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born at Munich Nov. 6, 1815; died at Cincinnati,
Ohio, April 5, 1882; educated at the University of
Munich (Ph.D. 1837). In 1839 he accepted the office
of principal in the newly established Jewish school
of Riga, where he was appointed preacher also.
The school was opened Jan. 15, 1840. In recogni-
tion of the sentiments expressed in the sermon with
which Lilienthal opened the school the emperor
Nicholas presented him with a diamond ring. In
Dec, 1841, at the instance of Uvarov, minister of
public instruction, to whom he was recommended
by Count Maltitz, the Russian ambassador to Hol-
land, Lilienthal was sent from St. Petersburg on
an official mission. It was the intention of the
government to establish Jewish schools for secular
and religious instruction, and the duty assigned to
Lilienthal was to determine the attitude of the Jews
in regard to them and to quiet their fears as to the
intentions of the government ; for the plans of the
latter were regarded with suspicion among the
Jewish masses, who believed that the real pur-
pose of the proposed schools was to lead the
Jews gradually to conversion to Ciiristianity. Lilien-
thal repaired to Wilna, where the community, acting
on his assurances, appropriated 5,000 rubles for
school purposes, and promised Lilienthal that more
money would be supplied when necessary. But
notwithstanding Lilienthal's assurances, the mistrust
toward him of the Jews in Lithuania increased. At
^linsk, whither he had gone at the invitation of the
local kahal, he was given to understand that the
Jews of Lithuania had no confidence in him. His
stay in Minsk was rendered unpleasant by the re-
sentment of the Jewish masses, and he even had to
invoke the protection of the police. On his return
to Wilna, Lilienthal found distrust of him growing
there; tiiereupon, discouraged, he returneil to St.
Petersburg.

After several months' arduous work in the offices
of the Ministry of Education and with Count Uvarov,
he returned to Wilna and prepared a circular let-
ter to the Jews of Russia, published under the
title " Maggid Yeshu'ah." When a council of rabbis
and other prominent Jews was convoked at St. Pe-
tersburg, consisting of Rabbi Isaac ben Hayyim of



87



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Lilienblum
Liilith



Volozhin, Rabbi Mendel Sluieersohn of Lubavich,
Bezaleel Stern of Odessa, and Israel Ileilprin of
Berdychev, Lilienthal was appointed
His sccretar}' of u senatorial committee

" Maggid of fourteen. During the sessions
Yeshu'ah." Stern bad many an encounter with
Lilienthal and Avas even provoked
to accuse him of ignorance of the Talmud. In the
autunm of 1842 Lilienthal went to Odessa with let-
ters of recommendation from Uvarov to Count M.
S. Vorontzov. The Odessa community received
him warmly, and appointed him their rabbi. Lilien-
tliul was soon convinced, liowever, that his efforts
in behalf of the Russian Jews would not yield the
desired results; as a foreigner it was difbcult for
him to gain a true insight into their traditions, hopes,
and aspirations. He did not understand them, nor
they him; and he was placed in an awlcward and
delicate position by the distrust of the Jews on the
one hand, and, on the other hand, by the efforts of
the government to effect their assimilation without
according them full
rights of citizenship.
Lilienthal left
Russia suddenly in
1844 and went to the
United States. Set-
tling in New York,
he became rabbi of
the Congregation An-
she Chesed, Norfolk
street, and, later,
rabbi of Shaar ha-
Shomayim, Attorney
street. His somewhat
advanced views led
to considerable fric-
tion. He resigned his
position in 1850 ami
established an educa-
tional institute witii
which he attained
considerable success.
In 1854 he became
correspondent of
the "American Isra-
elite," and in the
following year re-
moved to Cincinnati and became associate editor
of that journal and rabbi of the Congregation Bene
Israel. His activity in Cincinnati extended over
a period of twenty-seven years. He
organized the Rabbinical Literary
Association, serving as its president,
and was at first instructor and later
professor of Jewish history and liter-
ature at Hebrew Union College. He
was prominent, also, in the Jewish press as the
foimder and editor of the "Hebrew Review," a
quarterly, and the " Sahbath-School Visitor," a
weekly, and as a frequent contributor to tlie " Israel-
ite," the "Occident," "Deborah" (founded by him),
the" Asmonean," " Volksblatt," and " Volksfreund."
He published a volume of poems entitled "Freiheit,
Friihling und Liebe " (1857), several volumes of ad-
dresses and sermons, and left three dramas in mauu-



LILIENTHAL, OTTO




Associate

Editor of

"American

Israelite."



otto Lilienthal Experimenting with His Flying-Machine :
Starting from a Platform.

