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Isidore Singer.

The Jewish encyclopedia : a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature, and customs of the Jewish people from the earliest times to the present day (Volume 8) online

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Langgaard, "Kompendium der Arzneiverordnung,"

5th ed. ib. 1900.

Bibliocrapiiy: Pagel, Bimi- Lex.
s. F. T. H.

LIEBREICH, RICHARD: English ophthal-
mologist; born at KOnigsberg, East Prussia, June
30, 1830; brother of Oskar Liebreich. He received
his education at the universities of KOnigsberg,
Berlin, and Halle (M.D. 1853). After a postgrad-
uate course at Utrecht under Donders, and at Berlin
under Brlicke, he became assistant in the ophtlial-
mological institute of Berlin University from 1854
to 1862. In the latter year he establi.shed himself
as an ophthalmologist in Paris, whence he removed
to London in 1870. There he became lecturer and
clinicist in ophthalmology at St. Tliomas' Hospital.

Since about 1895 he has given up his hospital du-
ties and reduced his private practise, spending most
of his time in researches in art, especially the tech-
nique of the old masters.

Liebreich lias constructed two ophthalmoscopes,
which are universally used — a larger one, more
elaborate and heavy, and a portable one. The latter
especially supplied a long-felt want. Following
Helmholtz's invention, Liebreich added two convex
lenses to the small concave reflex mirror.

Of Liebreich's writings may be mentioned : " Atlas
der Ophthalmoskopie," Berlin, 1863 (3d ed. 1885);



" Ophthalmo.skopische Notizen," in Albrecht von
Graefp's "Archivfiir Ophthahnologie," i., iv., v.,
vii. ; "Ein Fall von Scheinbarer Myopic, Bedingt
Durch Accommodationskrampf, " ib. viii.; "Moditi-
cation des Schieloperatiou," ib. xii. ; (with Laqueur)
"Recueil des Travaux de la Societe Medicale Alle-
mande de Paris," Paris, 1865; "Eine Neue Methode
der Cataractextraction," Berlin, 1872; "On the Use
and Abuse of Atropin," London, 1873; "Clinical
Lecture on Convergent Squint," /6. 1874; "School
Life in Its Influence on Sight and Figure," ib. 1877
(2d ed. 1878).

BiBLmGRAPHY: Pagel, Biofif. X,eT.
.1. F. T. H.

LIEGNITZ. See Silesia.

LIEN. See Mortgage or HYrornEC.

LIFE.— Biblical Data : The word " hayyim "
(= "life ") denotes tirst of all the animal existence
which, according to Scripture, begins when "the
breath [or spirit] of God " ("ruah," "neshamah,"
or "nefesh") is first inhaled through the nostrils
(Gen. i. 30, ii. 7, vii. 23: Job xxxiii. 4), and ceases
when God withdraws His breath (Ps. civ. 29, cxlvi.
4; Job xxxiv. 14; Eccl. xii. 7). Life is the gracious
gift of God (-Job X. 12; Ps. xxx. 6 [A. V. 5]); with
God is "the fountain of life" (Ps. xxxvi. 10 [A. V.
9]). Physical life is valued by the Hebrew as a
precious good, given that he may " walk before God
in the land [or "in the light"] of the living" (Ps.
Ivi. 14 [A. V. 13], cxvi. 9; comp. Isa. xxxviii. 11;
Job xxxiii. 30). A long life, in ancient times, was
regarded as the reward of virtue and piety (Ex. xx.
12; Deut. xxii. 7, xxxii. 47; Ps. xxxiv. 16; Prov.
iii. 2, iv. 10, ix. 11, xii. 28, xxi. 21). The expres-
sions " fountain of life " and " tree of life " (Prov. xi.
30, xiii. 12, XV. 4) point to the paradise legend (Gen.
ii. 9-10) and possibly refer to a higher life. The
brevity of life is a theme frequently dwelt upon by
the poets (Ps. xxxix. 6 [A. V. 5], xc. 9-10, ciii. 15;
Job ix. 5, xiv. 1-2).

