Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

. (page 20 of 169)
Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 20 of 169)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

in the synagogue of Al-Mahallah in a metal pTi
(Neubauer, "M. J. C."i. 119, 10), which stili exists.
The old and much-venerated Samaritan Pentateuch
at Nablus is likewise in a metal cover. The scrolls
were kept in a case (rtTD). of which there were three
kinds, m^C'. n3'n. aud ^IJD. In the catacombs of
Rome there have been found representations of Jesus
with a case of scrolls at his feet. The cases were
usually made of wood, though sometimes of leather,
glass, bone, or metal. It has been shown that such
cases were the usual form of the Roman bookcase.
That they were used by the Jews also is seen from the
fact that the earliest representations of the Ark upon
glass, dating from the third century, are in this
form (seeBlau, "Studien zum Althebraischen Buch-
wesen," pp. llQetseg.; Jacobs, in "J. Q. R." xiv.
738). Sometimes the scrolls were placed in a sort
of cupboard, which stood upon a pediment and liad
a cover. Openings were made at the top and at the
side. See Ark of the Law.

That catalogues of collections of Hebrew books

were drawn up in early days is evidenced by the

recent finds made chiefly in the Fostat

Cata- Genizah. Such catalogues were some-

logues. times sale-lists of book-traders— e.<7.,

tlieAdler manuscript in Arabic ("R.E.

J." xxxix. 199): the Adler manuscript containing

a sale-list of a certain 'Abd al-'Aziz of the thirteenth




centurj' (ib. xl. 56, 264); the list found on the back
of the manuscript copy of Saadia's ''Amanat" in
Arabic {ib. xxxii. 126); the Adier manuscript of tlic
twelfth century giving a list in Arabic of over lOO
books ("J. Q. R." xiii. 52, 324; Jew. Excyc. iii. 619a.
8.V. Catai-ogues); and the Frankfort manuscript,
also from the genizah ("J. Q. li." xv. 7(>; for other
lists see "Zeit. fur Ilebr. Bibl." vii. 181)— and some-
times catalogues of real collectors, sucli as the geni-
zah fragment containing a list of the books of
Nathan b. Jeshuah (<6. vii. 184; "J. Q. R." xiv. 247;
or the catalogue
of the library of
Leon Mosconi
( " R . E . J . "
xxxix. 242, xl.
62; see also Cat-

That care was
taken in the
preservation of
books is seen
from the advice
which is given
by various
writers. The
author of the
(13th cent.) ad-
vises his leaders
to pay particular
attention to the
manner in which
their books are
kept. Especial
weight is laid
upon the duty of
lending books
to those whose
means do not
allow them to
purchase them.
Books were
scarce in those
days; the want
of them is be-
wailed by such
men as Lsserlein
and J. Kolon
( G tt d e m a n n ,
"Gesch."ii. 191,
iii. 65). Judah
ibn Tibbon (12th cent.) gives much sage counsel
to his son, to whom he left his collection of Arabic
and Hebrew books. He bids him make his books
his companions, and to take good care of his book-
chests (T31X) and bookcases (riTn) and his i^ardcn.

"Take Rood rare of thy books; cover thy slielves with a line
coverln)?: Ruarrl them nfrninst damp and mice. Examine thy
Hebrew books on the first <>f every month ; thy Arablcones once
every two months; thy pamphlet-<'ases [anvi'i") 0^313] once
every three months. Arrange them all In jfood order, so that
thou weary not In lookintr fiT a t)fK)k when thou needest It. . . .
Write down the titles of tlit^ hooks In each row [.■^^3] of the rases
[dmj-\n] In a .separate fas<;lcle [.-"ijn], and place each In Its
row. In order that thou be able to see exactly In which
row any particular IxKik is without mlxlnp up the others.

" I)o the same with the cases. Take good care of the Indi-

vidual leaves [a^Sj,'] w-hich are in the convolutes r2'3"i:] and
fa.scicles ; • . . look continually into the catalogue [."^^Dic] in
order to remember what books thou . . . When thou lend-
est a book record its title before it leaves the house; and when
it. is brousrht back draw thy pen through the memorandum.
Restore all loaned books on Pesahand Sukkof (" Ennahnungs-
schreiben des Jehudah ibn Tibbon," ed. Steinschneider, pp. U,
13, Berlin, 18o2; transl. in Giidemann, I.e. i. 38).

