden: see Menorah.

Catacombs at Rome, Jewish, Glass Dish with Jewish Symbols Found in the 205

Cemetery, Cypress Hills, New York, Showing Tombstone of Uriah Phillips Levy 65

of Mayence, Ancient Remains of the Jewish 386

Modern Jewish 387

Spanish and Portuguese, Mile End Road. London 158

see also Tombstones.

Ceremonial: see Blessing op the New Moon; Lulab ; Magen Da win ; Mantle of the Law;
Marriage; Mazzot; Mezuzah ; Mizkah.

Coin of Bar Kokba Bearing a Lulab 205

Constantinople, Page from Midrash Eleh Ezkerah, Printed in 1620 ai 577

Costume, Galiciau plate ffiriuri 846

German, Eighteenth Century 348, 345

Cracow, Marriage Scene at 346

Crown of the Law. In the United States National Museum, Washington, D. C 300

Cylinder, Babylonian, Representing Sacrifice of a Child 653

Date-Meridians According to Rabbinical Sources, Map of the World on Mercator's Projection, Showing 498

Delatas, Elias and Rica, Medal Struck in Honor of 402

Detroit, Mich., Temple Beth El at 542

Duke's Place Synagogue, Exterior of the, Loudon 160

Interior of the. London '59



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLUME VIII



PAGE

England: see Lincoln; London; Ramsgate.

Esther, Scroll of, Dutcli. Early Eighteenth Century 429

Silver Cases for 430

Europe: see Lincoln : Lithuania ; London; Luukck; Marburg; Mayenck: Metz; Ramsgate.

First Editions: Page from the " Abudarham," Lisbon, 1489 105

Page from Levi ben Gershon's Commentary to the Pentateuch, Mantua, Before 1480 27

Page from the Muhzor, Printed at Soncino, 1485 265

Title-Page from Elijah Levita's " Tishbi," Isny, 1541 47

Frankfort-on-the-]Main, :Mcdal Commemorating the Conflagration in the Ghetto of, in 1711. 402

Galicia, Jewish Marriage Scene in plate facing 346

Germany: seeLtuKCK; Marburg; Mayence; Metz.

Graves: see To.mbstonks.

Great Synagogue, Duke's Place, London, Interior and Exterior 159, 160

Herz, Markus, Medal Struck in Honor of 403

llospitol, Jews', and Orphan Asylum, West Norwood, London 161

Host : see Micrococcus Prodigiosus.

Huppah or Wedding Baldachin. From a Passover Haggadah, Amsterdam, 1695 341

see also Marriage.

Incunabula: see Lisbon; Mantua; Soncino.
Inscriptions: see Coin; Moabite Stone; Tombstones.

" Isaiah." From the Drawing by Ephraim Moses Lilien 85

Italia, Salom, Portrait of Manasseh ben Israel by 282

Itzig, Daniel, Medal Struck in Honor of the Seventieth Birthday of, 1793 403

Jerusalem, Plan of. From the Mosaic Map of Palestine, Probably of the Fifth Century, Found at

Medeba 407

Jewry, The, of London in 1290 157

Jews' College, Queen's Square, London 162

"Jew's House," Steep Hill, Lincoln 91

Joseph II., Medal Commemorating the Edict of Toleration Issued by, 1781 402

" Judengasse" of Marburg-in-Hesse 323

Leon, Jud;di Aryeh, of Modena, Italian Scholar, Rabbi, and Poet 5

Tempio, Jacob Judah Aryeh, Dutch Mechanician 2

Letteris, MeVr Halevi, Austrian Scholar and Poet 17

Levi, David, English Hebraist and Author 26

Italian Poet and Critic 25

ben Gcrshon, Page from the First Edition of the Commentary to the Pentateuch, Mantua,

Before 1480 27

Leo Napoleon, American Lawyer and Communal Worker 34

Levin, Hirschel, German Rabbi 40

Rahel, German Writer 42

Levinsohn, Isaac Baer, Russian-Hebrew Writer and Scholar 43

F.cvitji, Elijah, Titlc-Page from the Fir.st Edition of the "Tishbi," Isny, 1541 47

Leviticus, Illuminated Page of. From a manuscript formerly in the possession of the liuke of

Sussex . 51

Levy, Alphonse, "Blessing of the Moon " by. . 57

IvTvy, Uriah Phillips, American Naval Officer _ 64

Tombstone of. Cypress Hills Cemetery, New Vork 65

Lewandowski. Louis, German C^omposer of Synagogal Music 66

Lewis. Sir George Henry, Arms of 69

Library of Parma, .Vlcove Containing the De Rossi Collection of Jewish Books in the 72