But it is the ethical view of life which is chiefly
characteristic of Judaism. Life is sacred, and it
should accordingly be guarded and treated with due
regard and tenderness in every being, man or beast
(Gen. ix. 6; Lev. xix. 16; Deut. xxii. 7, xxv. 4; see
Cruelty). The "righteous man regardeth the life
of his beast" (Prov. xii. 10). The whole Law is
summed up in the words: "I have set before you
life and death, blessing and cursing; therefore choose
life" (Deut. xxx. 19); and the law of conduct toward
others is stated in the words: "Let thy brother live
with thee" (Lev. xxv. 35-36, Hebr.). The entire
object of the Law is the preservation of life: "Ye
shall keep my statutes and my ordinances, which if
a man do he shall live by [A. V. "in "] them" (Lev.
xviii. 4, Hebr).

In Rabbinical Literature : The same appre-
ciative view of physical, or earthly, life prevails
also among the Rabbis. A long life is regarded as
Heaven's reward for certain virtues (Meg. 27b, 28a;
Ber. 54b. 55a ; Men. 44a ; Yoma 87a). " He who per-
forms onlv one meritorious act will have his life pro-
longed " (Kid. i. 10. 39b). "The object of the Law
is the preservation of life, and not its destruction " ;
hence, ordinarilv, one should rather transgress a



83



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Liebreich
Lig-ht



commandment thiin incur death; onl\' in reixard to
tl)e three capital sins — idolatry, murder, and incest
— should man give up liis life rather than desecrate
God's law (Sifra, Ahare Mot, xiii.). "Better to ex-
tinguish the light on Sahhatii than to extinguish life,
which is God's ligiit " (Shah. 80b).

"Hayj'e 'olam " (eternal life; Dan. xii. 2; Enoch,
xxxvii. 4, xl. 9) occurs often in rabbinical terminol-
ogy as "hayye 'olam ha-ba" (the life of the Avorld
tocome; Tosef., Sanh. xiii. 3; Ber. 48b, 61b; M. K.
9a; Ket. 62a; Targ. I Sam. xxv. 29). At a later
time, owing probably to the martyrdoms under
Syrian and Roman persecution, earthly life was less
esteemed (Wisdom iii. 17; iv. 7-8, 14;
Life Philo, "De Abrahanio," § 46). Char-

Eternal, acteristic are these rabbinic sayings:
"The pious live even in death; the
wicked are dead even in life " (Ber. 18b). " Life " for
"eternal life" (Psalms of Solomon, ix. 9, xiv. 6; II
Mace. vii. 14; comp. vii. 9). "Ten are called liv-
ing," that is, possess eternal life: (1) God (Jer. x.
10); (2) the Torah (Prov. iii. 18); (3) Israel (Deut.
iv. 5); (4) the righteous (Prov. xi. 30); (5) paradise
(Ps. cxvi. 9); (6) the tree of life (Gen. ii. 9); (7) the
Holy Land (Ezek. xxvi. 20); (8) benevolent works
(Ps. Ixiii. 4 [A. V. 3]); (9) the wise (Prov. xiii. 15);
(10) the fountain of waters in Jerusalem (Zcch. xiv.
8; Ab. R. N. xxxiv. [ed. Schechter, p. 103]). " Dost
thou Avish life? Look to the fear of God, which in-
creases the number of man's days; look for afflic-
tion; look to the study of the Torah and observe the
commandments" (comp. Prov. iii. 18, iv. 4, vi. 23,
X. 27). The Torah is called "medicine of life"
(Sifre, Deut. 45; Yoma72b; see also Book of Life).

