Copyright
Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

. (page 21 of 169)
Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 21 of 169)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


are taken from the actual word designation of each

class, as follows:

(1) A = Agada (or Haggadah); (2) B = Bible; (3) Bi = Bib-
liography; (4) C = Codices (i.e., of the Talmudic Literature):
(5) Chr - Christian Literature ; (6) D == " Decisoren " {i.e..
Codes); (7) Di = "Diarien" (i.e.. Newspapers, Journals, and
Collected Works in Non-Hebrew Tongues) ; (8) DI = " Diarien "
(i.e.. Newspapers, Journals, and Collected Works in Hebrew);
(9) E= Exegesis; (10) G = Grammar of Hebrew and Aramaic



Languages; (11) H = Homiletical Literature in Hebrew; (12)
HI = Historical Literature in Hebrew ; (13) Ht = Historical Lit-
erature of the Jews, General and Special ; Biographies in non-
Hebrew Languages, Arranged According to Special Groups;
(14) I = "Isagogik" {i.e.. Introductions); (15) L = Liturgy;
(16) Lh = Hebrew, Aramaic, and Talmudic Lexicography ; (17)
Le = General Lexicography; (18) Nov — Talmudic Novellae;
(19) Nh = Neo-Hebraic Literature; (20) O = Orieutalia ; (21)
p = Jewish Religious Philosophy; (22) Pr = " Predigt Litera-
tur" (i.e.. Sermons); (23) R = Talmudic Re.sponsa; (24) T = Tal-
mud, Mishnah, and Introductions to the Same.

Tliere is also a special signature, LG, for German
and other literature, the books being arranged ac-
cording to certain groups. Furthermore, the library
of Samuel Low Brill, presented to tlie seminary by
the Jewish community of Pesth in 1897, is kept sepa-
rate from the other books and is arranged according
to the size of the books (duodecimo, quarto, octavo,
etc.) and the alphabetical order of the authors'
names. Tliis sj'stem, which can be seen also in the
catalogues of the Berlin Royal Library, is said to
have peculiar advantages.

The most complete classification of works in a
Jewish collection is, however, the following, made
for the New York Public Library by A. S. Freidus,
and reproduced by permission of the director. Dr.
John S. Billings.

NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY.
The Jewish Collection— General Divisions.

[The system of spelliug in this list is that adopted by the library authoritlea.]

Manuscripts; Book Rarities; Works of Reference; Bibli-
ography; Literary History ; General Works ; Hebrew Language
and Aramaic ; Hebrew Bible ; Archaeology ; Pre-Talmudical
Literature and Sects; Christianity; Talmudical Literature;
Halacha; The Ritual; Homiletical Literature; Ethics: Doc-
trinal Theology; Post-Talmudical Schisms and Dissensions;
Philosophy ; Kabbala and Chasidism ; Folk-Lore ; Belles-Lettres ;
Dialects and Their Literatures, and Languages ; Secular Sci-
ences; Geography, General History, and Biography; Jewish
History ; The Jewish Race Ethnologlcally and Sociologically ;
Jews and Gentiles.

Bibliography. Literary History.
Periodicals ; Paleography (see also Regulations for Scribes) ; Cata-
logues of Manuscripts; History of Printing; Catalogues of Book-
sellers; Catalogues of Private Libraries; Public Libraries;
Catalogues of Public Libraries: Bibliographies: Countries, Au-
thors (see also Biography). Subjects ; Literary History : Special
Subjects, Modern, Judaso-German, Relation of Jewish Litera-
ture to Other Literatures.

General Works.
Periodicals In Hebrew ; in Judaeo-German (see also Jiidee»-Ger-
man Literary Periodicals) ; in German ; In English (American); In
English (British); in French; in Other Languages; In Rus-
sian ; Societies' Publications in Hebrew ; Societies' Publications
In Modern Languages; Collections (Polyglot); Collections In
Hebrew (see also Literary Collections) -, Collected Works of Individ-
ual Authors in Hebrew (see also Collected Literary Works); Collec-
tions in Judaeo-German (see also JudKO-German Literary Collections);

Collections in Latin ; Collections in German ; Collections in
English ; Collections in Other Languages ; Collections In Rus-
sian ; Other (ieneral Works : Cyclopedias (see also Diciiaoaries of

the Bible ; Talmudical Works of Reference).

