Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

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A. J. So.


Polish mathematician and author; born at Lublin
1811; died at Warsaw March 22, 1887. He was a
descendant of Moses Isserles, and, true to the fam-
ily tradition, showed early ability as a Talmudic
scholar. He later became familiar with Latin, Ger-
man, French, and Polish, and made a special study
of philosophy and mathematics.

In the Ilebrew periodical "Ha-Shahar," vol. iii.
et seq., there appeared a series of Hebrew articles
by Lichtenfeld which attracted attention. His rep-
utation was enhanced by his series of articles, in the
Polish periodical "Izraelita," on Jewish mathema-
ticians. Lichtenfeld is known also by his polemics
with Slonimski on mathematical subjects.

Lichtenfeld was theauthor of : " Yedi'ot ha-Shi'u-
rim" (Warsaw, 186.5); "Zofnat Pa'neah " {ib. 1874).
a critical review of S. Slonimski's " Yesode Hokmat
haShi'ur"; "Tosefot" {ib. 1875), polemic against S.
Slonimski ; " Kolien Lflo Elohim " (ib. 1876), mathe-
matical criticisms; "Sippurim be-Shir," etc. {ib.
1877), a collection of poems and rimed prose by
himself and by his son-inlaw Leon Peretz.

Bibliography: Fuenn, Keneset Yisrael, 11. 3.56; Zeltlln,
BiM. Poat-Mendels. p. 209.
H. R. J G. L.

lish and Talmudist; bom at Lublin, Rus-
sian Poland, July 15, 1787; died at Jan. 17,

1870. He was noted as well for his charities, espe-
ciallj' in assisting poor students, as for his Biblical
and Talmudic scholarship. He was one of the fouud-
eis of the public school for Jewish children at
Odessa. He contributed a number of articles on
Biblical and Talmudic subjects to "Ha-Meliz,"
"Ha-Karmel," and "Ha-Maggid," and wrote "Mi-
Mohorat ha-Sliabbat " (Vienna, 1860), on Pentecost,
directed against the Karaites.

Bibliography: Ha-Meliz, 1870, p. 19; Gottlober, in Ha-Maa-
gid, 18«4, p. 212; Zedner, Cat. Hehr. Book^Brit. Mun. p. i;W.
n. R. A. S. W.

LICHTENSTADT (LASH, from the Hebrew
abbreviation ^'p), SIMEON BEN JUDAH:

Bohemian Talmudist; lived at Prague in the first
half of the nineteenth century. He was the author
of "Shesh ha-Ma'arakah," a commentary on the six
Mishnaic orders, each order having a .separate title
as follows: (1) "Derek Emunah " (Presbmg, 1840);
(2) "Dabar be-'Itto " («6. 1841); (3) "Hosen Rah"
{ib. 1843), preceded by a sernion delivered at Prague
on the first of the Penitential Days, 1836; (4)
"Ma'yan ha-Yeshu'ah " (ib. 1846); (5) "Hokmat
Adam " (Prague, 1852).

Bibliography : Benjacob, Ozar ha-Sefarim, p. 612, No. 1:M) ;
Fiirst, Bibl. Jud. 11. 245, s.v. Lichtenstadt.
8. 8. M. Sei,.

bi; born at Vecs 1815; died at Kolomea, Galicia,
May 18, 1891. After studying at the yeshibah of
Moses Sofer he married, in 1837, the daughter of a
well-to^do resident of Galantha, where he remained
until 1850, when he was elected rabbi of Margarethen
(Szent Margit). In 1854 he was elected rabbi of
Klausenburg, but the opposition of the district rabbi,
Abraham Friedmann, made it impossible for him to
enter upon tiic duties of the office ; finally he was
expelled from Klausenburg by the authorities. Hav-
ing lived for some time at Grosswardein, he was re-
called to Margarethen, where he remained until
about 1865, when he was called to Szikszo.
Thence he went, in 1867, to Kolomea, where he re-
mained until his death. Lichtenstein was the out-
spoken leader of the Orthodox extremists in Hun-
gary : he not only resisted the slightest deviation from
the traditional ritual, as the removal of the Almem ar
from the center of the synagogue, but even vig-
orously denounced the adoption of modern social
manners and the acquisition of secular education.
He bitterly opposed the Hungarian Jewish congress
of 1868-69 and the establishment of the rabbinical
seminary in Budapest. In 1865 he called a rabbinical
convention at Nagy-Mihaly, which protested against
the founding of a seminary and sent a committee
to the emperor to induce the government to prohibit
its establishment. In his religious practise he sur-
passed th'j rigorism of the most Orthodox Hungarian
rabbis, even going so far as to keep a she ass in order
to be able to fulfil the law of the redemption of the
first-born of the ass (see Ex. xiii. 13). He kept a
sheep also in order to be able to give the first fleece
to a kohen (Deut. xviii. 4), from whom
(juently he bought it back to make zizit from it.
Lichtenstein was an ardent admirer of the Hasidim
and made pilgrimages to the famous miracle-worker
Hayyim Halberstam of Sandec. He offered his own




intercession througli prayer to people in distress,
but declined any gifts.