Liebermann. Max, German Painter 81

Lilien. Ephraim Moses. " Isaiah," from the Drawing b\ 85



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLUME VIII xi



PAGE

Lilienbluin, Moses L5b, Russian Scholar and Author 86

Lilientlml, Otto, Experimenting with His Flying-Machine . 87

Ijiucolu, The Jewish Quarter, circa 1290 90

-'Jew's House." Steep Hill 91

Lion, Representation of, on a Glass Dish Found in the Jewisli Catacombs at Rome 205

Lippold. Execution of, 1573 101

Lisbon, Page from the *' Abudarham," Printed in 1489 at 105

Lithuania, Map of the Grand Duchy, at Its Greatest Extent, Showing Cities Where Jews Lived. . . . 120

Loeb, Isidore, French Scholar 149

Loewy, Maurice, Frencli Astronomer 151

Lombroso, Cesare, Italian Alienist and Criminologist 154

London, Exterior of the Great Synagogue, Duke's Place 160

Exterior of the New West End Synagogue 168

Interior of the Great Synagogue, Duke's Place 159

Interior of the New West End Synagogue 169

■ Jewish Board of Guardians Building 164

Jews' College, Queen's Scjuare 162

Jews' Hospital and Orphan Asylum, West Norwood 161

Map of, Showing Localities of Jewish Interest 175

Showing Relative Proportion of Jewish Population 165

Plan of the Jewry of, 1290 157

Spanish and Portuguese Cemetery, Mile End Road 158

Wentworth Street, Formerly " Petticoat Lane" 166

Lopez, Rodrigo, Conspiring to Poison Queen Elizabeth 182

Lot's Wife Turned into a Pillar of Salt. From the Sarajevo Ilaggadah of the Fourteenth Century 186

Low, Leopold, Hungarian Rabbi 19'-2

Lilbeck, New Synagogue at 198

Ludwig X., Medal Presented by the Hessian Jews to Landgrave, 1790 402

Lulab. After a Drawing by Picart 206

Coin of Bar Kokba Bearing a 205

Representation of a, on a Glass Dish Found in the Jewish Catacombs at Rome 205

Luzzatti, Luigi, Italian Statesman and Political Economist 220

Luzzatto, Samuel David, Italian Scholar 22^

' ' Mag-en Dawid. " From a Mizrah 252

.Mah/.or, Page from the First Edition of the, Soucino, 1485 265

Page from a Folio, of the Fourteenth Century 263

Page from a. Printed at Prague, 1525 267

Maimon, Solomon, Philosophical Writer 266

Maimonides, Moses, Autograph of (No. 38) 309

Illuminated Page from the " Yad " of. From a Manuscript in the British Museum, Dated

1473 Frontispiecr

Malbim, MeYr Lob, Russian Rabbi 276

Manasseh ben Israel, Dutch Rabbi and Champion of Jewish Rights. From an Engraving by Salom

Italia 282

(Portrait Avith Autograph). From the Mezzotint by Rembrandt 283

-Mandelkern, Solomon, Russian Poet and Author 28H

Mandelstamm, Max, Russian Oculist and Zionist 29(»

Manna, Israelites Gathering, in the Desert. From the Sarajevo Haggadah of the Fourteenth Century. . 293

Mannheimer, Isaac Noah, Jewish Preacher 295

Mantle of the Law, Holland, Eighteenth Century 299

Oriental 300

Padua, Eighteenth Century 299

Small. In the British Museum 301

Velvet, Seventeenth Century 298

Mantua, Page from the First Edition of Levi ben Gershon's Commentary to the Pentateuch, Printed

Before 1480 at 27

Manuscript: Illuminated Page from a Bible. Formerly in the Possession of tlie Duke of Sussex 51



xn



LIST OP ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLUME VIII



PAGK

Manuscript: Illuminated Page fromMaimonides' " Yad," Dated 1472 Frontispiece

Page from a Folio Mahzor of the Fourteenth Century 263

Page from a Fourteenth-Century Bible, Containing Masoretic Notes 369

Page from a Thirteenth-Century (?) Bible, Bearing Masoretic Notes Written to Form Ornamental

Decorations 367

Types of Hebrew Script 308-311, 313

see also >Iegillot ; Mezuzah ; Pinkef.