This care in the binding and handling of books
is inculcated by Protiat Duran (of Catalonia, 14th
cent.) also, as is seen in the preface to his "Ma'aseh
Efod " (ed. Friedlander and Kohn, p. 19), and by Sol-
o m o n A 1 a m i

Alcove In the Library of Parma Containing the De Rossi Collection of Jewish Books.

(From a photngraph.)

(1415): "Take
good care of the
writing and the
arranging of thy
books " (" Igge-
ret Musar," ed.
1854, p. 14).

In earliest
times the libra-
ries weredirectly
connected with
the batte mid-
rashot, each of
such institutions
having a collec-
tion of its own.
This practise
continued down
through the
Middle Ages.
At times books
of especial value
were kept in the
synagogue in a
sort of cup-
board, a cu.stom
which prevailed
especially in
Egypt. The
contents of these
school libraries
must have
varied in differ-
ent countries.
In the western
French and Ger-
man schools of
the Middle Ages
they probably
contained little
more than what was necessary for the almost ex-
clusively Talmudic curriculum that was followed;
but in Italy and Spain, where the curriculum em-
braced also philosophy, mathematics, and the nat-
ural sciences, tlu^ libraries must have been more va-
ried and much larger.

The tradition thus begun has been kept up. Such
libraries of distinctively Jewish books are now at-
tached to seminaries and to theological schools and
serve as Jewish university libraries. The chief col-
lections may here be mentioned:

Austria: Library of the Israelitl.sch-Theologlsche Lehran-
stall. Vienna; Hungary: library of the Landesrabbinerschule,
Budapest (3(),(KK) vols., of which 10,000 are Judaica; 41 incu-
nabula; 50MSS.).




England : Library of Jews' College (in all 2o,(K)0 vols., made
up of the original Jews' College collection 4,000 ; the A. L. Green
Library 7,000; the Monteflore Library 4,000; the A. Lowy Li-
brary 10,000; in addition 600 MSS., mainly from the Zunz and
Halberstam collections), and that of the bet ha-midrash, London
(the HerschelMSS.).

France : Library of the Seminaire Israelite, Paris.

Germany : Libraries of the Lehranstalt fiir die Wissenschaft
des Judenthums and the Rabbinische in Berlin ; of the
Jiidisch-Theologische Seminar (about 23,000 printed vols.; 248
MSS.) in Breslau.

Holland : Libraries of the Portuguese Rabbinical Seminary ;
of the Bet ha-Midrash 'Ez Hayyiin (20,000 vols.; 1,000 pam-
phlets; 300 portraits) ; of the Netherlands Israelitish Seminary.

Italy : Library of the Rabbinical Seminary, Florence.

United States : Library of the Hebrew Union College (about
1.5,000 vols.), Cincinnati, and that of the Jewish Theological
Seminary of America, New York U4,500 vols.; 750 MSS.).

In the course of time these libraries have not
proved sufficient. They served, In the main, theo-
logical purposes. An attempt at establishing a na-
tional Jewish library was made in the Abarbanel
Library at Jerusalem, founded by Joseph Chaza-
nowicz and now containing more than 2(),000 vols.
Next to this may be mentioned that of the Alliance
Israelite Universelle in Paris, largely founded by
Isidor Loeb and supported by donations and legacies
from L. L. Rothschild (22,000 vols. ; 200 MSS. ; made
up largely of the collections of Isidore Loeb and
Bernard Lazare) ; the Bibliothek des Deutsch-Israe-
litischen Gemeindebundes (recently founded ; 5,000
vols.) in Berlin ; and the library of the B'nai B'rith
in New York (Maimonides' Library ; but this is not
a solely Jewish collection).

The Italian Jewish communities seem to have
been the first to establish libraries for their own
use; e.g., Mantua (in 1767; 4,500 vols.) and Pitilione
in Tuscany. In Englarid the North London bet ha-
midrash has its private collection; the Vienna com-
munity possesses a children's library; and Warsaw
has its Synagogenbibliothek. Of late years the com-
munal libraries have grown, especially
Communal in Germany. Breslau has its Bibliothek
Libraries, der Synagogengemeinde ; Dettmold,
its Lehrerbibliothek and Schiilerbi-
bliothek ; Gleiwitz, its Jugendbibliothek ; Ilomburg,
its Israelitische Gemeindebibliothek ]\Iendelssohn ;
Carlsruhe, its Jlidische Bibliothek der Israelitischen
Genossenschaft ; Kozmin, its Judische Gemeinde-
bibliothek; Mayence, its Klingensteinische Biblio-
thek filr Hessische Lehrer; Neckar-Bischofsheim,
its Israelitische Gemeindebibliothek; Nuremberg,
its Bibliothek und Leseverein ; Ratibor, its Israeli-
tische Bibliothek ; Schwerin, its Gemeindebibliothek ;
Stettin, its Jildische Bibliothek ; Stuttgart, its Ge-
meindebibliothek; Parol, its Schul- und Gemeinde-
bibliothek; and Wiesbaden, its Gemeindebibliothek.