Hebrew Language. Aramaic
Biblical: General Works; Elementary Readers; Chrestoma-

thies (see also Elementary O. T. Histories; C.'Jtechlsins ; Manuals of Judaism);
Grammars (in Hebrew; see also Grammatical Not.fS on the Liturgies);

Grammars (in Other Languages) : Orthography (Including Al-
phabet, Vowel-Points. Accents) (we also Masora). Parts oi Speech,
Syntax, Rhetoric and Prosody (see also Poetry of the Hebrew nibie) ; Dic-
tionaries (see also Concordances) ; Nauies ; Synonyms ; Miscellane-
ous. Pnst-Bihlical : Chrestomathies ; Grammar; Diction-
aries; Foreign Terms (we also Dialects) ; Abbreviations. Modern :

Letter-Writers (see also I.egal Forms). Aramaic (see also Targums):

Chrestomathies ; Grammar.

Hebrew Bible.
General Works; Criticism; Introductions; Dictionaries;
Helps ; Poetry (see also Prosody) ; Prophecy ; Whole Hebrew BI-



Ijibraries
Lichtenberg



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



76



bles ; Parts ; Selections ; Concordances ; Masora (see also Grammar);
Textual Criticism, Various Readings; Targums (see also Aramaic) ;
Other Versions ; Exegetlcs (see also General Works on Homiietics) ; Col-
lected Commentaries; Rashi ; Ibn Ezra; Other Hebrew Com-
mentaries; Commentaries in Modem Languages; Collective
Biography ; Individual Biography ; Old Testament History (only

elementary works or sui-h as have chiefly an eiegetical interest ro here ; for works
of historical interest see E'entateuchal Traditions; Entire O. T. Period; see also
Fiction Relating to Biblical Times).

ARCHEOLOGY.

(see also Calendar; Education; Geography [Biblical ami Talnuidical]; Medicine
Among the Jews ; Palestine ; Ten Tribes ; Woman.)

Periodicals, Societies, Collections ; General Works ; Inscrip-
tions (see also Epitaphs) ; Numlsmatics ; Metrology : Social and Eco-
nomic Conditions; Slavery; Government (see also jurisprudence);

Sacred Antiquities (see also Ancient Judaism; Mythology; Idolatry of the
Ancient Hebrews; Orach Chayim Laws; Prophecy; The Ritual): Festivals,

Socriflces, Priesthood, Temples; Art; Music; Costumes; Other
Special Subjects.

pre-Talmudical Literature and Sects.

(See also History— Return from Rabylon to Completion of Talmud.)

Oeneral Worlts: Literature (see also Targums) ; Apocrypha; Ec-
cleslasticus. Other Books ; Pseudeplgrapha ; Philo Judteus (see
also Aieiandrian School of Philosophy) ; Other Hellenistic Literature

(see also Joaephus). ScctS (see also Post-Talmudlcal Schisms and Dissensions;
Sabbathai Zebi ; Chasidism) : Samaritans (see also Samaritan Text of the

Bible ; Samariun Targum) ; Sadducecs, Pharisees, EsseuBS, Thera-

peutae.

Christianity.

Oeneral Works (see also The Messiah). Histnri CO- Literary Sub-
jects: Lives of Jesus (Jewish); Lives of Jesus (Christian)

(for Jewish Contemporary History see Return from Babylon to the Close of the

Taimudi; New Testament; New Testament Parts; New Testa-
ment and Jewish Literature ; The Fathers and Jewish Litera-
ture ; Synagogue and Church. Thenlogico-Controversial Sub-
jects; Missionary Periodicals; Missionary Societies; Christian
Doctrine ; Christian Liturgies ; Jews in Christian Theology ;

Restoration of the Jews (.see also Restoration of the Jews [in Jewish The-
ology] ; Zionism) ; Converslou of the Jews ; Conversion of the Jews,
Works Against ; Converted Jews (Missionaries); Converted Jews
(Missionaries, Individual); Miscellaneous Missionary Writings;
Evidences of Christianity ; Christian Polemics (see also Unfavorable

Criticism of the Oral Tradition); JeWlsb ApOlOgCtlCS and PolemJCS (see
also Apologies of the Jews [agaiust Anti-Semites] ; Apologies of the Oral Tradi-
tion ; The Messiah) ; Judaism and Christianity (see also Jews and Gentiles ;
Judaism and Other Religions).