Liclitenstein was a powerful preacher and a pop-
ular writer, and the resistance to modern tendencies
among the Jews of northern Hungary is largely due
to his inliuence. He inveighed against the use of
other than traditional Jewish names; he denounced
not only secular education, but even the playing of
musical instruments and innocent social games, like
chess and checkers; and he condemned those who
relied on reason, for the ideal Jew should live up to
the principle of Psalm Ixxiii. 22, "I was as a beast
before thee" (" 'Et la-'Asot," p. 118a, Lemberg,
1881). He was a decided opponent also of all agita-
tion for the political emancipation of the Jews, say-
ing that it is the duty of the Jews to suffer the trib-
ulations of the E.xile until God finds them ripe for
Messianic redemption.

Of the numerous works which Lichtenstein wrote,
some of them being in Hebrew and others in Judaeo-
Germau, the most important are"Maskil el Dal"
(Lemberg, 1867), " 'Et la-'Asot" (ib. 1881), and
" Abkat Rokel " {ih. 1883), all of which have been
repeatedly reedited. They are all devoted to the
denunciation of liberal Judaism. In Hebrew Hillel
signs his name E^'p (Lash), which is an abbreviation
for |"t3tJ'jyD3''f' (Lichtenstein).
Bibliography : Hirsch Heller, Bet Hillel, Munkacs, 1893.

s. D.

lilCHTHEIM, LXJDWIG : German physician ;
born Dec. 7, 1845, at Breslau, where he was educated
at the gymnasium. He then studied medicine at
the universities of Berlin, Zurich, and Breslau,
graduating in 1868. From 1869 to 1872 he was as-
sistant in the medical hospital at Breslau ; from 1872
to 1873 in the surgical hospital at Halle; and from
1873 to 1877 again at Breslau in the medical poly-
clinic. He became privat-docent at Breslau Univer-
sity in 1876; assistant professor at Jena in 1877;
was called in 1878 to Bern University as professor
of medicine and chief of the medical clinic ; and has
held a similar position since 1888 in the Universitj'-
of Konigsberg.

Lichtheim has written many essays in the medical
journals, among which may be mentioned: " Ueber
Behandlung Pleuritischer Exsudate, " in " Sammlung
KHnischer Vortrage," 1872 ; (with Cohuheim) " Ueber
Hydramie und Hydramisches Oedem," in Virchow's
"Archiv," Ixix. ; "Ueber Periodische Haemoglobi-
nurie," in "Sammlung KHnischer Vortrage," 1878;
"Die Antipyretische Wirkung des Phenols," in
"Breslauer Aerztliche Zeitschrift," 1881; "Ueber
Tuberkulose," in "Rapport des Kongresses fur In-
nere Medizin," 1883; "Die Chronischen Herzmuske-
lerkrankungen und Hire Behandlung," ib. 1888 ; " Zur
Diagnose der Meningitis," in "Berliner Klinische
Wochenschrift," 1895. He is the author also of
"Die Storungen des Lungenkreislaufs und Ihr Ein-
fluss auf dei^Blutdruck " (Berlin, 1876).

Bibliography: Pagel, Biog. Lex. Vienna, 1901.
s. F. T. H.

LICHTSCHEIN, LUDWIG : Hungarian rab-
bi; born in Komorn; died at Ofen in 1886. He
studied at Papa, and was rabbinical assessor of
Austerlitz, Gross Kanizsa, and Esztergom. From

1876 until his death he was rabbi at Somogy-

Lichtschein was the author of the following works :
"A Zsidok Kozep es Jelenkori Helyzettik " (Gross
Kanizsa, 1866), on the condition of the Jews in me-
dieval and modern times; "Die Dreizehn Glaubens-
artikel" (Briinn, 1870), a sermon; "Der Targum
zu den Propheten" (in Stern's "Ha Mehakker," i.);
"Der Talmud und der Socialismus" (ib. iii.); "Kos-
suth Lajos es a Satoraljaiihelyi Rabbi" (in "Magyar
Zsido Szemle," 1885), on Kossuth and the rabbi of

Bibliography : Petrik, Konyveszet ; Szinnyel, Magyar Irdk ;
Lippe, Biographisches Lexikon, 1. 288.
s. L. V.