"Ma'oz Zur," Music of 316

Map of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania at Its Greatest Extent, Showing Cities Where Jews Lived 120

of London Jewry, 1290 157

of London. Showing Localities of Jewish Interest *175

of Palestine. From the Mosaic of the Fifth Century (?) Found at Medeba 407

see also Plans.

Mapu, Abraham, Russian-Hebrew Novelist 817

Marburg, The " Judengasse "of 323

Marriage Ceremony, Among German Jews, Early Eighteenth Century 343

From a Passover Haggadah, Amsterdam, 1695 341

Processions Among German Jews, Eighteenth Century 345

Scene at Cracow 346

at Galicia. From the painting by Stryowski plate facing 346



Marx, Karl, German Socialist and Political Economist 358

Masada, Mount, in Judea 363

Masorah, Page from a Manuscript Bible of the Fourteenth Century Containing Masoretic Notes 369

Page from a Thirteenth-Century (?) Manuscript Bible Bearing Masoretic Notes Written to Form

Ornamental Decorations 367

Mayence, Ancient Remains of the Jewisli Cemetery at 386

Cemetery of the Jewish Commiuiity of 387

Interior of the Gemeinde Synagogue at 389

Interior of the Synagogue of the Israelitischen Religionsgesellschaft at 388

Mazzot, Implements for Stamping 396

From Leusden, " Philologus Hebrffio-Mixtus," Utrecht, 165, 395

Making. From a Passover Haggadah, Amsterdam, 1695 393

Preparation of. From Kirchner, " Jiidisches Ceremoniel," 172C 394

Medals of Jewisli Interest 403, 403

Medeba, Mosaic INIap of Palestine, Probably of the Fifth Century, Found at 407

Megillot Esther, Dutch, Early Eighteenth Century 429

Silver Case Containing 430

Silver Fish Forming Case 430

MeYr. Interior of the Alleged Tomb of, at Tiberias 433

Synagogue Near the Alleged Tomb of, at Tiberias 482

Meiscl, Mordec^i. Tombstone of, at Prague 442

Meldola, Raphael, Ilaliam of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews of Great Britain 453

Mendelssohn, Felix, German Composer 477

Moses, German Philosopher 479

Medal Struck in Honor of the " Phadon " 481

Tombstone of. From the Drawing by Daniel Chodowiecki 484

Meudcsia. Gracia, Medal Struck in Honor of Her Eighteenth Birthday 402

Menorah as Described in Rabbinical Literature • . 493

Modern 494

Representation of, on a Glass Dish Found in the Jewish Catacombs at Rome 205

Meridians. Date-, According to Rabbinical Sources. Map of theWorld on Mercator's Projection, Showing 498

Metz, Ancient Synagogue at 522

Interior of an Old Synagogue at. 523

Meyerbeer, Giacomo, German Composci 528

Mezuzah Case. After Picart. . . 533

Glass Cylinder Confainint: 532

Scroll.." 631

Wooden Case for 532



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLUME VIII xiii



PACK

Michigan, Temple Beth El, Detroit 542

Micrococcus Prodigiosus, Cultures of 543

Midrash Elcli Ezkerah, Page from, Printed at Constantinople in 1620 577

Mielziner, ]\Ioses, American Rabbi . 581

"Mi KamoUah." Music of 586

Mikweh : Jewish Baths of tlie Sixteenth Century 588, 589

]\Iiriam. From tiie Sarajevo Ilaggadah of the Fourteenth Ceuturj- 608

" Mizmor le-Dawid," Music of 624, 625

" Shir le-Yom ha-Shabbat," JMusic of 625-627

Mizrah, Typical 629

Moabite Stone, Inscription on the 635

Mocatta, Frederick David, English Philanthropist 637

Moghilef, Russia, Interior of a Synagogue at 643

Synagogue at 642

Moiiilewer, Samuel, Pussian Rabbi 648

Molko, Solomon, Autograph of 651

]\Ioloch, Babylonian Cylinder Representing Sacritice of a Child to 653

Montefiore, Sir Moses, English Philanthropist. From a sketch by Dighton in 181b^ 66H

Synagogue and Tomb of, Ramsgate, England 670

When One Hundred Years Old 669

Monuments: see Moabite Stone; Tombstones.