K.
LIGHT (Hebr. "or"): The primal element of
Creation in all ancient cosmogonies; the first crea-
tion of God. — Biblical Data: "God said, Let
there be light " : and out of the primeval chaos
there came forth "light" (Gen. i. 2-3). In the
Creation psalm, God, before "stretching out the
heavens like a curtain," " wraps Himself in light
as in a mantle " (Ps. civ. 2, Hebr. ; whence " the
Father of lights " of James i. 17). He is the Former
of light and the Creator of darkness (Isa. xiv. 7).
"No one knows the way to the light," wliich has its
seat in heaven (Job xxxviii. 19, Hebr.); it emanates
from the face of God (Ps. iv. 7 [A. V. 6], xliv. 4
[A. V. 3], Ixxxix. 16 [A. Y. 15]), whose whole being-
is luminous (Ex. xiii. 21, xxiv. 10; Ps. xxxvi. 10
[A. V. 9]; Job xxxvi. 30, xxxvii. 3). Gradually
this light of God assumed a spiritual or symbolical
meaning, in such passages as " God is light, " to those
who walk in darkness (Isa. ix. 2; x. 17; Ix. 1-3, 19-
20; Micah vii. 8; Ps. xxvii. 1, xxxvi. 10 [A. V. 9]).
The sun, moon, and stars, the luminaries placed in
heaven to reflect their light upon the earth (Gen. i.
14-17), are supposed to have received, or to still
receive, their light from the heavenly
The light created on the fiist day. Propli-

Heavenly ecy, therefore, speaks of tlie time when
Light. " the light of the moon will be like that
of the sun, and that of the sun seven-
fold like tiie light of the seven days of Creation "
(Isa. XXX. 26, Hebr. ; the conunentators who failed
to understand this meaning wished to eliminate from



the text the words " ke-or shib'at ha-yamim " ; but
see Gen. R. iii. 6, xi. 2). Similarly. Isa. Ix. 19-20:
"Not sun nor moon, but the Lord, shall be for thy
everlasting liglit " (Hebr.). The Avestaalso speaks
of the "endless lights " in heaven in which the good
souls shall dwell ("Yendidad," ii. 131; "Yast,"xx.
15; "Vist.asp Yast," 61).

Ligiit is often used as tiie symbol of life and
joy (Job xviii. 5-6. xxxiii. 28; Ps. xlix. 20 [A. V.
19], xcvii. 11; Esth. viii. 16). It is likened to the
word of instrurtion (Ps. cxix. 105; Prov. vi. 23).

K.
In Apocryphal and Rabbinical Litera-
ture : lleie also ligiit takes a prominent position as
a cosmic power. Wisdom is represented as the radi-
ance of the everlasting light, the unspotted mirror
of the power of God, more beautiful than the sun,
and superior to the light which it resembles (Wis-
dom vii. 26, 29). God's majesty being surrounded
with light to make Him invisible to all beings (Meg.
19b), the Rabbis speak of " the radiance of the She-
kinali" ("ziw ha-Shekinah " ; Ber 64b; Shab. 30a;
B. B. 10a; comp. Hag. 14b and Heb. i. 3—" the
brightness of his glory "). This was believed to be
reflected in the new moon (Sanh. 42a, "Keillo me-
kabbel pene haShekinah " = "he who sees the new
moon is like one who greets the Divine Majesty ").
The " radiance " (" ziw ") of wisdom is reflected also
in great men (Sotah ix. 15). According to the cos-
mogony of Slavonian Enoch (xxv. 1-5) God made
Adoel (HadrielV), a fiery angel of great brightness,
spring fortli first as a visible being out of the invis-
ible ; and as Adoel burst asunder, there came forth
a great light; and then God made a throne for Him-
self, and sat upon it, and placed the light above the
throne to be the foundation of all things on high.

Similar is the " .secret lore " of the Rabbis : The

first act of Creation was when God robed Himself in

light while the radiance of His glory (" ziw hadaro ")

illumined the world from one end to the other (Gen.