LIPMAN : Polish rabbi and author; lived at the
end of the eighteenth and at the beginning of the
nineteenth century; grandson of R. Kalman of
Byelostok. He was rabbi and preacher at Prassuysz,
in the government of Plotzk, Poland.

Lichtstein was the author of " Kanfe Nesharim," a
commentary on the Pentateuch in several parts, each
having a separate name, viz.: "Kiryat Sefer," an
introduction to each book of the Pentateuch ; " To-
'aliyyotha-Ralbag," treating of the doctrines deduced
by Levi b. Gershon from passages of the Torah;
"Abak Soferim," miscellanea; "Mahazeh Abra-
ham," consisting of sermons on each section of the
Torah; "Ner Mizwah," treating of the number of
the precepts according to Maimonides ; " Shiyyure
Mizwah," treating of the additional precepts accord-
ing to Nahmanides, Moses b. Jacob of Coucy, and
Isaac of Corbeil; "Milhemet Mizwah," on the dis-
putes among various authorities concerning the
numbering of the precepts by Maimonides; "Torat
ha-Korbanot," on the Levitical laws of offerings
and on the order of the high priest's service in the
sanctuary on the Day of Atonement; and "Sha'are
Ziyyon," orations on theological subjects. The
whole work was published together with the text
of the Pentateuch, Josefow, 1829, and republished,
without the text, Wilna, 1894. Lichtstein was the
author also of a commentary on the "Sefer ha-
Tappuah " which was published together with the
text in the Grodno edition of 1799.

Bibliography : Kanfe Nesharim, 2d edition ; Benjacob, Ozar
ha-Sefarim, pp. 636, 660.
S. S.' N. T. L.

Plonsk, government of Warsaw, in the eighteenth
century. He was the author of a work entitled
"Zera' Abraham" (Dyhernfurth, 1811), a commen-
tary on the Sifre, followed by Biblical and Talmud-
ical indexes, and accompanied with the text. Licht-
stein wrote also a preface and added a homily to
his son's "Shoshannat 'Amakim."

Bibliography: Walden, Shem ha-Oednlim he-ffadash, i. 15;
Steinschneider, Cat. Bndl. col. 699; Zedner, Cat. Hebr.
Books Brit. Mus. p. 437.
S. S. M. Sel.

LIEBEN, ADOLF: Austrian chemist; born at
Vienna Dec. 3, 1836. He studied at the universities
of Vienna, Heidelberg (Ph.D. 1856), and Paris, and
subsequently held the positions of privat-docent at
the University of Vienna (1861), and professor in




the universities of Palermo (1863), Turin (1867),
and Prague (1871). Since 1875 lie lias held the
chair of general and pharmacological chemistry at
the University of Vienna, and is a member of the
Vienna Academy of Sciences.

Liebcn has published many essays in "Liebig's
Annalen der Chemie " (" Ueber die Einwirkung
Schwacher Affinitaten nuf Aldehyd," 1861; " Ueber
das lodbenzol," 1869; "Ueber Festes-Benzoylchlo-
rid," 1875; etc.), " Sitzungsberichte den Kaiserlich-
en Akademie der Wissenschaf ten in Wien " (" Un-
tersuchungcn iiber Milchzucker," "Einwirkung
von Cyangus auf Aldehyd," " Ueber den Formaldc-
hyd und dessen Umwandlung in Methylalkohi,"
"Reduction des Exotonchlorals," etc.), "Monatshef-
ten fiir Chemie," "Comptes-Rendus de 1' Academic
de Paris," "Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen
Gesellschaft Berlin," "Gazzetta Chimica Italiana

Palermo," etc.
8. F. T. H.

FREEMAN): Russian writer; born at Wilna
about 1840. Persecuted because of his participation
in revolutionary movements, he fled to America, and
died by his own hand at Syracuse, N. Y., Nov. 8,
1880. "^He was the editor of " Ha-Emet," a Hebrew
monthly of communistic tendencies (Vienna, 1877),
only the prospectus and two numbers of which ap-
peared ; and he was the first to organize socialist
societies among the Jews in London.
Biuliogkaphy: Zeitlin, Bibl. Post-Men<iel«. p. 211.