Few of the seminary libraries mentioned above
can, however, rival the great collections gathered in
the large national and public libraries. These ante-
date the seminary libraries; and, having been the
first in the field, and commanding larger pecuniary
resources, have been able to progress much further.
The leading public collections are here cited. In
many cases they are dealt with in separate articles
in this encyclopedia or are referred to in the articles
treating of the cities in which the collections are

Austria : Hofbibliothek, Vienna.

England: British Museum, London (15,000 vols.; 1,400 MSS.);

Bodleian Library, Oxford (2,900 MSS. ) ; Cambridge University

France: Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris (1,390 MSS.).

Germany: Kiinigliche Bibliothek, Berlin (5,000 vols.; 300
MSS.); Kiinigliche Bibliothek, Munich (2,000 MSS.); Stadtbi-
bliothek and Unlversitiitsbibliotliek, Leipsic; Stadtbibliothek,
Frankfort-on-the-Main : Stadtbibliothek, Sirasburg.

Holland : Academy of Sciences, Leyden (15,000 vols.) ; Bibll-
otheca Rosenthaliana in University Library, Amsterdam.

Italy : Vatican Libniry, Rome ; Bibliotheca Casanatensis,
Rome; Public Library, Parma; Bibliotheca Palatina and Bibli-
otheca Medicio-Laurentiana. Florence; Public Library, Turin;
Bibliotheca Marciana, Venice; and Bibliotheca Ambrosiana,
Milan. In addition there are smaller collections in the Biblio-
teca Vlttorio Emanuele and the Biblioteca Angelica, Rome, and
In the University Library, Bologna.

Russia : Friedland Library, in the Asiatic Museum of the Im-
perial Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (10,000 vols.; 300
MSS.); the University Library and the Synodal Library in the
same city ; the collection of Karaitica belonging to the Odessa
Society for History and Antiquities.

United States : The Jewish collection in the New York Public
Library (Schiff foundation; about 17,000 vols.), and that in the
Library of Columbia University (gift of Temple Emanu-El ; 5,000

Most of the foregoing collections are based upon
the private libraries of Jewish book-collectors, which
have either been given to or bought for the institu-
tions. Thus the British Museum in 1759 acquired
by gift from Solomon da Costa a collection which
had originally been gathered during the Common-
wealth, had fallen to Charles II. at the Restoration,
and had finally been purchased by the bookseller
who sold it to Da Costa. The British Museuin se-
cured also (1848) the printed books in the library of
H. I. Michael of Hamburg, which had consisted of
7,000 volumes, including manuscripts. The latter
came into the possession of the Bodleian Library,
which had previously (1829) been enriched through
the purchase of the famous Oppenheimer collection.
This consisted of 7,000 printed volumes and 1,000
manuscripts, nearly all Hebraica; it had been
founded by the court Jew Samuel Oppenheimer of
Vienna with the aid of his patron, Prince Eugene,
and had passed into the possession of Samuel's son
David, then into that of Hirschel Oppenheimer, and
finally into that of Isaac Cohen of Hamburg. Sim-
ilarly many other private collections have been ac-
quired by various public libraries; e.g., Michael Jo-
seph's went (1849) to Jews' College, London, and
Halberstam 's to the Judith Montefiore College and
later to Jews' College. The manuscripts of Joseph
Almanzi went to the British Museum ; his printed
books, to Temple Emanu-El, New York, and finally
to Columbia University in that city. Raphael Eman-
uel Mendola's books formed the basis of the Con-
gregational Library at Mantua (1767); while the
collection of L. Rosenthal of Hanover was presented
by his son to Amsterdam University Library. A.
Geiger's library enriched the Lehranstalt in Berlin,
as did Saraval's and Beer's the sister institution in
Breslau, and David Kaufmann's large collection, that
in Budapest. The collection of A. Berliner, con-
taining many liturgical works, is now the property
of the Frankfort Stadtbibliothek. The library of
David Montezinos in Amsterdam, especially rich in
Judaeo-Spanish productions and in incunabula, is in
the Portuguese Seminar)'- of that city, while the
pride of Parma is the collection made bj' the Chris-
tian scholar G. B. de Rossi. Samuel Adler's library
was given to the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati,