Morais, Sabatto, American Rabbi 680

Moravia, Page from the Minute-Book of a Meeting of Congregations Held in 1713 in 683

Mosaic Map of Palestine, Probably of the Fifth Century, Found at Medeba 407

Mount Masada in Judea 3 < 5

Music, "Ma'oz Zur" 316

" Mi-Kamokah " 586

" Mizmor le-Dawid " 624, 625

" Mizmor Shir le-Yom ha-Shabbat " 625-627

Napoleon, Medal Commemorating the Sanhedrin Convened by, 1806 403

New York, Cypress Hills Cemetery, Showing Tombstone of Uriah Phillips Levy at 65

Orphan Asylum and Jews' Hospital, West Norwood, London 161

Palestine, Mosaic Map of. Probably of the Fifth Century, Found at Medeba 407

sec also Masada; Tiberias.

Parma Library, Alcove in the. Containing the De Rossi Collection of Jewish Books 72

Passover: see ^Iazzot.

" Petticoat Lane," Now Wentworth Street, London 166

Pinkes (Minute-Book), Page from the, of a Meeting of Moravian Congregations Held in 1713 683

Plan of the Jewisii Quarter, Lincoln, 1290 90

of the Jewish Quarter of London, Showing Proportion of Jewish Population 165

of the London Jewry, 1290 157

Portraits: see

Lkon, Judau Aryeh. Lieber.ma.nn, Max. Mandelstamm, Max.

Leon Templo. Lilie.nblum, Moses Lob. Mannheimer, Isaac Noah.

Letteris, Meir Halevi. Loeb. Isidore. Mapu, Abraham.

Levi, David (Hebraist). Loewy, Maurice. Marx, Karl.

Levi, David (Poet). Lombroso, Cesare. Meyerbeer, Giacomo.

Levi, Leo Napoleon. Low, Leopold. Mielzi.ner, Moses.

Levin, Hirschel. Luzzatti, luigi. Mocatta, Frederick David.

Levin, Rahel. Luzzatto, Samuel David. Mohh.ewer. Samuel.

Levinsohn, Isaac Baer. Maimon, Solomon. Montefiore, Sir Moses.

Levy-, Uriah Phillips. Mai.bim, MeIr Lob. Morais, Sabatto.

Lewandowski. Louis. Manasseh ben Israel.



Prague, ]\Iedal Commemorating Edict of Exile from, 1745 402

Page from a Mahzor, Printed in 1525 at 267

Tombstone of Mordecai Meisel at 442

Processions. Marriage, Among German Jews, Eighteenth Century 345



xiv LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLUME VIII



PAGE

Ramsgate, England, Synagogue at Tomb of Sir Moses Montefiorc at 670

Rembrandt, Mezzotint of Manasseh ben Israel by 283

Sanhedrin, Medal Commemorating the. Convened by Napoleon, 1806 403

Sarajevo Haggadab, Illustrations from the, of the Fourteenth Century 186, 293

Script, Types of Hebrew 308-31 1, 313

Scroll of Esther, Dutch, Early Eighteenth Century 429

Silver Cases for 430

see also Mezuzah.

of the Law, Mantles for the 298-301

Sonuino, Page from the First Edition of the Mahzor, Printed in 1485 at : 265

Spanish and Portuguese Cemetery, Mile End Road, London 158

Synagogues: see London; LUbeck; Mayence; Metz; Michigan; Moghilef; Ramsgate.

Temple, Jacob Judah Aryeh Leon, Dutch Mechanician 2

Tiberias, Interior of the Alleged Tomb of Rabbi Meir at 433

Synagogue Near the Alleged Tomb of Rabbi Meir at 432

"Tishbi," Title-Page from the First Edition of Elijah Levita's, Isny, 1541 47

"Tob le-Hodot," Music of 626

Tomb of Rabbi Meir at Tiberias, Interior of the Alleged 433

of Sir Moses Montefiore at Ramsgate, England 670

Tombstone of Mordecai Meisel at Prague 442

of Moses Mendelssohn. From the Drawing by Daniel Chodowiecki 484

of Uriah Phillips Levy, Cypress Hills Cemetery, New York 65

Typography: see Constantinople ; Isny; Lisbon; Mantua; Prague; Soncino.

Westphalia, Medal Commemorating Emancipation of the Jews of, 1808 .^ 403

Writing : Types of Hebrew Script 308-311, 313

'' Zaddifc: ka-Tamar," Music of 625



THE



Jewish Encyclopedia



LEON (LEAO) : Spanish-Portuguese family Iiav-
ing branches in Italy, Holland, Germany, England,
southern France, the Orient, the West Indies, espe-
cially Jamaica, and Surinam.