R. iii. ; Pirke R. El. iii.). "The light

Primitive of the first day was such that by it the

Light. first man could see from one end of
the world to the other; but, finding
that wicked men would arise on earth, God removed
this light to reserve it for the righteous in the world
tocome" (Hag. 12a; Gen. R. I.e.). The luminaries
receive their light from the spark of that light of
heaven, which is one hundred times as bright as
the light visible on earth (Tan., Beha'aloteka, ed.
Buber, ji. 10). According to Targ. to Isa xxx. 26
and Judges v. 31, the light of the future will be 343
(7x7x7) times as bright as the sun. The righteous
alone desire it, not the wicked, who are as tlie bat
in the fable, of Avhom the cock demands, "What is
the light of day to thee, avIio preferrest the niglifr"
(Sanh. 98b). Enoch (xiv. 4) speaks of "the eternal
light " brought forth in the Messianic time: "The
great light of heaven shone forth in splendor until
Adam sinned; but on account of the Sabbath God
would not withdraw tlie light before the day was
over. Then when darkness set in Adam became
afraid: 'Shall Satan henceforth overpower me'c'
Whereupon God set befoie him two bricks, from
which Adam drew forth sparks of light by striking
one against the other; an<l he blessed God for the



liigrht
liilieublum



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



84



light which he thus obtained by liis own Imuds "
('Ab Zarah 8c; Gen. R. xii. ; Pcsik. R. xxiii. ; comp.
Pirke R. EL, where the story is somewhat differently
rendered; see Habdalah).

God is in no need of light ; the light kindled in
the Sanctuary was to testify that the light of the
Shekinah is in the midst of Israel (Men. 86b) ; there-
fore in the Temple of Solomon the windows Avere
narrowed from w^ithout to indicate that the light
streams forth from within (Tan., Tezawweh, ed.
Buber, p. 4). The light kindled before God was to
be like the lantern carried by the blind for the one
who sees; Israel is to aid in the spreading of the
light of God on earth (Tan., Beha"aloteka, ed.
Buber, p. 5; Ex. R. xxxvi.). When Moses was
born the house was filled with light ; hence it is said
of him, as of the light of Creation, " he was ' good ' "
(" tob " ; A. v. " goodly " ; Ex. ii. 1 ; Sotah 12a). In
the ark Noah used a precious stone which illumi-
nated all the surroundings (Gen. R. xxxi. ; Sanh.
108b; comp. Meg. 12a).

The righteous in the world to come shall shine
like the light of sun and stars, each in different lus-
ter (Slfre, Deut. 10, 47; Midr. Teh. to Ps. xi. 6;
comp. 1 Cor. xv. 41). God had in view the right-
eous of the type of Abraham when He said "Let
there be light" (comp. Ps. xcvii. 11; Ta'an. 15a;
Tan., Tezawweh, ed. Buber, p. 4); whereas the
wicked of the type of Esau are sons of darkness
(comp. Job xviii. 5; Gen. R. ii. 111). "The right-
eous who have loved God's name shall be clad in
shining light" (Enoch, cviii. 12; comp. Dan. xii. 8
and Targ. to Judges v. 31: "they that love Hini
shall be as the sun " ; Shab. 88b). Accordingly, the
righteous are called "the generation of light," in
contrast to the wicked, who are born (clothed?)
in darkness (Enoch, cviii. 11); hence also the New
Testament term, "sous of light" (Luke xvi. 8:
John xii. 36; Ephes. v. 8; I Thess. v. 5; Col.
i. 12).

Light is the symbol of the Torah (Meg. 16b, after
Prov. vi. 23), of God (Tan., Tezawweh, ed. Bu-
ber, p. 5, after Ps. xviii. 29), of the soul (i/).
ed. Buber, p. 4, after Prov. xx. 27). "God says:
' If you conscientiously keep My light burning in
your soul, I shall keep your light; if you kindle My
liglits in the Sanctuary, I shall kindle the great liglit
for you in the future'" (ib. ed. Buber, pp. 2, 4-5:
Ex. R. xxxvi. ; Lev. R. xxxi.). In regard to Sab-
bath lights see Lamp, Saubatii. K.