Talmudical Literature.
The Oral Tradition : Unfavorable Criticism (see also Anti-s«mitic

WrillngB ; Gentiles in Jewish Law and Literature ; Christian Polemics), ApolO-

gles, Introductions, Essays, Methodology, Helps, Works of

Reference (see also Dictionaries of Poet-Biblical Hebrew ; Indexes to the

Agada), Collective Biography, Individual Biography, History

(•ee also History ; Return from Babylon to the Close of the Talmud) 1 Mlshua

(see also Ahoth); Commentaries ; Literature of the Mishna Period ;
Jerusalem Talmud; Babylonian Talmud: Parts, Minor Trea-
tises, Translations, Selections (see also Agada), Textual Criti-
cism, Commentaries ; Pllpul.

Halacha.

General Works ; The 613 Precepts ; Codes of Law (to Maimon-
Ides) ; Maimonldes; Jacob ben Asher (and other writers before
Caro) ; Joseph Caro ; Later Works ; Codes of Special Laws :
Orach Chaylm Laws (»ee ai.*. The Uitu«i ; Sacred Aniiquities), Special
Laws, Yoreh Deah Laws, Dietary Laws (for modern works «ee Diet-
ary I.a«B, a.t'. Jewish Race, Etbnologiralty and Sociologically), Puriflca"
tlon (see also Coden in Ju.la'O-German), Regulations fOr ScrlbCS (see also
Maaaechelh Soferim. under Minor Treatises of the Talmud ; Paleography), Other
Special Laws ; Ehen ha-Ezer Laws (for modem works see Special Laws) :
Divorce ; ChOShen ha-Mlshpat Laws (see also Government of the Ancient

Hebrews; Nonj.-wi«h Law): Modem Works, Special Laws (see also

Slavery), Legal FormS (see also Letter-Writers) I CodeS In JUdOSO-Gcr-

man and Judspo-Spanlsh ; Decisions of Several Authors ; Deci-
sions of Individual Authors.

The Ritual.

(S«e alio Orach Chaylm Laws ; Sacred Antiquities.)

General Works; Special CU9tf)ras; Minhaglm (see also Supersti-
tions); Synagogue (see also Ecclesiastical Polity; Synagogue and Church);

Reading of the Law. Liturgies: Works on the Liturgy; Cf)l-
lectlons of Liturgies ; Dally Prayers (««e also christian Liturgies ; Kara
ite Liturgies) : Commentaries and Grammatical Notes, Rite of Re-
formed Jews ; Saturday Pravers ; Festival Prayers : Hagadah :
Fastday Prayers: Lamentations; Benedictions; Occasional
Prayers : Prayers for the Sick and the Dead (»ee also Foik-Medicine) ;



Miscellaneous ; Devotionals ; Meditations ; Private Hymnals ;
Readings ; Synagogue Music.

HOMILETICAL LITERATURE.

(See also A;;a(la.)

General Works (see also Exegetics). MidrasJi ini : Collections of
Midrashim ; Midrash Raboth ; Other Midrashim to Biblical

Books; Other Midrashim (for Halachlc Midiasiilm see Literature of the
Mishna Period ; for Kabbalistic Midrashim see Early Kabbalistic Literature) ;

Yalkutlm. Sermons: Sermons in Hebrew; Judaeo-German ;
German; English; French; Italian; Other Languages; Slavic;
Sabbath Sermons ; Festival Sermons ; Conflrmation Sermons ;
Marriage Sermons ; Funeral Sermons ; Sermons on Other Occa-
sions ; Political and Patriotic.

ETHICS.