1. Abraham Judah. Leon: Assistant rabbi of
the Spanish-Portuguese congregation in London
from 1685 until liis death in 1707.
Bibliography : Gaster, HM. of Bevis Markti, p. 40.

2. David de Isaac de Leon : Lived in Amster-
dam in the eighteenth century. He ])ublished "Ser-
mao da Boa Fania " (Amsterdam, 1767), an address
in Portuguese delivered June, 1767; also some He-
brew verses in honor of his father's " Avizos Espiri-
tuaes," printed with that book.

3. Elijah, de Leon: Son of Michael Judah de
Leon (d. March 3, 1658) and nephew of Jacob
Judah Leon. He was hakam of the benevolent
society Gemilut Hasadim in Amsterdam and cor-
rector for the press 1656-66. The Hebrew Bible
printed by Joseph Athias in 1661 was corrected and
provided with a preface by Elijah de Leon and Sam-
uel de Caceres. Some Hebrew verses of Elijah's are
given in the Spanish translation of the Psahns by
his uncle Jacob Judah Leon.

Bibliography : Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. p. 2879 and cxxx.;
Roest, Cat. Rosenthal. Bihl. Supplement, No. 236ti ; Kayser-
ling, Bihl. Esp.-Port.-Jncl. p. 37.

4. Isaac de Leon : Son of Eliezer ben Solomon
ibn Zur; born probably in Spain; lived in Ancona ;
died there most likely. He was the author of "Me-
gillat Esther " — a commentary on Moses b. Mai-
mon's "Sefer ha-Mizwot," written in the latter's
defense against the attacks of Moses ben Nahman
(Venice, 1592; Amsterdam, 1660). He wrote also a
rabbinical decision in the dispute between Solomon
de Lolll and Jacob Catalano (Rome, 1546).

Bibliography: Azu\a.\, Shem ha-GedoUm, i. 10-5; Nepi-Ghi-
rondi, Tuledot Gedole YisraeU p. 134 ; Fiirst, Bihl. Jud. li.
231 (who wrongly ascribes the decision to another Isaac de
Leon); Zedner, Cat. Hebr. Books Brit. Mus. p. 383.

5. Isaac de Leon : Talmudist, and director of a
Talmud scliool in Salonica about 1630 (Conforte,
"Kore ha-Dorot," p. 46a).

6. Isaac de Leon : In conjunction with Sam-
uel Athar, he published a collection of stories from
the Midrashim and Haggadot (Venice, n.d.).
Bibliography : Fiirst, Bihl. Jud. 11. 232.

7. Isaac de Leon : Grammarian and teacher in
Amsterdam. Together with Jacob de Solomon

VIII.— 1



Hezekiah Saruco, he wrote "Avizos Espirituaes
e lustrucgoens Sagradas, para Cultivar o Eugenho
da Juventude no Amor e Temor Divino " (Amster-
dam, 1766), containing twenty-four dialogues on
Biblical history, the articles of faith, the ritual, the
feast- and fast-days, and the special Sabbaths.
Bibliography: Kayserling, Bihl. Esp.-Port.-Jud. p. 57.

8. Isaac (de) Leon Templo : Son of Solomon
Raphael Judah Leon Templo; printer and publisher
in Amsterdam 1737-38. He edited his father's
"Masseket Halakah le-Mosheh mi-Sinai" (Amster-
dam, 1734). See No. 20.

Bibliography: Ersch and Gruber, Encyc. section li., part 28
p. 73 ; Kayserling, Bihl. Esp. -Port. -Jud. p. 59.

9. Jacob de Leon, and (9a) Jacob Rodriguez
de Leon : Both probably of Amsterdam ; lived in
Jamaica, W. I., in 1698.

Bibliography: PuhlicationsAm. Jexc. Hist. Soc. v. 88.

10. Jacob Judah Aryeh Leon Templo : Ha-
kam, translator of the Psalms, and heraldic expert;
of Marano descent ; son of Abraham de Leon ; born
in 1603 at Hamburg, where he taught Talmud for
several years ; died after 1675. He became hakam in
Middelburg and, after 1643, in Amsterdam, wliei'e
he was engaged also as teacher in the Talmud Torah.
He vocalized the entire Mishnah which was printed
in 1646 at the establishment of Manasseh beu Israel.