LIGHT AND AIR. See NEionBOTUNc;

0\\ NKUS.

LIGHT OF TRUTH. See Peuiodicals.

LIGHTFOOT, JOHN: English Christian di-
vine and Talnuidist; born at Stoke-upon-Trent
1«02; died at Ely 1675. He passed through
Christ's College, Cambridge, and later took orders,
serving for the rest of his life ns curate, rector, and
canon. From 1650 till his death he was master of
St. CathcriMe Hall (now College), Cambridge. He
was parliamentarian, Presbyterian, and a leading
member of the Westminster Assembly. It was
through the influence of Sir Rowland Cotton (liim-
.self a Hci)raist) that Liglitfoot entered on the study



of Hebrew, to wliich, including rabbinical Hebrew,
he thenceforth devoted his leisure. His first pub-
lication was the tract "Ervbhin, or Miscellanies
Ciiristian and Judaicall, and Others, Penned for
Recreation at Vacant Iloures" (London, 1629). He
is best known by his " Horae Hebraicse et Talmu-
dicie," composed in Latin, giving Talmudic parallels
on the Gospels and I Corinthians, Acts, and some
chapters of Romans, which appeared at intervals
from 1658 to 1674, except the part on Acts and Ro-
mans, which was brought out later by Kidder, after-
ward Bishop of Bath and Wells (1691). The work
was reproduced at Leipsic bj' Carpzov, the "Horae "
on the Gospels in 1675 (2d ed. 1684), and the rest in
1679; and at Oxford, in English, by Gandell in 1859.
Liglitfoot 's collected works were first published in
English (London, 1684), in two folio volumes, the one
edited by George Bright, and the other hy John
Strype. Afterward they were published in Latin at
Rotterdam (1686), and at Franeker (1699). The latest
edition of his works is by J. R. Pitman (London,
1822-25).

By some critics, as Simon, Lightfoot's method
in the "Horre " was disparaged as "quelquefois trop
rabbinique," but in general it found favor; and it
was adopted by later writers, as Schottgen, ISIeu-
schen, and Gill. He showed considerable acquaint-
ance with Talmud and Midrash, greater perhaps
than any non-Jew has shown before the present
daj'. He corresponded with the younger Buxtorf,
and helped Walton and others in their literary un-
dertakings. He left his library to Harvard College,
but nearly the whole collection was destroyed by
fire in 1764.

BiBLioGRAPHT : Diet. Nat. Bi(iy.; Lightfoot's Il'or/fs, ed. Pit-
man, as above.
T. C. T.

LIGHTNING, BENEDICTION ON: The

Mishnah (Ber. ix. 2) prescribes, "At the sight of
shooting stars or of lightning, and at hearing
(earthquakes, thunder, and storms, the benediction
' Blessed be He whose power and might fill the
world ' should be recited. At the sight of great
mountains, seas, and deserts one recites the bene-
diction ' Blessed be He who hath made tlie work of
Creation.' " The suggestion was made at the Baby-
lonian school that the latter benediction is in jilace
also on the occasions previously mentioned; and this
was accepted by both Abbaye and Raba, who de-
clared that both benedictions should be recited
(Ber. 59a). However, Isaac Alfasi and Maimonides
(" Yad," Berakot, x. 14) understand the Talmudic
passage to mean that either benediction may be re-
cited on the occasion of lightning and the other
jihenomena mentioned.

This view is accepted also by Asheri and his
son Jacob (Tur Orah Hayyim, 227); and by Jo-
seph Caro (Shulhan 'Aruk, Orah Hayyim, 227,
1). General custom, however, decided that while
for thunder the former benediction, expressive of
God's might, should be recited, the benediction for
lightning should be, "Blessed be He who hath made
the work of Creation " (see " Ture Zahab " and " Be'er
Ileteb" to Sliulhan 'Aruk, ()rah Hayyim, l.r.). Ac-
cordingly, the ordinary prayer-books have this ar-
rangement as a fixed rule. K.