Works on Jewish Ethics; AbOth («ee also Minor Treatises of the Tal-
mud): Translations, Commentaries; Miscellaneous Writers:
Judaeo-German Writers ; Judaeo-Spanish Writers ; Non-Jewish

Writers; Special Subjects (see also charity ; Gentiles in Jewish Law);
Etiquette (see also Massecheth Derech Erez [Minor Treatises of the Talmud]) ;

Poetical Works; Maxims (see also Proverbs) ; Ethical Wills; Asceti-
cism ; Hortatory Theology.

Doctrinal Theology.

General Works;* Ancient Judaism (see also Mythology; id.datry

[of the Ancient Hebrews] ; Sacred Antiquities) ; Modem JudalSHl : WorkS

in Modern Languages (see also Reformed Judaism); Manuals; Cate-
chisms; Special Subjects: ESChatOlOgy (see also Sadducees; Phari-
sees). Restoration of the Jews (see also Palestme ; Restoration of the Jews
[in Christian Theology] ; Zionism), The MCSSiah (.see also Christianity) ; Ju-
daism and Other Religions (see also Judaism and Clirlstlanitv ; Religions):

Proselytism, Proselytes.

Post-Talmudical Schisms and Dissensions.

General Works (see also Pre-Taimudicai Sects) ; Works on the Kara-
ites ; Karaite Literature : Liturgies ; Minor Sects ; Reformed

Judaism (see also Assimilation ; Modern Jewish History) : Works Against

Reform, Works for Reform, Special Subjects (see also Rite of Re-
formed Jews) ; Dialogues, Irenlcs.

Philosophy.

(Works for and against the study of Philosophy go here.)

Terminology ; Logic ; General Works ; Non-Jewish Philos-
ophers; Alexandrian School (see also pniio judieus); Saadiah ; Ga-
blrol; Judah ha-Levi ; Malmonides ; Other Philosophers : Spino-
za ; Modem Works ; Psychology (for Modern Psychology see Psychol-
ogy, s.v. Secular Sciences) ; Other Special Subjects.

Kabbala. Chasidism.

(PoUmlcs against the Kabbala and works in its defense go here.)

General Works ; Collections ; Sefer Yezirah ; Other Early
Literature; Zohar; Later Literature; Miscellaneous (see also
Transmigration) ; Sabbathai Zebl ; Eybschuetz-Emden Controversy ;
Frank. Chaxidism : Chasidaic Works ; Chasidaic Legends.

FOLK-LORK.

General Works (see also Prophec>); Religions (except Judaism
and Christianity) (.see also Judaism and other Religions) ; Mythology,
Idolatry (of the Ancient Hebrews) ; Agada (see also Homiieticai

Literature): ludexes (see also Talmudical Works of Reference), Selections

(see also Seiectiima from the Talmud), Commentaries ; Superstitions
(see also Minhaglm) ; Transmigration, Magic, Folk-Medicine (see

also Prayers for the Sick), Other Special Subjects: Customs (see also
Etiquette ; MInhagim : Orach Chavlm Laws ; Tiie Ritual) ; Games ; Legends
(see also The Bloo<l Accusation ; Chasadaic Legends) : Wandering JCW ; TaleS
(see also Fiction); Fahles ; PrOVCrbS (see also Maxims); Riddles;

Other Popular Literature.

BELLES-LETTRES.
(See also Dialects and Their Literattires.)

Hebrew: General works (see also History of Modem Literature); Col-
lections; Selections («ee also General CoIImiIous); Collected Works of

Individual Authors (see also Collected Works of a General Character);
Poetry (aee also Ethical poetry; Liturgies; Poetry of the Hebrew Bible: Pros-
ody): Collections, Individual Mediaeval Authors. Individual
Modem Authors; Drama; Fiction; Humor and Satire ; Parody;
Miscellany. Modern Lnnoua{ies : General Works (»ee also Ami.

Semitic Belles Letlrcs; Delineation of Ihe Jew In Liternlure) ; Poetry ; Drama ;

Fiction Relating to Biblical Times ; Fiction Relating to Modem
Times: Humor and Satire ; Miscellany.

DIALECTS and Their Literatures. Languages.