(From a photograph.)



script—" Die Strelitzen Mutter," " Rudolf von Habs-
burg," and " Der Einwanderer."

Lilienthal took an active interest in the affairs of
the municipality. As member of the Cincinnati
boai-d of education, and as director of the Relief
Union and of the university board, he contributed
much to the welfare of liis adopted city. He was a
reformer by nature ; he was instrumental in intro-
ducing reforms in his own congregation in Cincin-
nati, constantly preached tolerance, and urged a
more liberal interpretation of Jewish law.

Bibliography: a. F.hrMch, EntivUkcluiifixdcschichtc der Ts-
raeliti^clicn (Icmciinh'schnle zu Ili<,ta, pp. 9-14 ; Lcket Ama-
rim, supplement to Ua-Mcliz, ISW, pp. 8ti-89; Kayserling,
Gedenkbiatter, p. ")(); Ha-Panl<s, pp. 186, 198; j'Udixches
YDlksblati, 18.50, No. 3(5 ; Lilienthal, Mn rravels in Rrixxia, in
American Israelite, vols. i. and ii.; Indeiiendent, New York,
xlviii. ;i4H; Wimtlerhar, (iese)!. der Jud( ii iti Liv-und Kur-
land, pp. 14-15, Mitau, 18.>? ; Morgulis, in Yevreifikaiia Biblio-
teka, i.; Yevr-ei.ikina Zapitski, 1881, p. 9; Vyestnik Rriss-
kikh Yevreyev, 1871, No. 26.

H. R.

German mechanical
engineer and experi-
menter in aerial navi-
gation ; born May 23,
1848, at Anklam ;
died Aug. 9, 1896, at
Rhinow. Lilienthal's
theory was that arti-
ficial flight must fol-
low the principles of
bird-flight. His ex-
periments, which
were made with the
assistance of his
brother G. Lilien-
thal, extended over
a period of twenty-
five years; in the
summer of 1891 he
made, with a pair
of curved wings de-
signed for soaring, the
first practical demon-
stration of man's
ability to fly. He
made the flight suc-
cessfully several
times, but finally
met death during an experiment at Rliinow.

Lilienthal was a member of the German Society
for the Advancement of Aerial Navigation. He
was the autliorof " Der Vogelflug als Grundlageder
Fliegekunst" (Berlin, 1889), in which he explained
the theoretical reasons for the form of his aerial
machine; and "Die Flugapparate."

BiBi.inr.RAriiv : Chunute, PnifjreM in Fliiinq Machines, px).
202-211, New York, 1899; Kohut, BerlVmde Israelitische
Manner mill Francn, No. ir>, pp. 246-247 ; Vallentitie and
T^mlinson, 'I'ravelx in Space, p]t.2r>'i et xeq., London, 1902;
i:e)i<>rt lit' tlie Smithsiniiau /n,xria</ ion, pp. 189-199, Wash-
ington, 1893.

s.

LILITH(n''^^^: LXX. 'OrnKevTavpm; Symmachus,
An^iia; YuJg. "Lamia"): Female demon. Of the
(liree Assyrian demons Lilu, Lilit, and Ardat Lilit,
tlie second is referred to in Isa. xxxiv. 14. Schra-
der ("Jahrb. fur Protestantische Theologie," i. 128)



Lilith
Liimerick



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



88



takes Lilith to be a goddess of the night ; she is said
to have been worshiped by the Jewish exiles in Baby-
lon (Levy, in "Z. D. M. G." ix. 470, 484). Sayce
("Hibbert Lectures," pp. 145 et seq.), Fossey ("La
Magie Assyrienne," pp. 37 et seq.), and others think
that "Lilith" is not connected with the Hebrew
" layil " (night), but that it is the name of a demon of
the storm, and this view is supported by the cunei-
form inscriptions quoted by them. It must, however,
be assumed that the resemblance to the Semitic
" layil " materially changed the conception of Lilith
among the Semites, and especially among the Jews.
No definite conclusions can be drawn from the pas-
sage in Isaiah, where it is said of the devastated
palaces of Edom that wild animals shall dwell in
them "and the satyr shall cry to his fellow; the
screech-owl also shall rest there, and find for herself
a place of rest" (Isa. xxxiv. 14; see Cheyne's note
ad loc). Baudissin connects Lilith with Zech. v. 9.
Lilith is more fully described in post-Biblical lit-
erature, where she appears as a demon of the night,
as suggested by her Hebrew name.
In Talmud Three classes of demons are mentioned :
and spirits, devils, and "liHn"(Targ. Yer.