and the collection of M. Sulzberger, so rich in in-
cunabula, to the Jewish Theological Seminary of
America, where it has been added to the David Cas-
sel and Halberstam libraries already in that institu-
tion. See Book-Collectors.

There is no information in regard to the classifica-
tion of Hebrew books in olden times. In the above-
mentioned genizah fragment of a cata-

Library logue, published in "J. Q. R." xiii. 52
Classifica- et seq., the books are classified as fol-
tion. lows: Bible, Mishnah, Talmud, The-
ology, Halakah, and Liturgy. Some
such general division as this must have sufficed. The
first to attempt a classification upon a scientific ba-
sis was Sliabbethai Bass (1641-1718) in the introduc-
tion to his "Sifte Yeshenim." Though this was
undertaken for bibliographic rather than for library
purposes, it deserves a place here. He divides He-
brew literature into two great categories, Biblical
and Post-Biblical ; and each of these into ten sub-
divisions as follows:

Biblical Literature : (1) The Bible.

(2) Works Explanatory of the Wording of Scripture :— Bible
Lexicography ; Dictionaries ; Grammars ; Explanations of the
Text of the fargumim and of the Zohar ; Commentaries on the
whole Bible; Commentaries on portions of the Bible; Targu-
mim ; Cabalistic Commentaries on the Torah and on the Books
of Ruth and Lamentations; Works on the Zohar; Lexicography
of the Zohar, Kecanati, and Bahya; Philosophical Works Bear-
ing on the Torah, the Megillot, Psalms, and Job ; Grammar of
the Torah ; Supercommentaries on Ibn Ezra ; Supercommenta-
ries on Mizrahi ; Commentaries on Midrash Rabbot; Supercom-
mentaries on Rashl to the Torah; Commentaries ("peshat")
and Homiletic Kxplanations ("derashot") arranged according
to the sections of the Torah ; Commentaries on the Megillot as a
whole, and upon each Separate Scroll; Commentaries on the
Haflarot; Commentaries and Homiletic Explanations on the
Prophets and Hagiographa as a Whole and upon the Individual
Books; Homilies.

(3) Books of Prayer and Song for the Synagogue Service (Lit-
urgy); Other Poetry; Commentaries on the Liturgy ; Commen-
taries on the Passover Haggadnh ; Books Dealing with the Wri-
ting of Pentateuchs and Mezuzot; of Legal Documents and
Bills of Divorce.

(4> letter- Writing and Rhetoric; Biography and History;
Geography ; Proverbs and Maxims.

(.5) Kawwanot in Connection with the Liturgy and Religious
Ordinances ; Cabalistic Works Not Arranged According to the
Sections of the Pentateuch.

(6) Grammatical Works Not Dealing Directly with the Torah ;
Masorah; Logic.

(7) Works on Salvation, Redemption, and the Resurrection;
Books on the Future Life and the Soul.

(8) Works on Variant Readings, Corrections, and Mistakes in
the Bible ; Similar Works Dealing with Post-Biblical Literature.

(9) Ethics, Piety, and Religion.

(10) Introductions and Reference Works on the Bible.
Pnnt-Bihlical Literature :

(1) Mishnah.

(2) Commentaries on the Mishnah ; Explanations and Novelise
to the Gemara, Rashl, and the Tosafot ; CommenUiries on " 'En
Ya'akob," other Haggadot, and the Yerushalml ; Commentaries
on Pirke Abot.

(3) .Mathematlca (Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, etc.) ; the
Calendar ; Astronomy and Astrology ; Works on Philosophy,
Not Arranged According to the Sections of the Pentateuch;
Works on Chiromancy, et<'. (nix->3m tt <!3ia-\::'); Works on
Casting of Lots and Horoscopes; Works on Evil Spirits and
Necromancy ; Dreams and their Interpretation ; Music ; Works
on the Other Sciences.