1). S. M.'^.N.

ufacturer; born at Markisch Friedland Feb. 4, 1812;
died in Berlin Jan. 15, 1901. In 1825 his family
moved to the latter city; and Liebcrmann, after
completing a school course, entered the employ of
a firm in London. Upon his return to Berlin he was
taken into his father's business, which he soon de-
veloped into the largest calico-manufactory in Ger-
many. That his ability was recognized is shown
by the fact that he was elected to the i)residency of
the German merchants' association (Deutscher Han-
delstag). According to an anecdote he introduced
himself to King Frederick William IV. as "the
Liebermann who drove the Englishmen from the
Continental calico market." For many years he
held the office of president of the Gesellschaft der
Freunde, and he was treasurer of the Lehranstalt fur
die Wissenschaft des Judenthums at the time of its

BiBi.ifxjRAPnY : Allij. Zeit. des Jiid. Jan. 25, 1901; Mitthei-
lunoen axis dem Verein zur Bekiimpfuna des Anlisemitis-
mux, 1901, p. 29.
s. D.

ZER : Tahnudist of the first half of the nineteenth
century. According to G. Wolf, in his biography
of Isaac Noah Mannheimer (p. 10, Note), lie was a
native of Austria; Jost (" (.'ulturgesch." iii. 24) says
that he pretended to be a Hungarian rabbi; but in
the preface to "Or Nogali." Liebermann signs him-
self "son of Zeeb Wolf, rabbi of Hennegau " (prob-
ably Hagenau, Alsace). He was the agent of the
patrons of the Reform Temple at Hamburg, in de-
fense of which he published "Nogah ha-Zedek," a

collection of the views of Shem-Tob Sanuui of Leg-
horn, R. Jacob Vila Ricanati of Pesaro, R. Moses
Kunitz, or Kunitzer, of Budapest, and R. Aaron
Cliorin of Arad. The indorsement by the rabbinates
of Leghorn and Jerusalem, which was added to that
of Shem-Tob Samun, was afterward declared to be

The "Nogah ha-Zedek" was followed by "Or
Nogah" (Dessau, 1818), in which Liebermann gives
a lengthy and learned exposition of his own views
in favor of Reform. It is prefaced by two eulogistic
poems, one from Chorinand another signed "Ze'ebi."
In refutation of this book the Hamburg rabbinate
published "Eleh Dibre ha-Berit,"a collection of the
views of prominent Orthodox rabbis, and contain-
ing a declaration of Aaron Chorin revoking his
former opinion (Altona, 1819). On the title-page of
" Or Nogah " Liebermann claims the authorship of
" ' Ir Dammesek," which work does not seem to have
been printed.

In 1819 Liebermann traveled in Austria to propa-
gate Reform ideas and, according to the statement
of the chief of police Sedlnitzky, to found for that
purpose a journal called "Syonia." Nothing else is
known of Liebermann 's life. According to Wolf
and Graetz, Liebermann became a convert to Roman
Catholicism ; but there is nothing positive to cor-
roborate this assertion.

Bibliography: Furst, Blhl. Jud. ii. 248; Gratz, Oesch. xi.
420-424. Leipsic, 1870; Jost, CAdturgesch. Iii. 24-25, Berlin,
1847; Schreiber, Reformed Judaism, pp. 76-77, Spokane,
1892 ; Steinschnelder, Cat. Bodl. col. 964 ; Moses Sofer, Re-
spoiisa, vl. 91.
D. S. Man.

writer; born in Pilvischok, government of Suwalki,
April 12, 1820; died in Byelostok April 15, 1895.
His father was a shohet and gave him the usual
Jewish education. At the age of twelve he was sent
to his uncle R. Elijah Schick ("Reb Elinke Lider"),
then rabbi of Amstibove, who instructed him in
Talmud and rabbinical literature. In 1838 he went
to Wilna and joined the Maskilim; about 1844 he
settled as a teacher in Byelostok; in 1867 he removed
to Suwalki, remained there about twenty years, and
then returned to Byelostok. Liebermann is the au-
thor of "Megillat Sefer," a collection of short stories,
essays, fables, and letters (Johannisberg, 1854), and
of " Zedek u-Mishpat," v. Hebrew adaptation of S. D.
Luzzatto's " Lezioni di Teologia Morale Israelitica "
(Wilna, 1867). He wrote also "Ge Hizzayon"
(Warsaw, 1889), several works still in manuscript,
and a number of articles which he published in
various Hebrew periodicals.