Midrash. to Deut. xxxii. 24; Targ. Sheni
to Esth. i. 3; passim). The first have
neither body nor form; the second appear in com-
plete human shape; the third in human shape, but
with wings (Rashi to Sanh. 109a). Adam procreated
all the spirits while he was under a .spell (Gen. R. xx.
11 ; 'Er. 18b). Similarly, Eve bore demons to male
spirits for the space of 130 years. This corresponds
to the view that the demons are half human (Hag.
16a). Hence an abortion which has the shape of
Lilith may be a child, though it has wings (Nid.
24b). Lilith is a seductive woman with long hair
('Er. lOOb); she is the Queen of Zemargad (Targ.
Job i. 15; conip. Bacher and Kohut [see bibliog-
raphy]); Ahriman is her son (B. !>. 73a). She goes
about at night, fastening herself upon any one sleep-
ing alone in a room (Shab. 151b). "The Lord will
protect thee " (Num. vi. 24) means, according to
Targ. Yer., "... from lilin." The meteor-stone
is lier arrow and is a remedy against disease
(Git. 69b). Kohut's assumption that Agrat bat
Maiilat ("daughter of the dancer"), who roams at
night with myriads of demons (Pes. 112b, bottom),
is the queen of the lilin, is not verified. King Sol-
omon, wiio commanded all spirits, had tiie lilin
dance before him (Targ. Sheni Estii. i. 3).

Koliut identifies Lilith with the Parsee Bush-

yansta, and the Arabic translators render the

word in Isa. xxxiv. 14 by "ghul," which is identical

with the "lamia" of the Vulgate. In the Talmud,

however, there is nothing to indicate

Middle that Lilith is a vampire. The Ara-
Ages and. bians, on the contrary, are said to re-

Modern gard Lilith, under the form of Lalla, as

Times. a " holy dame " (Sciiwab, " Les Coupes
MagiquesetrHydromancicdansl'An-
tifjuite Orientale," p. 11). The name "Lilith" is
found also on amulets with terracotta figures
(idem, "Coupes tl Inscriptions Magicjues," p. 62). In
the later Middle Ages the my.stics systematically
amplified demonology on the basis of the traditions
and the current European superstitions, and they



also assigned a more definite form to Lilith (see the
quotations in Eisenmeuger, "Entdecktes Juden-
thum,"ii. 417 et seq.). The superstitions regarding
her and her nefarious doings were, with other super-
stitions, disseminated more and more among the
mass of the Jewish people. She becomes a nocturnal
demon, Hying about in the form of a niglit-owl and
stealing children. She is permitted to kill all chil-
dren which have been sinfully begotten, even from
a lawful wife. If a child smiles duiing the night
of the Sabbath or the New Moon, it is a sign that
Lilith is playing with it. One should then strike
the nose of the child three times and drive Lilith
away by the prescribed rough words (Joseph Cohen,
"'Emek ha-Melek," p. 84b; comp. Grunwald, "Mit-
teilungen der Gesellschaft flir Judische Volks-
kunde," v. 62). Lilith likewise appears to men in
their dreams; she is the bride of Samael (Schwab,
" Angelologie " ; comp. Zoliar ii. 267b). It is sjiid
in a Judaeo-German book (" Hanliagat ha-Hasidim ")
printed at Frank fort-on-the-Main in the beginning
of the eighteenth century that Lilith deceives men
and has children by them; infant mortality is re-
garded as a consequence of this miscegenation
(comp. Grunwald, l.r. v. 10, 62). In a certain leg-
end she appears as the Queen of Sheba, who in the
guise of a beautiful woman seduced a poor Jew of
Worms (Grunwald, I.e. ii. 30 et seq.). As she was
eager to seize new-bt)ru infants, mother and child
were provided with amulets, which since early times
were regarded as an efficient protection against
magic and demons; Lilitii is the chief figure on the
"childbirth tablets" still hung on the walls of the
lying-in room in the East and in eastern Europe (see
Amulets). The name " Lilith " occurs also in non-
Jewish superstitions (Lammert, " Volksmedicin,"
p. 170 ; Grunwald, l.r. vii., col. 2, n. 4). The concep-
tion that she was Adam's first wife (comp. Gen. R.
xxiv. ; Yer. 'Er. 18b) appears to have been spread
through Buxtorf's "Lexicon Talmudicum," s.v.
Lilith is a clear instance of the persistence of popu-
lar superstitious beliefs.