85



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Lig-ht
Liilieublum.



LILIEN, EPHRAIM MOSES: Austrian
artist; boiii at Drohobicz, Gulicia, in 1874. Lil-
ien's artistic inclinations became evident early in
life. He was apprenticed to a sign -maker, with
whom he worked in return lor meager board, and
subsequently attended the academies of art in Cra-
cow and Munich. He later removed to Berlin,
where he is at present (1904) residing.

At tirst Lilien's work was deficient in individual-
ity. Even " Der ZiJllner von Klausen," one of the
most admired of his earher works, is vague, col-
orless, and feeble. Lilien began with the illustration
of books and newspapers, but soon pushed himself
to the front; a number of his earlier efforts ap-
peared in tlic "Jugend" and in the "Vorwiirts."



LILIENBLUM, MOSES LOB : Russian
scholar and author; born at Keidauy, government of
Kovno, Oct. 22, 1843. From his father he learned
the calculation of the course of tiie stars in their re-
lation to the Hebrew calendar (" Hattot Me'urim,"
i. 15). At the age of thirteen he organized a society
of boys for the study of "'En Ya'akob " {ib. i. 14);
and at the age of fifteen he married and settled at
Wilkomir.

A change in the fortunes of his father-in-law
throwing him upon his own resources, Lilienblum
established a yeshibah in Wilua in 1865, and another
in the year following {ib. i. 58-54). The advance of
years, however, wrought a great change in the atti-
tude of Lilienblum toward Judaism. He had road



^c.^£Z2^



7^^g.->^^^S^i.gJ is^^W <l>^^g.^y^»A\.g




"Isaiah."

(Frfiin the drawing by Ephraim Moses Lilien.)



His later productions, though not overladen with
sentiment, are rich in pathetic touches. The best
and most characteristic of his work is to be fomid
in the book "Juda" (1900), which contains his
"Jesaia," "Passach," and "Sodom's Ruinen." He
illustrated also the " Lieder des Ghetto " of Morris
Rosenfeld (1903). His "Gedenkblatt des Fllnften
Zionisten-Kongresses in Basel " has attracted wide
attention. Other notable illustrations are: "E-\
Libris E. M. Lilien," "Auf Zarten Saiten," "Der
Jfidische Mai," "Ex Libris Ruben Brainin," "Ex
Libris D. Simonson," "Ex Libris des Reichstagsab-
geordneten R. Fischer," "Ein Salomonisches Ur-
theil,""In Rosenketten," "Heimatlos," "Chanuka-
liciiter," "Signet des Jiidischen Kunstverlages
Phonix."



Bibliography: Oxt iiiul irc*t :
Maccabcean, March, 1904.



JUdische KllyiMer; Tfie
S. Led.



the writings of the Maskilim, particularly those of
IVIapu and M. A. Ginzburg, and these produced in
him a feeling of dissatisfaction with Talmudic stud-
ies and of abhorrence for the ignorance
Changed and superstition surrounding him ; he
Views. decided, therefore, to combat these
faults. In an article entitled " Orhot
ha-Talmud," in "Ha-Meliz," 1868, he arraigned the
superstitious beliefs and practises of his people, de-
manded the reform of Judaism, and insisted upon
the necessity of establishing a "closer connection be-
tween religion and life."

This article, followed by others of the same nature,
stirred up the Jewish communities in Russia, and a
storm of indignation against him arose among the
ultra-Orthodox ; he was denounced as a freethinker
and continued residence in Wilkomir became impos-
sible. He then wciit to Odessa (1869), where he in-
tended to prepare himself for the university (" Hat-



liilienblum
liilith



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



86




Moses L()b Lilienbliiiii.



tot Ne'urini." ii. 3). but after a hard struggle he was
compelled to give up that design.