(4) Theology and the Thirteen Dogmas ; Religious Discussions
and Polemics.

(5) Minhaglm (Rituals): Introductions and Works of Refer-
ence Uegarditig Mlntiagliii and the Gemara.

(6) Responsa on Ritual Matters; Kesponsa on Philosophical

(7) Medicine (Human and Animal) ; Lapidaries (o-JDND PlSua

(8) Works on initial Letters (" Rashe Tebot"), Gematria, and

(9) Commentaries and Novellne According Either to the Ar-
rangement of the (iemara or of Alfasi ; Commentaries Accord-
ing to the Arrangement of the Arba* Turim, Shulhan 'Aruk,
iiiid " Lebushirn " ; Commentaries According to the Arrange-
ment of the Mishneh Torah of Maimonides ; Decisions and Ex-
planations According to the (Sifre) Mizwot ; Decisions and Laws
According to Various Arrangements ; Decisions and Laws Ac-
cording to Various Halakot In the Different Portions of the Tu-

(10) Talmudic Methodology; Works on the Building of the
Tabernacle, on the Temple, and on its V^essels ; Works Printed
in the German Language (Judseo-German) ; Pedagogy.

In modern general libraries the books on Jewish
subjects are not always shelved apart from the main
collection, special sections for Jewish subjects being
provided for merely in the various general sections.
As a type of classification that adopted by the Bod-
leian Library may be cited.

Classificatio.n of Books on Jewish Subjects.

[The system of spelling in this list is that adopted by the library authorities.]

Shemitic Mythology and Folk-Tales.

Comparative Religion— Shemitic— General and Miscellaneous.

Judautm: Ancient History; Modem History: Ritual; Tal-
mud; Liturgies and Prayers; Devotional Poems and Hymns ;
Sermons; General or Mixed Treatises; Encyclopaedias; His-
tory, Biography, and Methodology of the Subject (Including
Jewish Study of the Bible); Targums.

Missions to Jews.

Jewish Attacks on Christianity.

Christian Replies tQ Them.

Foj/nyes and Travels: Syria and Palestine— Ancient and
Mediajval- General and Miscellaneous; Jerusalem; Modern-
General and Miscellaneous ; Jerusalem.

Ethnography : " .\nglo-Israel " ; Shemitic.

CUmatolouil and Topograph)! of Health, Mortality, and
Medici)te: Syria and Palestine— Ancient and General; Medi-
eval and Modem ; Modern Jewish.

General Descriptiann and Statistics of Manners {Inclu-
ding General Antiquities) and Characteristirs : Syria and
Palestine— Ancient ;' Mediseval and Modern ; Modem Jews Out-
side Palestine.

Chronology— the Hebrew Calendar.

History— General Mediaeval; Crusades.

The Jews— In Palestine and General: History and Biog-
raphy of the Study ; General Materials ; General Histories-
Ancient Writers (Josephus, etc.) ; Modern Writers ; to the
Entry into Canaan ; to the Secession of I.srael ; Kingdom of
Judah and Judah ± Israel ; Kingdom of Israel ; Later Samaritan
History; Captivity to the Rise of the Maccabees; Maccabees to
A.D. 13.5; Since.

The Jews in Dispersion : History and Biography of the Study
(General and Special); General Materials and Histories; Asia
E. of the Indies; AsiaW. of the Indies; Africa; Spain (and
Spain ± Portugal) ; Portugal ; Italy ; France and Belgium ;
Switzerland; Austria-Hungary; Balkan Peninsula and Greece ;
Slavonic Countries; Scandinavian Countries; Germany; Hol-
land; Unit«d Kingdom; America; Australasia; Works on Their
Re-Migration to Palestine.

Wrilind and llluminatimi: Moabite; Old Israelite; Samar-
itan ; Aramean and Palmyrene, etc., and Rabbinical Hebrew.

BihUograpliy: Bibliographies of Special Literatures (MSS. as
well as printed books)— Hebrew ; Bibliographies of Special Sub-
jects— History— the Jews; Catalogues and Histories of Libraries
In Syria and Palestine : Law, Jewish.

Miscellaneous Bioijraphi.i: Jews— Ancient ; Mediaeval and
Modern (general and special).

Genealogii and Monuments: Ancient— Jewish.

History, Tiioorapliy, and Description of General Educa-
tion: Ancient Jewish ; Modern Jewish (general).