Bibliography: W.M. Menzies Alexander, Denumiitc Posxes-
Sinn in the N. T. pp. 15-lC. 2«, 44, 5.5, EdiDburph, 1902 ; Bacher,
LUith. KOuiiiin vmi Smnmad, in yiotiat.fxvlirift, 1870. xix.
187-189; VV. W. Baudissin, Stwiien zur S!rmiti.-<chen Rdi-
gionsgesch. i. 138, Leipsic, 1876 ; liar nalilul'x Syri.tchea W6r-
tcrb.; G. Brerher, Dnx Trnnsccitdentalr, fU\. pp. 47, 50, 54,
Vienna, 18.'i0; Eisenmenper, Entdecktet Jwleuthnm, 11.413
et xrq.; C. Fossev, La Magie, Ax-tyrienne, pp. 28, 37 et seq.,
Paris, 1902; M. Grunwald, MitteiUmgcn der (ieselUchaft fdr
Jadliche Vnlkskundf. il. 6S, 74 ; v. 10. 62 ; vil. KM ; K. Hom-
mel. ViirsemitUiche Kultur, p. ;}67; idem. Die Seiniten. t'tc,
p. 368, Leipsic, 1881; A. Kohut, Ueticr die Jlldi.'fche Aiige-
lolngie nnd ndniimologie. pp. 8()-89, ili. 18t)fi; M. Schwab,
Vticahnlaire de VAngrlnlogie, p. lt>2, Paris, 1.S97; idem, Lrs
Cimiics Magique.'i et VHiidrnmancic dayn' V A^tiquite Ori-
entale. in Tr. Snc. Bilil. Arch. April, 1890; idem. Coupes d
Jiiscriptinns MagiqiUit, lb. June, 1891.
K. a. ir. — s. 8. L. B.

LILY : Rendering in the Bible of the Hebrew
word |ch:;MI Kings vii. 19) or nJChK>(II Chron. iv. 5;
Cant. ii. 1 ; Hosea xiv. 5), which is i)iobably a loan-
word from the Egyptian "s-sli-sh-sh-n " = " lotus";
the white lily, Liliinncnndidi/in Linn., growing wild
in the Lebanon and other regions of northern Pal-
estine. In a figurative sense the word "shoslian"
is used of the capitals of the pillars and of the molten
sea in the Temple (I Kings vii. 19, 26), and in the
.Mishnah of a nail-head and the knob on the Etkoo;
in the Targum it connotes "flower" in general.



89



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



Lilith
Liimerick



Sometimes, however, Targumic diction, followed by
the Zohar, gives "shoshan" the meaning of "rose."

The first account of the lily is given by Ibn Ezra
in his commentary on the Song of Solomon (comp.
Salfeld, " Das Hohelied Salomo's bei den Jildischen
Erklarern des Mittelalters," 1879, p. 68), and is one
of the few descriptions of plants in Jewish litera-
ture. It runs thus: "It is a white flower of sweet
but narcotic perfume, and it receives
Described its name because the flower has, in
by every case, six [K't^] petals, within

Ibn Ezra, which are six long filaments." The
Midrash alludes once to the abun-
dance of its sap, and David Kimhi says that it lias
no roots. Abravanel says that dew makes the lily
bloom, but rain destroys it. The heart of this
flower is directed upward, even though it be among
thorns, thus symbolizing the trust in God which
should be felt by Israel amid all afflictions (Lev. R.
xxiii. 1 ; Cant. R. ii. 2). The Zohar speaks of the
thirteen leaves of the lily which surround the flower
as the thirteen attributes of God which encompass
Israel. This number is evidently derived from the de-
scription of Ibn Ezra with its six petals, six stamens,
and one pistil. In the " Tikkunim " (xxv. ,end ; xxvi. ,
beginning) the theme is varied, the " shoshannah "
being taken as denoting both the lily and the rose.
The lilies among which the beloved feeds (Cant. ii.
16) are the morning and evening Shema' ; the five
leaves of the rose are the first five words of the
Shema' ; and the thirteen leaves of the lily the
numerical equivalent of "ehad," the last word.