(See al.so Aramaic ; Foreign Terms Used In Pn«t-Biblical Hebrew.)

Reserved for Dialects as yet Unrepresented In the Collection ;
J udaeo- French ; Judaeo-Spanish (»ee also r.-des in judKo-Spanish) ; Ju-



77



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Libraries
Liichtenberg:



dlPl>(ieniian (fiT BibliourHphv ■~r<- Bililinurfiiihy, Sol.jei't«; f^T I.U>-rary His-
tory :in<l Crilitism Sff Hil.licijrruiln ui.il l.itviviry Histiiry, Juila-o-Germaii) :

DU'tiunaries, Literary Periodicals (s« aiM) Gfiimiju.iMci.Gfrtn.in Pr

riwiiicils), Literary Colleotions (walw. Grner:ilJuris.f>.Ger?ii«n CoUwtions).

Poetry (Collections), Poetry (Individual Authors), Fables,
Drama, Stage, Fiction, Humor and Satire, Parodies, Miscellanies

(are also Codes in Jii.itpo-Gcniian ; Drvotionals for Women , JuiJs-oGermaii Eth-
ical Writers).

LAXGUAGKS.

Russian: English.

Skcular Sciences.

(Works on the lultivation of the sciences aniont; llie Jews go here.)

General Works; Mathematics Amone the Jews; Mathemat-
ical Works: Arithmetic; Other Mathematical Works; Astron-
omy (for Astrology see umirr Kolk-Lore : Superstitions, Other Special SulijeiLs) ;

Works on the Calendar ; Calendars ; Natural Science ; Natural
History : Medicine Among the Jews : Physicians ; Medical Works

(see also Folk-Medicine) ; Hygiene ; Psychology (for Metaphysical J'-v, l.ol-
ogy see Philosophy : Psychoioiry) ; Music; Fine Arts; Useful Arts:
Cookery, Book-Keeping, Commerce ; Sociology and Economics ;

Socialism ; Government; Law. (other non-Jewish subjects are : Chris-
tianity, Games; GeoL'raphv ; Historv ; Jewish Literature and Other Literatures;
Judaism and Other Relitiona ; Lan;:uat;es ; Logic; Mythology ; Philosophy; Re-
ligions ; Travels; Wandering Jew.)

Geography. General History. Biography.
Gengraphy: Biblical and Talmudical Geography; Palestine

(see also Archeology ; Jews in the Orient ; Restoration of the Jews [<n Christian
Theology] ; Restoration of the Jews [in Jewish Theology] ; Zionism) ; Travels.

General Historu: Special Countries ; America; United States.
Non-Jewish Biography: Non-Jewish Biography (Individual).
Jcwislt Bingraphii : Epitaphs (see also inscriptions) ; Genealogy;

Biographical Material (see also Bibliographies of Authors; Ethical Wills;
Funeral Sermons; Legen.i^ ; Legends of Chasidim ; Names); COUectiVe Biog-
raphy (see also Converted Jews; O. T. Biography: Physicians; Talmudical

Biography ; Woman) ; Collcctions of Portraits ; Individual Portraits ;

Individual Biography (see also Eybschueti-Emden Controversy ; Frank ;
Individual Converted Jews; Individual O. T. Biography ; Individual Talmudists ;
Lives of Jesus ; Prosel\tes; Sabbathai Zebi).

JEWISH History.
Periodicals; Societies; Collections; Historical Miscellanies

(see also Archft-ology ; Blood Accusation ; Eiiitaphs ; Karaism ; Palestine ; Travels);

Josephus : Chronicles ; (Jeneral Jewish History.
division by periods.
Pentateuchal Traditions ; Entire O. T. Period (for elementary

worlissee (.Mil Test. Histi'ry, s.r. Hebrew Bible; see also Ancient Judaism; O. T.
Biography; Prophecy : Ten Trii.es) ; UetUm from Br.bylon tO the CIOSC
of the Talmud (see also Pre-Talniudlcal Literature and Sects; Talmudical Biog-
raphy and History) ; Middle Agcs to the Latter Half of the 18th Cen-
tury (see also Sabbathai Zebi; Evbsi-huetz-Emden Controversy) ; Modem (see
also Chasidisni ; Ernancipatiou : Reformed Judaism ; Zionism).