BiBLiOfiRAPHY : Ahiaxaf. vol. iii. (necrologies, in which he la
erroneously called" Jacob") ; Sokolov, Scfer Zikkarnn. pp.
.57 .58. Warsaw, 1890; Zeitlin, Bibl. Hchr. Fost-Mcndds.
p. 211.
H. n. P. Wi.

LI.EBERMANN, FELIX : German historian ;
born July 20, 1851, in Berlin. Destined for a com-
mercial can'er, he began business life in a Berlin
bank in 1869. There he remained for some time,
but ultimately went to England, going to Man-
chester in 1871. Not very long afterward he re-
turned to Germany, where lie devoted himself almost
exclusively to the study of early English constitu-
tional history under Waitz and Pauli, at GOttingen.




On this subject he has published several mono-
graphs, begiuuing with " Auglouormauuische Ge-
schichtsquellen " (Berlin, 1879) and culminating in
his monumental edition of the "Gesetze der Augel-
sachsen" (Berlin, 189b-1903; published by the Sa-
vigny Fund). Many of the essay's contained in this
great work had been published previously by Lie-
berniann, either separately {e.g., " Quadripartitus,"
1893; "Leges Ed wardi," 1896; etc.) or in journals, as
the "English Historical Review," "Transactions of
the Royal Historical Society," etc. He contributes
an annual review of the publications on English me-
dieval history to tiie " Jahresbericht fur Geschichts-
wi.ssenschaft." In recognition of his contributions
to English history the University of Cambridge
conferred upon him the honorary degree of LL. D.
(1899), and the Prussian government the title of

Bibliography : Kiirschner, Deutscher Literatur-Kalender ;

C. Gross, Sources of E)njU>i)i Hiator)!, 19(K), p. 589.


ASHER LEMLE : Rabbi and preacher in Prague
in the second half of the seventeenth century; died
there 1709. He was the author of "Mattat Yah,"
a collection of sermons on the Pentateuch, reaching
only to Numbers xxxiii. (Frankfort-on-the-Oder,
1696). Another collection of sermons by him, enti-
tled "Peri Megadim," is preserved in manuscript.

Bibliography: Azulal, Shem ha-GedoUm ; Benjacob, Ozar
ha-Sefarim, pp. 390. 495; Fiirst, Bibl. Jud. ii. 248; Stein-
schneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 1683; Hock, Die Familien Progs,
p. 397, PresburK, 1893.

D. S. Man.

LIEBERMANN, MAX: German painter;
born at Berlin July 29, 1849. After studying law
at Berlin University for a year, he abandoned it and
took up the study of painting at Weimar in 1869
under Thumann and Pawels. In 1872 he went to
Paris, and during 1876-77 resided in Holland; after
living for some time in Munich he finally returned
to Berlin.

His paintings include: " Ganserupferinnen " ;
"Amsterdamer Waisenmiidchen " ; "Das Tischge-

bet"; "Strassein Zand-

voort " ; " Kleinkinder-
schule in Amsterdam " ;
" Milne hner Bierkon-
zert " ; " Die Spinnerin-
nen " ; " Die Konserven-
macherinnen " ; " Stille
Arbeit" ; " Die Schweine-
fainilie " ; " Altmanner-
haus in Amsterdam " ;
" Trauergottesdienst " ;
" ilollilndlsche Dorf-
strasse " ; " Der Weber " ;
" Netzef lickerinnen " ;
" Spitalgarten in Lei-
den " ; " Biergarten in
Mi\nchen"; "Flachs-
Max Liebermann. scheuer in Holland";

" Frau mit Ziegen " ;
" Biirgermeister Petersen"; "Viehmarkt in Haar-
lem." Some of these works are in private collec-
tions; others are in the Kunsthalle, Hamburg; the
Nationalgallcrie, Berlin ; the Neue Pinakothek,

vni.— 6

^lunich; the Strasburg Museum; the Leipsic Mu-
seum; and various other public galleries of Europe.
Liebermann at first expressed the extreme tend-
encies of the modern realistic school, and illus-
trated tlie darker sides of life; his earlier works
were exhibited in Paris in 1875, 1876, and 1877
(" Runkelrubenernte," " Arbeitssaal im Amsterdamer
Waisenhaus," etc.), and at Munich in 1879 ("Jesus
im Tempel "). In later ja-ars, however, he has
turned toward the naturalistic school, producing
a number of genre paintings and expo.sitions of
Dutch rural life. He has excelled also as an etcher.
Liebermann won the small medal of the Berlin and
of the second Munich expositions.