Jacob Judah caused a great stir by a plan, drawn
by him, of Solomon's Temple, which was exhib-
ited before Charles II. of England and of which the
author published a short, comprehensive descrip-
tion in Spanish entitled "Retrato del Templo de Se-
lomoh" (Middelburg, 1642). This was translated
into Dutch in the same year; into French in 1643;
and by himself into Hebrew in 1650, with the title
"Tabnit Ilekal." Duke August of Brunswick, and
more particularly his wife Elizabeth, wished a Ger-
man translation of this description and entrusted
tlie task to Prof. Johaun Saubert of Helmstitdt.
Some one else published such a translation in 1665,
and Saubert therefore wrote a Latin translation in
that year. An English version appeared in 1778,
done by M. P. Deeastro, a relative of Temple's, and
in whose pos.session the plan was then held.

In 1647 Jacob Judah wrote "Tratado de la Area
del Testamento" (Amsterdam, 1653). His treatise
on the cherubim, their form and nature, written
in Latin in 1647, appeared in Spanish under the



Leon

Leon, Edwin de



THE JEWISH E^X'YCLOPEDIA



title "Tratiulodo los Cherubim " (Amsteidam, 16o4);
<iii(l his description of Closes' tabernacle, ^vritten in
1(547 in Dutch, was published under the title "Re-
trato del Tabernaculo de Moseh " (Amsterdam,
16.14), and in English (1675). His last work was a
Spanish paraphrase of the Psalms, which was printed
witli the text, under the title "Las Alaban(;as de
Santitad " (Amsterdam, 1671), and, as is stated in
the introduction, was written in seven months.
The work was dedicated to Isaac Senior Tei.xeyra,
linancial agent, in Ham-
burg, of Queen Christina
of Sweden, and v.as ex-
tolleil by many hakamim,
scholars, and poets in He-
brew, Latin, and Spanish
verses.

Jacob Judah wrote also
a dialogue ("Colloquium
Middelburgense") be-
tween a rabbi and a Chris-
tian scholar on the value
of the Christian dogmas;
and he left in manuscript
" Disputacionescon Difer-
eutes Tlieologos de la Cris-
tiandad." He was a skilful
draftsman. The coat of
arms of the English Grand
Lodge of Masons with the
motto nin''^ Knp, now
" Holiness to the Lord," is
the work of the " famous
anil learned Ilebrewist,
architect, and brother,
Rabi Jacob Jehudah Le-
on." He drew also more
than 200 figures and vign-
ettes to illustrate Talmudical subjects, which his
son Solomon gave to Surenhusius for his Latin
translaticm of the Mishnah.

BIBMOORAPHV: De Rossi-Hamberffer, Hi-sf. W6i-terli. pp. 176
ct «e'v.; Koenan, Geschiedeuis der Joden in Ncderland,T[).
S57 ; jo.st, Gexch. dcs Judenthums und Seiner Sektcn. iii.
2XJ; Gratz, Gt-fc/i. x. 34,200 et seq.; TranxactionHJew. Hist.
Sdc. tlnq. ii. 1.t6 ct Kerj.; Fiirst, Bil>l. Jud. ii. 233 et .seq.;
Kuyserllng, Bihl. Eap.-l'urt.-Jud. pp. 58 ct scq.

1 1 . Joseph de Leon : Rabbi in Jerusalem about

I.IMT.

12. Joseph de Leon : Rabbi in Venice in 1694.

niBr.iooRAPiiY : Fnimkln, Ehen Shemuel, p. T.i\ Nepl-Ghl-
rondl. I.e. p. 170.

13. Judah de Leon : Rabbi ; died about 1830.
He went to Rome about 1792 as emi.ssary from He-
bron, and at tlie desire of tlie conmiunity remained
as rabbi. In IHU he was chief rabbi of the Jewish
consistory in Rome. Judah 's is the first signature
to a document protesting against the charge that
nligiou.s reforms had been introduced into Italy.
This document appeared in the "Letters of the Chief
Rabbis in Italy" (Leghorn; Gorman transl., Altona
and Hamburg, 1796).

Bini.iofJRAntV: Nepl-Ghlronfll. I.e. p. 1B6; VoRelsteln and
Rleger, (JckcIi. der Judin in Rom, 11. 40() et urn.; Zedner,
Cat. Hebr. Books Brit. Afiw. p. 394.

14. Judah Hayyim Leao (Leon) : Hakamand
leader in prayer in the synagogue of the Portuguese




Jacob Judah Aryeh Leou Temple,



conununity in Hambuig. After fort}' years of
active service he was pensioned in 1656, and his son-
in-law, Lsaac Namias, was appointed his successor.

Bibliography : Grunwald, P(jrtwiic!<ciifjrubcr auf Dcutt<c}icr



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