DIVISION BY COUNTRIES.

(See also Bibliographies of Countries ; Epitaphs.)

Orient (see also p.iiestine) ; Balkan Peninsula ; Italy ; Spain and

Portugal (see also Judseo-Spanish); France (see also Judeeo-French) ; Great

Britain ; Minor European Countries : Germany ; Austria-Hun-
gary; Poland; Russia; America; United States and Canada;
Other Countries.

The Jewish Race Ethnolouically and Sociologically.
General Works; Anthropology; Ethnology (see also Assimilation) ;

Ten Tribes (see also History of the O. T. Period) ; CirCUmcisiOn (for the
Halacha of this subject see Other Special Laws, sv. Halacha ; for the Liturgies
See under Occasional Pi avers) ; Dietary LaWS (for the Halacha of this subject
see under Halacha); Woman (see also Codes in Judeeo-German ; Devotionals
for Women; Eben lia-Ezer Laws; Purification); Statistics; OCCUpatiOnS ;
Trades; Commerce; Agriculture (see also social and Economic Con-
ditions of the Ancient Hebrews) ; Trade Unlons (see also Socialism) ; Mu-
tual Aid Associations; Communal Organization (see also Syna-

goL'ue) ; Charity ; Crime ; Education (see also Hebrew Readers ; Letter-
Writers; Post-Biblical Hebrew Readers; Eiementarv O. T. Histories; Elementary
Works on Judaism) : EdUCational Institutions (see also Libraries).

Jews and Gentiles.

(Works of this class relating to the Jews of a particular country go with the his-
tory of the Jews In that country, an exception being made in the 7th [Blood Accu-
sation] and last two sections in this division, which take all works relating to those
subjects.)

General Works ; Delineation of the Jew in Literature and

Art (see also Belles-Lettres ; Jews in Christian Theology ; Wandering Jew) ;

Works on Anti-Semitism ; Anti-Semitic Writings (see also Unfavora-
bie Criticism of the Oral Tradition) ; Anti-Semitic Belles- Lettres ; Gen-
tiles in Jewish Law and Literature ; The Blood Accusation ;

Apologetic Writings (see also Apolo^-etlcs of Judaism Against Christianity ;



Apologies of the Oral Tradition) ; The Jewish Question : Various Solu-
tions, Toleration, Emancipation (see also Modem Jewish History),

Assimilation and Mixed Marriages (see aisf> Ethnology ; Reformed Juda-

ism), Zionism (see also Jews in the Orient ; Palestine ; Restoration of the Jews
[in Christian Theology] ; Restoration of the Jews [in Jewish Theology]).

Bibliography: Steinschneider, VorJcmuigoi liber die Kunde
Hehrai.-rlur Hnndschriflciu in Beiliefte znin Centralblatt
fllr Iiil)li(>t)ieltsu-escn, vii., Leipsic, 1897 ; Blau, St^idien zun\
Altlubrdischot Buchwcsen, Budapest, 1902; Schwab, The
Library of the Alliance Israelite Universelle, in Jewish
Comment, June, 1904.

G.

LIBYA : District in tin- north of Africa. The
name "Lil)ya" was often used by the ancients,
sometimes to designate the whole of northern
Africa (with tlie exception of Egypt), sometimes to
denote a single province west of Egypt. Accord-
ing to Josephus (" Ant." i. 6, § 2), Libya was founded
by Phut (comp. Gen. .\. 6), and the eponymous hero
Libj's was a son of Mesraios, i.e., of Egypt. An-
other old tradition says that Eofres {i.e., Epher;
Gen. XXV. 4) conquered Lil)ya and that the land was
called "Africa "after him (Josejihus, I.e. i. 15; comp.
Eusebius, "Prjeparatio Evangelica," i.x. 20, § 2;
"Chronicon Paschale," i. 60; Suidas, s.r. 'A<ppoi;
"Yuhasin," ed. London, p. 233).