Bibliography: Kammerer, Max Liebermann, Lelpslc. 1893;
MeuevK Koni'>ersations-Lexikrm ; AUgemeines KUnMer-
Lexieon, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1898.
s. F. T. H.


See Yeau-Books.

LIEBLIN6, EMIL : German pianist ; bom at
Pless, Silesia, April 12, 1851. After a course in
piano at the Neue Akademie der Tonkunst, Berlin,
under Ehrlich and Kullak, he continued his studies
with Dachs at Vienna and with Liszt at Weimar.
In 1867 he went to America, where, until 1871, he
taught music in a Kentucky seminary. In 1874 he
revisited Europe and spent the summer at Weimar
with Liszt. Upon his return to America he settled
at Chicago, where he has since established a high
reputation as pianist, teacher, and composer. Lieb-
ling has played in New York, Chicago, and other
cities, and has made concert tours with Wilhelmj,
Miss Cary, Miss Kellogg, and others.

The following are a few of Liebling's principal
compositions: "Gavotte Moderne," Op. 11; "Flor-
ence Valse," Op. 12; " Albumblatt," Op. 18; two
romances. Op. 20 and 21; "Cradle Song," Op. 23;
"Canzonetta," Op. 26; "Mazurka de Concert," Op.
30 ; and several songs.

Bibliography : Cbamplin, Cyclopedia of Music atid Mii8i-
cia?i.s, s.v.
A. J. So.

LIEBRECHT, FELIX: German folklorist;
born at Namslau, Silesia, March 18, 1812; died at
St. Hubert Aug. 3, 1890. He studied philology
at the universities of Breslau, Munich, and Berlin,
and in 1849 became professor of the German language
at the Athenee Royal at Liege, Belgium. He re-
signed his chair and retired into private life in 1867.
The following translations by him may be men-
tioned: Giambattista Basiles, "Pentamerone," with
introduction by Jakob Grimm (Berlin, 1846); Jo-
hannes Damascenus, "Baarlam und Josaphat"
(Miinster, 1847); Dunlop, "Gesch. der Prosadich-
tung " (Berlin, 1851) ; an edition of Gervasius of
Tilbury's "Otia Imperialia" (Hanover, 1856). A
collection of original essays by him was published
at Heilbronn in 1879, under the title "Zur Volks-

Bibliographt: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon.

s. F. T. H.


GEN : German physician and pharmacologist;
born at Konigsberg, East Prussia, Feb. 14, 1839;




younger brother of Kicliard Lieureich. He studied
first chemistry in Wiesbaden and Berlin and then,
after nearly two years in Africa, medicine at the
universities of Tubingen, Konigsberg, and Berlin,
graduating as doctor of medicine in 18G5. In 1867
he became assistant at the pathological institute of
Berlin University, and in 1868 joined the medical
faculty of the same university as privat-docent in
pharmacology. He was elected assistant professor
in 1868 and ai)pointed professor and chief of the
pharmacological institute in 1872. In 1891 he re-
ceived the title of "Geheime Medicinalrath."

Liebreich has added many new remedies to the
pharmacopa'ia. In 1869 he discovered the narcotic
effect of chloral hydrate; in 1873 he introduced
platin-iridium cannulas for the hypodermic syringe;
he showed the anesthetic effect of ethylene chlorid
and butyl chlorid, the use of hydrargyrum forma-
midatum in the treatment of syphilis, the healing
properties of lanolin (1885), of erythrophlein (1888),
of cantharidin (1891), of creosol, tolipyrin, forma-
lin, methylene blue, and many other drugs. He is
a prolific writer, and has written many essays and
monographs on his discoveries; especially notewor-
thy are those on : the presence of protogon in the
brain as the chief chemical compound of phosphorus,
the examination of lupus through phaneroscopic
illumination, the use of strychnin as an antidote for
chloral hydrate, the oxidation of neurin and the
synthesis of oxyneurin (both discovered by him).
His writings are very diverse ; they deal not onlj' with
chemistry and pharmacology, but also with syphilol-
ogy, dermatology, hygiene, and balneology. Since
1887 he has edited the "Therapeutische Monats-

Liebreich is the author also of: "Das Chloralhy-

drat, ein Neues Hypnotikum," Berlin, 1869 (3d ed.

1871); "Encyclopadie der Therapie," ih. 1895; with

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