The identifications of the "lily-of-the-valleys"
{ib. ii. 1) and the "royal lily " of the Syriac transla-
tion of Ecclus. (Sirach) xxxix. 14 and the Mishnah
(Kil. v. 8; "Tikkunim," iii. 78, 1. 2) are uncertain,
although the latter has been regarded plausibly as
a species of Fritillarin.

The lily as the chief of flowers seems to have been
represented on the shekels and half-shekels ascribed
to Simon the Hasmonean ; and was common on coats
of arms in medieval Spain and in modern times.

About this flower a rich and abundant symbolism
has gathered. The faces of the righteous are as the
lily, and exist only for redemption as the lily for
perfume; so that the later cabalists employ the
flower as a symbol of the resurrection (Gamaliel di
Monselice on Pirke Shirah,ed. Mantua,

Typical p. 96a). Yet most of all the lily typi-

Applica- fies Israel. As it withers in the sun-
tion. light, but blooms beneath the dew, so
Israel withers away except God be-
comes as dew for her (Hos. xiv. 5), and she is re-
nowned among the nations as the lily among the
flowers. The lily among thorns is likened to Re-
bekah, who remained pure amid evil surroundings
(Bacher, " Ag. Pal. Amor." ii. 243), and to the sons
of Korah (Ps. xlv. 1 [A. V., heading]). While it
was as difficult to save the Israelites from the Egyp-
tians as a lily from the thorns (Bacher, I.e. ii. 76),
yet they remained faithful among those that wor-
shiped strange gods, as the lilies keep their beauty
despite gashes and wounds (Targ., Cant. ii. 1).
The title of Ps. Ixxx. is supposed by Aha of Lydda
to refer to the lily; and the passage in Ps. cxxx. 1,
"Out of the depths," is explained by him as an al-



lusion to the lily-of-the-valley. The phrase "set
about with lilies" (Cant. vii. 2) is applied by the
Haggadah to the words of the Law ; but it is more
usually regarded as alluding to the seventy elders of
the Sanhedrin. In a funeral oration R. Simeon b.
Lakish (Bacher, I.e. i. 401) interprets Cant. vi. 3
thus: "My beloved" is God, who has descended
into "his garden," the world, to the " beds of spices,"
Israel, to feed in "the gardens," the nations of the
world, and to gather the "lilies," the righteous
whom he removes by death from the midst of them.
Similar allegorical interpretations are common, even
as late as Enoch Zundel Luria in the middle of the
nineteenth century. The symbolism of the lily has
passed from the Jews to the Christians, so that the
angel of the Annunciation is conventionally repre-
sented as bearing lilies without filaments.

Bibliography : Fonck. StreifzUqe Lhirchdie Biblische Flora,
pp. 53 etseq., Freiburg-lm-Breisgau, 1900.
E. G. n. I. Lo.

LIMA, MOSES B. ISAAC JUDAH : Lithu-
anian rabbinical scholar, one of the so-called Ahaho-
NiM ; born in the second decade of the seventeenth
century ; died about 1670. When a comparatively
young man he successively occupied the rab-
binates of Brest-Litovsk and Slonim. His fame
as a scholar soon reached Wilna, whither he
was called, in 1650, to fill the offioe of chief rabbi.
Lima was of a retiring and diftident disposition,
which probably accounts for the paucity of his wri-
tings. He left a manuscript commentary on Shul-
han 'Aruk, Eben ha-'Ezer, which his son Raphael
published (1670) under the title of "Helkat Meho-
kek," and which, while betraying profound erudi-
tion, was so condensed that the editor deemed it
necessary to provide it with explanatory notes. Lima
did not carry even this work to completion ; it covers
only the first 126 chapters of the Eben ha-'Ezer.

Bibliography: Azulai, Sliem ha-Gednlim, i. and Ii., s.v. Hel-
Ifat Mehokek ; S. Back, in Winter and Wiinsche, Die Jlidu^che
Utter a'tu'r,'ii. 519; Gans, Zemah Daicid, p. 596; Gratz,
Gesch. X. 61 et seq.; Jost, Geich. des Judenthums und Seiner
Sekten, Hi. 244.
H. R. S. M.