The Biblical data are more historical. Shishak
(Shoshank), whose name is claimed to be Libyan,
had Libyansin his army (A. V. "Lubims,"II Chron.
xii. 3); King Asa defeated a whole army of Cush-
ites and Libyans (ib. xvi. 8; comp. .\iv. 11); and the
celebrated Egyptian Thebes also had Libyans in its
pay (Nahum iii. 9). In all these passages the Scp-
tuagint has Ailiveg. In Dan. xi. 43, Egyptians,
Libyans, and Cushites appear together.

In the Greco-TJoman period Libya coincided ap-
proximately with C^'rene and the territory belong-
ing to it. Jews lived there ("Ant." xvi. 6, § 1);
and Augustus granted them certain privileges
through Flavins, the governor of the province {ib.
§ 5). The Christian apostles also prepared them-
selves to extend their mission into Libya (Acts ii.
10). The great Jewish war of the year 70 had its
aftermath in Libya: and the rebellions Jonathan
was denounced to the governor of the Libyan Pen-
tapolis (Josephus, "B. J." vii. 11, i^ ]). The Jews
of Libya also took part in the rebellion under Trajan
and Hadrian (see Cvrene).

Modern investigation is inclined to connect Leha-
bim {Gen. x. 13; I Chron. i. 11) with the Libyans,
as did the Jerusalem Targum in rendering it by the
Greek AifSvKoi. Many proselytes came from Libj'a
(Yer. Shab. 7b; Yer. Kil. 3lc); hence Judaism must
have carried on its propaganda there. The Rabbis
mention beans (Low, " AramSische Pflanzennamen,"
p. 234) and asses from Libya (Bek. 5b; Shab. 51b).

The once flourishing province corresponds to the

present Barka, which, under Islamic dominion, has

become a desert.

Bibliography: Knobel, DieVollicrtafel der Gvnef>i^, pp. 283,
29.i-305, Giessen.iaW; Boettger, Tonographii<ch-Hi.st<rr inches
Lexicon zu den Schriften drs Flavins Jo^ephvs, p. 163;
Kohut, Arrich Completum, v. 5.
G. S. Kr.

lilCHTENBERG, CORNEL : Hungarian au-
rist ; born in 1848 at Szegedin ; studied at Budapest
and Vienna (M.D. 1873). On receiving his degree
he returned to Budapest, where lie established him-
self at the unive-sity as docent in diseases of the
ear (1883). The same year he was one of the found-



Lichtenbergr
liieben



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



78



ers of the polyclinic, of which institution he was
appointed director in 1891. In recognition of his
services he was decorated in 1895 with the "Ritter-
Kreuz " of the Order of Francis Joseph.

Lichtenberg is the author of: "Az Ideges Siiket-
seg " (Budapest, 1879), on nervous deafness; " Ueber
Subjective Gehorsempfindungen " {ib. 1882); and
" Ein FremdkOrper im Ohre mit Cerebralen Erschein-
ungen " {ib. 1883).

Bibliography: Pallm Lex.x SzinnjeU Magyar Irok Elete.
s. L. V.

LICHTENBERG, LEOPOLD: Violinist;
born at San Francisco, Cal., Nov. 22, 1861. He
studied under Beaujardin, and made his first appear-
ance in concert when eight years of age. At twelve
be became a pupil of Wieniawski, whom he accom-
panied on a tour through the United States. Some
time afterward he spent six months in Paris under
Lambert, and then rejoined Wieniawski at Brussels,
where he studied unremittingly for three years.
After winning the prize at the national "concours"
held at Brussels, he made a successful tour through
Holland. Upon his return to America he played
with Theodor Thomas' orchestra in New York, and
gave a number of recitals in other cities. After
spending three years more in Europe Lichtenberg
gave another series of concerts in America, after
which he settled for some time in Boston, Mass., as
a member of the Symphony Society. He next went
to New York city to take charge of the department
of violin at the National Conservatory. His fine
technique and beautiful tone entitle him to high rank
among violinists.

Bibliography: Baker, Biographical Diclionary of Musi-
cians.



Online LibraryIsidore SingerThe Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) → online text (page 21 of 169)