The auti-Jewish riots of 1880 and 1881 aroused
Lilicnblum to a consciousness of the unsafe position
of the Jews "in exile," and he gave utterance to his
apprehensions in an article entitled " Obshcheyevreis-

ki Vopros i Palestina"
(in "Kazsvyet," 1881,
Nos. 41, 42), in which
he points to the reestab-
iishmeut of the Jews in
Palestine as the only
solution of the Jewish
(luestion. This article
did not remain without
results; the idea was
hailed as practical, and
many set themselves to
realize it. In 1883 a
couunittee was organ-
ized at Odessa for the
colonization of Pales-
tine, Lilienblum serving
as secretary and Dr. L.
Pinsker, author of
'• Autoeniancipation," as
president; at the famous conference at Kotowitz,
where representatives of all European Jewries met
and discussed plans of colonization in
Zionism. Palestine, the foundaliou was laid for
the Zionist movement, in which Lil-
ienblum, as secretary, has taken the most earnest
and energetic part (" Derek la-'Abor Golim," p. 16).
Lilienblum's activity thus covers two distinct pe-
riods in the history of Russian Jewry. In the pe-
riod of the Haskalah he followed the example of the
Maskilim in demanding the reform of Judaism; but
he differed from the Maskilim in that he was
much less extravagant, his style being free from
the tlowery "mclizah" used by them, and his ideas
being marked by soIktucss and clearness. His " Or-
hot ha-Talmu(l," menlioned above, and his " Hattot
Ne'uriuv" (Vienna, 1876), a description of his mate-
rial and spiritual struggles, both made a marked im-
pression upon that jjcriod. His influence in the
second period also, that of national reawakening,
whicli he practically initiated, was due to his charac-
teristic style. In his article on the Jewish ques-
tion and Palestine, already mentioned, as well as in
his " O Vozrozhdenii Yevreiskavo Naroda" (Odessa,
1883), the latter including the former and other
essays of a similar character, lie clearly and so-
berly presents the anomalous position held by Israel
among the nalions and logically demonstrates its
hopelessness except through national independence.
Lilienblum wrote also: " Kehal Hefa'im," a poem
describing the dilTcrent types of Russian Jewry of
the time, as they ai)pear in the nether world (Odes-
sa, 1870): "'Olam ha-Tohu." on some
Works. |)iiases of Hebrew literature (in " Ila-
Siiahar." 187;]); " Bikkdret K«\ Shire
Gordon." on J. L. Gordon as a i)oet (in "Meliz Eh;u\
Mini Elef," St Petersburg, 1884); " Zerubbabel," a
historical drama in Yiddish (Odessa, 188S); "Derek
la-'Abor Golim," a history of the Ciiovcvci Ziou
movemeut up to the time of the ratification by the



Russian government of the committee for the colo-
nization of Palestine (Warsaw, 1899) ; " Derek Teshu-
bali," an addition to "Hattot Ne'urim," describing
the transition of the author from the negative period
of tiic Haskalah to the positive period of national
reawakening; " Pyat Momentov Zhizhni Moiseya"
(in Russian: tb. 1901), a psychological analysis of
some important moments in the life of Moses. Lil-
ienl)ium also edited " Kawweret," a collection of arti-
cles in Hebrew (Odessa, 1890), and the *' Luah Ahia-
saf," 1901. He was the author of a number of
other articles, of which the most important is "O
Neobkhodimosti Reform v Yevreiskoi Religii " (in
"Yoskhod," 1882-83).

Bibliography: LilienUUim, Hattot Nc'nrim, Vienna. 1876;
idem, Derek Tesliulmli. Wareavv,' 1899; klem, Derek la-"Ahor
Golim, ib.; Mordecai b. Hillel tia-Kolien, in Liiah Ahiasaf,
lb. 1893; Berdychevskv. Dor Dor, ib. 1901 ; N. Slouschz, Ht-
terature Hebraique, pp. 166 et aeq., Paris, 1903; Wiener, Yid-
dish Literature, p. 338, New York, 1899.
II. u. A. S. W.

LILIENTHAL, MAX : Rabbi and educator ;



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