LIMERICK : Seaport town in Ireland, in which
Jews began to settle about 1881, after the Russian
exodus. A synagogue was founded in 1889 in Co-
looney street, and in the same year a bikkur holim.
In 1901 it was found necessary to establish a Jew-
ish board of guardians. On Jan. 11, 1904, Father
Creagh, of the Redemptorist Order, delivered a vio-
lent sermon against the Jews, accusing them of
ritual murder, of blaspheming Jesus, and of rob-
bing the people of Limerick. On the following day
there was a riot in which the Jews were attacked by
mobs, and this was followed by a general boycott
by the local Roman Catholic confraternity, number-
ing about 6,000 members. The chief ground for
complaint against the Jews was the " weekly -instal-
ment plan " by which they sold their goods. The
outburst against the Jews drew forth many pro-
tests from Protestant and Roman Catholic clergy
and laymen. The Jews of the locality suffered much
from the boycott. Limerick lias a population of
45,806, of which about 300 are Jews.

Bibliography: Jewi.<<h Year Bnnk, 1904; Jew. Chron. 1904,
Jan. 22 and succeeding numbers.



liimog'es
Xiindo



THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA



00



LIMOGES. See France.

LINCOLN : County town of Lincolnshire, Eng-
land; formerly the second town of importance in
the country, and on that account largely populated
by Jews in the preexpulsion period. They appear
to have settled on tiie Steep Hill, between the old
Roman colony and the new castle and catliedral.
The earliest mention of them occurs in 1159, when
the sherilf of Liucolnsiiire renders count of £40
for the Jews of Lincoln in the pipe-roll of that
year.

Aaron of Lincoln conducted his extensive opera-
tions from this town as a center; and his house,
though considerably "restored," still remains as one
of its earliest antiquities (see Aaron of Lincoln).
He took in pledge the plate of Lincoln Minster (Gi-
raldus Cambren-
sis." Opera," cd.
Dymock, vii.
36). During
the outbreaks
against the Jews
at the beginning
of the reign of
Richard I. tlie
Lincoln Jews
saved them-
selves by seek-
ing refuge in the
castle. The in-
fluence of St.
Hugh, Bishop of
Lincoln, may
liave had some
effect in re-
straining the
mob. At any
rate, Jews
mourned his
death sincerely
in 1200 (Jacobs,
"Jews of Ange-
vin England,"
p. 207). It would
a ]i p e a r that
Moses b. Isaac,
author of the
"Sefer ha-Sho-
ham," was the
son of a Lincoln
Jew, his mother
being Contessa
of Cambridge.
Much business
was done not

only by Aaron of Lincoln, but also by Bene-
dict fil Isaac, as well as by Aaron's brothers Senior
and Hencdict, and his sons Elias, Abraham, and
Vivos. In the Nottingham "donum" of 1194
Lincoln comes second in point of tribute — £287
4s. lid., as against £480 9s. 7d. for London— but
the number of Jewish names mentioned in Lin-
coln is the largest. Aaron and his family possessed
a considerable number of houses in the precincts of
the Bail. Those belonging to Aaron himself es-
clieated to the crown on his death, and were declared




to be above 60s. in value. The houses of his brother
Senior also became the property of the crown; but
their value was only 10s.

About 1230 a raid seems to have been made upon
the Jews' houses in Lincoln, Mosse de Ballio, as well
as Sara, the wife of Deulacresse, having been mur-
dered in that year. In the middle of the thirteenth
century the most important Lincoln Jew was Bene-
dict fil Mosse, who is undoubtedly to be identified
with Berechiaii de Nicole mentioned among
the Tosatists. There is also a Joce de
Thirteenth Nicole mentioned; and in the cele-
Century. brated case of Hugh of Lincoln refer-
ence is made to the school of Peitevin,
from which it seems probable that there was a bet
ha-midrash at Lincoln. Several Hebrew " shetarot "

exist dealing
with the trans-
actions of the
Jews of Lincoln,
mainly with the
Abbey of Neu-
some. When
Henry III. tail-
aged the Jews of
Lincoln, several
men were made
responsible for
the tallage,
among them Leo
of Lincoln, said
to be, at the
time, one of the
six richest Jews
in England. He
was also con-
cerned with the
debts of the Ab-
bey of Neusome.
Leo was con-
demned for some
crime ; and his
house in the
parish of St.
Martin's es-
cheated to the
crown in 1275.
In 1255 occurred
the case of Hugh
OP Lincoln,
which resulted
in considerable
loss of life to
the Jewish, com-
munity. Many
later deeds with



The Jewish Quarter, Lincoln, Circa l-tK).

(From Jacob»' " Jewiih Idetli.")



of these victims are referred to m



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