Philosophy in General— History, Biography, and Criti-
cism : Kabala.

Philosophy in General— Works: Kabalistlc.

Proverbs: Shemitic.

The other great English library, that of the Brit-
ish Museum, has a special classification for its Jewish
printed books, elaborated by Zedner ; they are divided
into fifteen regular sections, with three extra ones




dealing witli works not considered directl}' a part of
Hebrew literature, as follows:

(1) Bibles; (~) foinmentaries on Bible; (3) Talmud; (4)
Corniiientjiries (Ui Taliiiud; (5) Codes of Law; (6) Decisions;
(7) Mldrasli ; (8) Cal)alii ; (9) Sermons; (10) Liturgies; (11)
Divine Philosophy: (1»') Scientific Works; (i:j) (irammars ;
Dictionaries; (14) History; (Jecgraphy; (15) Poetry; Criticism.

In addition : (1) Translations of Post-Biblical Hebrew Works :
(2) Works in Arabic, Spanish, (Jennan, etc., in Hebrew Charac-
ters; (:t) Bibliography.

The Vienna Kaiserliche Ilofbibliothek has its
manuscripts divided into the following categories:

(1) Bible Editions; (:.') Masorah ; (:i) Targumim ; (4) Bible
Exegesis; (.'>) Midrash ; (<>) Talmud; (7) Decisions; (8) Legal
Literature; (9) Hesponsa ; (10) Liturgy; (11) Religious Philos-
ophy; (13) Ethics; (i;i) Cabala; (14) Grammar; (15) Lexi-
cography; (16) Rhetoric; (17) Aristotelian Philosophy; (18)
Platonic Philosophy; (19) Ghazali's Philosophy; (20) History
of Hai ibn Yukthan ; (21) Medicine; (22) Astronomy; (23)

Some of the public libraries have, however, a spe-
cial division for Hebraica and Judaica. As speci-
mens, the classifications used in the Frankfort Stadt-
bibliothek and in tlie Hebrew Union
Frankfort College at Cincinnati may be cited.
Scheme. In the following plan of the tirst-
nanied library, where the rubrics are
quite general, it will be seen that a special rubric is
devoted to the history of the Jews of Frankfort.

(1) Hebrew and Jewish Journals; (2) Hebrew Philology
(General Works; Lexica; Grammars); (3) Hebrew Bibli-
ography and History of Literature; (4) Old Testament in He-
brew; (5) Anonymous Hebrew Works; (6) Hebrew Literature
("Auctores Hebraici Nominatl"); (7) Judaeo-German Litera-
ture; (8) Jewish Synagogal Music; (9) Secular Music of the
Jews ; (10) Jewish Literature and History in Other Languages
than Hebrew; (11) Literature and History of the Frankfort

The scheme used by the Hebrew Union College
contains a special rubric for manuscripts and rare edi-
tions (No. xxiv.), and makes provision
Hebrew also for a certain number of non-Jew-
TJnion ish books which find their way by
College, gift into the collection. The Roman
numerals represent the alcoves into
which tlie collection is divided.

I. Bibles in Various Languages ; Koran ; Zendavesta, etc.; II.
Exegetics and Biblical History; III. Talmud; IV. Casuistics;
V. Responses and Calendars; VI. Commentaries and Critical
Works on the Talmud ; VII. Religious History; Theology; Re-
ligious Philosophy: Ethics, etc.; VIII. Periodicals; IX. Phi-
lology; Literature; School- Books; X. Pre-Talmudic Literature ;
XI. Mldrashira; Homiletics; Sermons; Zohar, etc.; XII. Spe-
cial History; Philosophy of History; Biography; Travels;
XIII. Universal, Oriental, Jewish, Grecian, Roman, and French
History; XIV. Lexicography; XV. Philosophy; Logic; Polit-
ical Economy; Education; XVI. Catalogues and Works on Bi-
ography; XVII. Law: XVIII. Mathematics; Natural Sciences;
Music; XIX. Fiction; XX. Liturgy; Prayer-Books ; XXI. Orl-
entalia; X.XII. Government and State Reports; XXIII. Reports
of Colleges and Schools; Newspaper Almanacs ; XXIV. Manu-
scripts and Rare Editions ; XXV. Literature.

A peculiar .system of designating the various

classes of books is followed by the Landesrabbiner-

schule in Budapest. The signatures (A, B, Bi, etc.)

Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 20 of 169)